## XXCOPY Technical Bulletins (Reference)

• This file is available for download in the zip format (xxtb3000.zip).

• XXTB #01 ... XXCOPY Command Parameters Reference
• XXTB #02 ... What are the differences between XCOPY and XXCOPY?
• XXTB #03 ... Problems in filename aliases (8.3 names) in Win32
• XXTB #04 ... What is and what is not included for copy
• XXTB #05 ... The Exclusion Specifier in XXCOPY
• XXTB #06 ... File Attributes: what they are and how to use them.
• XXTB #07 ... XXCOPY's Handling the case of Cyclic Copy
• XXTB #08 ... Short names made by Win95/98 and by WinNT/2K/XP
• XXTB #09 ... Worldwide Network of Download Sites for XXCOPY
• XXTB #10 ... Cloning the Win9x system disk using XXCOPY
• XXTB #11 ... XXCOPY Cookbook: Recipes of common usages
• XXTB #12 ... The file removal features in XXCOPY
• XXTB #13 ... XXCOPY Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
• XXTB #14 ... Tutorials in Command Line Operations
• XXTB #15 ... Windows File Date and Time
• XXTB #16 ... Gathering files into one directory using XXCOPY
• XXTB #17 ... Selecting files by file date and time using XXCOPY
• XXTB #18 ... The filename matching schemes in Win32 and DOS
• XXTB #19 ... XXCOPY in batch files
• XXTB #20 ... More on Directory Cloning using XXCOPY
• XXTB #21 ... XXCOPY in a network environment
• XXTB #22 ... The leading backslash in a filespec
• XXTB #23 ... The enhanced features of XXCOPY at a glance
• XXTB #24 ... XXCOPY's Macro processing feature
• XXTB #25 ... XXCOPY Command Line Syntax
• XXTB #26 ... XXCOPY Command Reference Alphabetic Listing
• XXTB #27 ... XXCOPY Command Reference Functional Classification
• XXTB #28 ... The Wild-Wildcard Source: the source spec with wildcards
• XXTB #29 ... The Windows 98 Startup Disk
• XXTB #30 ... Feature Comparison: XXCOPY vs ROBOCOPY
• XXTB #31 ... XXCOPY's Exit Code (for ERRORLEVEL checking)
• XXTB #32 ... A better boot diskette for Win9x/ME
• XXTB #33 ... A better boot diskette for WinNT/2000/XP
• XXTB #34 ... The differences between XXCOPY Pro and Freeware
• XXTB #35 ... How XXCOPY-Pro manages the site license.
• XXTB #36 ... Norton Ghost and XXCOPY
• XXTB #37 ... The text files for XXCOPY command
• XXTB #38 ... Creating a Shortcut from the command line (batch file)
• XXTB #39 ... XXCOPY.CHM --- The HTML-style Help File for XXCOPY
• XXTB #40 ... A very quick recovery scheme for Win9X/ME
• XXTB #41 ... File Compression on the NTFS Volume
• XXTB #42 ... XXCOPY on Windows Vista --- living with UAC
• XXTB #43 ... XXConsole -- A Super Console Generator
• XXTB #44 ... Concurrent access of a file
• XXTB #45 ... Comparing File Data
• XXTB #46 ... XXCOPY's User Prompts
• XXTB #47 ... The Very Long Pathname Support
• XXTB #48 ... The Source Base Directory
• XXTB #49 ... Unicode Support in XXCOPY
• XXTB #50 ... Reparse Points and Hard Links
• XXTB #80 ... A Minimum WinXP Install
• XXTB #81 ... A Minimum Win9X Install
• XXTB #82 ... A Minimum Win9X File List
• XXTB #90 ... XXCOPY Corporate Site License
• XXTB #91 ... XXCOPY-Home Personal License Agreement
• XXTB #92 ... XXCOPY Freeware License Agreement
• XXTB #93 ... The XXCOPY Licensing and Pricing Policies
• XXTB #98 ... List of XXCOPY Command Switches
• XXTB #99 ... Revision History of XXCOPY

## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #01

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: XXCOPY Command Parameters Reference
Date:    2010-01-01  Revised for ver 3.00.0
===============================================================================

Basic Command Parameter Syntax:

XXCOPY   source   destination    (simplified syntax)

In its simplest form, XXCOPY takes two parameters,

from WHERE to WHERE

This very intuitive command syntax has its root in the COPY command
introduced in 1981 as a PC-DOS (MS-DOS) built-in command.

The first parameter is the source specifier and the second one is
the destination specifier.  These two parameters must be in this
order.  As commonly done in the COPY and XCOPY command syntax, the
destination specifier can be omitted.  Then, by default, the
current directory in the current drive becomes the destination.

XXCOPY   source  [ destination ]

By convention, an optional parameter is denoted in the syntax
definition by a pair of square-brackets surrounding it.

options) to customize XXCOPY's behaviors.  It is the extensive
set of switches that makes XXCOPY so versatile and powerful.

Full Command Parameter Syntax:

XXCOPY   source  [ destination ]  [ switches... ]

and the destination specifiers do not have the slash(/) prefix.
The source and the destination specifiers must be separated from
other items in the command line by at least one blank (space or tab)
character.  On the other hand, you may omit blank characters between
switches in order to minimize the total length of the command line.

Example:

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\   D:\yourdir\   /S /H

Here, "C:\mydir\"  is the source specifier and "D:\yourdir\" is
The command has two (/S and /H) switches.

Note that the positions of the switches need not be at the end of
the command line.  Switches may begin even before the source specifier.
The order of the switches is not generally important with the exception
of when conflicting switches are specified, in which case the rightmost
switch will prevail.  More rules for special cases are discussed at
the end of this article.  For a complete review of syntax and semantics
for the source specifier, see XXTB #04.

-------------------------------------------------------------
Caution to DOS novices:

The blank characters (space or tab) act as the delimiter of
the arguments.  Therefore, a name with an embedded space must be
surrounded by a pair of quotes (") that is to be kept unbroken.

XXCOPY   C:\My Documents\   D:\backup\     // bad
XXCOPY  "C:\My Documents\"  D:\backup\     // good

This is true for nearly all command line applications.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Once you learn this simple rule, it is quite easy to understand a
long XXCOPY command line.

XXCOPY switches:

Here, a first time XXCOPY user may be overwhelmed by the sheer
number of switches.  Since the power of XXCOPY arises from
these switches, you must learn to deal with them.  We try our
best to keep these (still increasing) switches under our control.
Since the number of switches far exceeds the number of letters
available in the alphabet, many of the switches use multiple
characters.  For better or worse, the syntax adheres to the
original XCOPY's syntax very closely.  This is a mixed blessing,
for sure.  So, when we felt very strongly about some problematic
cases, we took liberty of making improvements that do not adhere
to the original XCOPY syntax.  But, such exceptions are very rare.
Overall, if you are very familiar with how XCOPY works, very little
will surprise you.

Let us take a look at the full list of XXCOPY switches; each switch
contains a terse comment.  For most switches, full explanation will
be given later.

for Command Line Syntax                          XXTB #25
for Command Reference Alphabetic Listing         XXTB #26
for Command Reference Functional Classification  XXTB #27
for The Wild-Wildcard Source Specifier           XXTB #28

-----  The following switches use file attributes to select files -----

/A  Same as /ATA. Copies only files with the archive attribute set.
Doesn't change the attribute.
/M  Copies only files with the archive attribute set.
Turns off the archive attribute.
/AT<mask>  Selects files by the attribute bits (ACHSR).
You may use two or more /AT<mask> switches to specify multiple
required attributes.  E.g., /ATA/ATH qualifies files with both
the A(rchive) bit and the H(idden) bits.
Alternatively, you may use one /AT<mask> switch with multiple letters
to select alternative attribute bits to select files.  E.g.,
/ATAH qualifies a file which has either A-bit, H-bit or both.
/AX<mask>  Excludes files with the specified attribute bits (ACHSR).
You may use two or more /AX<mask> switches to specify
attribute bits to exclude files for file operations.  E.g.,
/AXA/AXH excludes files with A-bit, H-bit, or both.
Or, you may use one /AX<mask> switch with multiple letters to
exclude files with only the specified combination of attribute
bits.  E.g., /AXAH excludes files with both A-bit and H-bit.

rules (the effects of combining attribute bits --- AND and OR).

/A0  Cancels *ALL* /A, /M, /AT, and /AX switches.

-----  The following switches modify the file attributes -----

/AA  Sets   the src file archive bit (without actually copying).
/AZ  Clears the src file archive bit (without actually copying).
Note: Both /AA and /AZ implicitly set /H (can be overridden).
/AC  Copies specified files irrespective of the archive attribute.
Turns off the archive attribute after XXCOPY is done.
/AN<mask>  Sets a new value to file attribute bits (replace the value).
The <mask> value is a combination of letters, ACHSR.
/AR<mask>  Resets file attribute bits (clears specified bits).
/AS<mask>  Sets file attribute bits (sets specified bits).

Note:  The <mask> value for /AR and /AS specifies attributes (ACHSR)
whose bits are either reset or set respectively to the existing
file attributes. Unspecified attributes bits are kept unchanged.

/ARD<mask>  Resets directory attribute bits (clears specified bits).
/ASD<mask>  Sets directory attribute bits (sets specified bits).

/ARD and /ASD work on directories analogous to /AR and /RS.

Note:  The /AA, /AN, /AR, /AS, /ARD, /ASD, and /AZ switches modify the
file attributes without copying the files to the destination,
whereas the /A, /AT and /AX switches select files by the file
attributes for various operations (copy, list, remove, etc.).

-----  The following switches use other file attribute bits -----

/H  Copies hidden and/or system files also.
/H0  Excludes hidden and/or system files (default).
/Ho  Copies hidden and/or system files only.
/K0  Keeps H-bit and S-bit, sets A-bit, clears R-bit (default).
/K  Keeps the source attributes including read-only (same as /KS).
/KS  Keeps the source attributes including the read-only bit.
/KD  Keeps the attributes of destination (overwritten) file.
/KN  Sets the destination attributes to normal (only /A).

(File attributes are discussed in XXTB #06)

-----  The following switches controls the compression on file copy -----

/KCFP  Sets dst file's C-bit with that of its parent dir (default).";
/KCFD  Keeps dst file's C-bit, a new file gets its parent's C-bit.";
/KCFS  Sets dst file's C-bit with that of src file's C-bit.";
/KCFC  Always sets the C-bit of dst file (compress).";
/KCFU  Always resets the C-bit of dst file (uncompress).";

/KCDP  Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of its parent dir (default).";
/KCDD  Keeps dst dir's C-bit, a new dir gets its parent's C-bit.";
/KCDS  Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of src dir's C-bit.";
/KCDC  Always sets the C-bit of dst directory (compress).";
/KCDU  Always resets the C-bit of dst directory (uncompress).";

Note:  The /Kx switches affect only A, R, H, and S bits of files,";
whereas /KCFx and /KCDx affect only the C-bit of files and";
directories, respectively.";

-----  The following switches are useful for backup and archive -----

/BI  Backs up incrementally, different (by time/size) files only.
/BA  Backs up incrementally (absolute) (more complete version of /BI)
/BB  Backs up brand new files only (does not overwrite existing ones).
/BN  Backs up newer files only      (includes brand new files).
/Bo  Backs up older files only      (includes brand new files).
/BX  Backs up different-date files  (includes brand new files).
/BZ  Same as /BZX.
/BZE  Backs up equal-size  files  (includes brand new files).
/BZL  Backs up larger-size files  (includes brand new files).
/BZS  Backs up smaller-size files (includes brand new files).
/BZX  Backs up different-size files  (includes brand new files).
/BE  Backs up exactly the same files(includes brand new files).
/BS  Selects exactly the same files (this is useful with /RS).
/BU  Standard Backup switch (same as /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZE/oD0).
/B0  Undo any of /BI, /BB, /BN, /Bo, /BX, or /BZ switches.

Note: A "brand new" file refers to a file which exists in the
source directory but not in the destination directory
(Micrososoft's Robocopy call it a "lonely file").

/CD0  Does not compare file data byte-by-byte (default).
/CDM  Selects files whose data match in byte-by-byte comparison.
/CDU  Selects files whose data unmatch and brand new files.
/CDX  selects files whose data match byte-by-byte and brand new files.

/SP  Spans the copy job over multiple destination (new volume).

Note: /SP cannot be used with switches which reference the
destination for file selection --- that is, the /Bxx
(backup) switches, and /U will be disabled by /SP.
That is, the spanning of the destination volume by /SP
assumes the backup operation is a full backup without
referencing the files already on the destination.

-----  The following switches are shortcuts for popular operations -----

/BU  Shortcut for /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZE/oD0.     Good for common directory backup
/BACKUP  Shortcut for /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZE/oD0.     Good for common directory backup
/CLONE  Shortcut for /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZE/oD0/ZY.  Good for common directory cloning

Note: Both the /BACKUP and /CLONE operations copy the contents of the
source directory into the destination directory incrementally
(only those files with the timestamp and/or the filesize changed).
The /CLONE operation differs from the /BACKUP operation by deleting
extra files and directories in the destination directory (whose
counterpart in the source no longer exists).  This makes /CLONE
considerably more dangerous than /BACKUP.

-----  The following switch adds inclusive alternate templates -----

/IN<tmpl>  Includes an alternate filename template (tmpl).

You may specify as many alternate filename patterns as you wish.
The template must be for the "Lastname" of the source specifier
(no backslash in the template, but wildcard characters are OK).

-----  The following switches exclude directories or files -----

/X<xspec>  Adds an exclusion specifier (xspec) (see below for exclusion).
/EX<xlist>  Specifies a text file which contains a list of xspecs (see below).

<xspec>  Exclusion item for /X and the file contents specified by /EX.

. The text file may contain an arbitrary number of xspecs which
are separated by space, tab, or newline characters.
. An xspec with embedded spaces must be surrounded by a pair
of double-quote characters(").
. An xspec cannot span from one line to another.
. Two consecutive colons (::) or slashes (//) start a comment
field which ends at the end of the line.
. You may specify more than 1 exclusion file.  In such a
case all of the exclusion files will be processed.

Exclusion specifier (xspec) syntax:

. You may use any number of wildcard characters (* or ?) anywhere
in an exclusion specifier (Wild-Wildcard).
. An xspec for directories must be followed by a backslash.
. An xspec not followed by a backslash is for files.
. To use the old syntax for directory_template\?\*, you must
the /GX switch.  In lieu of the obsolete syntax, it is advised
that the regular syntax (directorY_template\?*\*) be used.
. A bare file template applies to all directories.
E.g., *.mp3 is treated as *\*.mp3 (*\ is implicitly assumed).

XXCOPY optimizes the exclusion parameter by eliminating
some redundant specifiers.
Use "/W/oX" with xspec to test the syntax.

/ZLX0  Disables exclusion testing (default).
/ZLX  Enables exclusion test (displays only excluded objects).

Note: /ZLX performs a 'dry-run' (like /L) without copying files.

/GX  Accepts the obsolete ending (...\?\*) in the exclusion item
/GX0  Disables the obsolete syntax in exclusion item.

See XXTB #05  (The Exclusion specifier).

-----  The following switches limit files by the filetime -----

/D  Same as /DA.
/DA  Copies newer files and brand new files.
/DB  Copies older files and brand new files.
/DS  Copies only the files whose filetime is exactly the same.
/DX  Copies only the files whose filetime is different in any way.

Note:  All filetime comparisons are affected by the fuzzy range (/FF).

/D:<date>  Same as /DA:<date>.
/DA:<date>  Copies files that were changed on or after the specified date.
/DB:<date>  Copies files that were changed on or before the specified date.
/Do:<date>  Copies files that were changed on the specified date.
/DA#<n>  Copies files that were changed on or after  <n> days ago.
/DB#<n>  Copies files that were changed on or before <n> days ago.
/Do#<n>  Copies files that were changed on the day   <n> days ago.

Note:  A "brand new" file refers to a file which exists in the
source directory but not in the destination directory
(Micrososoft's Robocopy call it a "lonely file").

Note:  With /DA#<val>, /DB#<val> and /Do#<val>, the parameter <val> will
be treated as the number of Days unless it is appended with a
one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days, Hours,
Minutes, or Seconds, respectively).  When <val> is given in
the number of days, the exact time is midnight of the day.

e.g., /DA#0 denotes files made some time today after midnight.
/Do#2 means all day the day before yesterday.
/DA#30m selects files made within the last 30 minutes.

/DA:.  Copies files that were changed today or later (same as /DA#0).
/DB:.  Copies files that were changed yesterday or earlier.
/Do:.  Copies files that were changed today only.

/DA:<val> and /DB:<val> work as a pair if both are specified.

e.g., /DA:1997-01-01 /DB:1997-12-31  files made in 1997
/DA:1997-04-01 /DB:1997-04-30  files made in April 1997
/DB:1997-03-31 /DA:1997-05-01  exclude files made in April
/DA:1997-01-01 /DB:1997-01-01  try the shorter /Do:1997-01-01

Since the US and European conventions are not reconcilable,
we recommend that you use the ISO 8601 standard (YYYY-MM-DD) with
a 4-digit year value followed by month and day.  If all values have
2 digits only, it is interpreted according to the system setting.
A file date must be between 1970-01-01 and 2069-12-31.

A partial date specifier is accepted for /DA:, /DB: and /Do:
where yyyy-mm and yyyy denote the month and year respectively.
E.g., /Do:2000-2 is equivalent to /DA:2000-2-1 /DB:2000-2-29,
and /DB:1999 to /DB:1999-12-31, and /DA:2000 to /DA:2000-1-1.

/DA:<time>  Same as /DA:<date> except an additional time value may be added.
/DB:<time>  Same as /DB:<date> except an additional time value may be added.

The <time> parameter starts with the <date> (as shown above)
followed by 'T' or '@' and hh:mm:ss, hh:mm, or hh.

e.g., 2002-10-25T15:25:30  (recommended as ISO 8601 std)
31-10-2002@13:00   10-31-2002@13 (min and sec may be omitted)
(/D0:<date> cannot be specified with the <time> value).

Note:  /DA, /DB, /DX, /DS, /Do, /DA:<date> and /DB:<date> are mutually
exclusive (except /DA:<date> and /DB:<date> work as a pair).

Note:  /DA and /DB, if date is omitted, are the same as /BN and /Bo,
respectively, except that /DA and /DB can be combined with another
/Bxx switch (e.g., /BI) where as /BN and /Bo cannot (in the same group).

Note:  /DA, /DB, /DX and /DS compare source and destination files using
both date and time whereas /DA:<date> and /DA#<n> use date only.

/D0  Cancels all file-date related (/D...) switches.

-----  The following switches modify filetime semantics -----

/FW  Uses the Last-Write timestamp for the Filetime comparison (default).
/FA  Uses the Last-Access timestamp for the Filetime comparison.
/FC  Uses the Creation timestamp for the Filetime comparison.

Note: /FW, /FA and /FC are mutually exclusive choices.

/FL  Filetime in Local time (default).
/FU  Filetime in UTC(Universal Coordinated Time - same as GMT).

Note: /FL and /FU are mutually exclusive choices.

Note:  The word "Filetime" (or sometimes, "Filedate") is used
in the context of comparing the time value associated
with a file against another time value (e.g., in /DA, /BN)
and XXCOPY uses only one of the three timestamps that
are attached to a file (by the /FW, /FA or /FC switch).

/FF  Fuzzy Filetime (same as /FF2S --- matches within 2 sec).
/FF0  Fuzzy Filetime cancelled (adjustment value set to +/- 0).
/FF<val>  Fuzzy Filetime, adjust ref time +/- <val> seconds.
/FF-<val>  Fuzzy Filetime, adjust ref time by subtracting <val> seconds.

Note:  With /FF<val>, /FF+<val> and /FF-<val>, the parameter <val> will
be treated as the number of seconds unless it is appended with a
one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days Hours,
Minutes, or Seconds, respectively).

e.g., /FF     treats file times within +/- 2 sec as the same.
/FF-1H  treats files older by up to 1 hour as the same.
/FF+2/FF-4 (you may choose asymmetric slack values).

Note: The /FF switch affects all filetime comparisons such as /CLONE,
/BI, /BU, /BS, /BX, /BO, /BN, /DA, /DB, /DS, /DX, /TS, and /TD.

Note: The FAT (DOS/Win9x) file system has a 2-second granularity in
file time whereas NTFS, Unix and other file systems use finer
time stamps.  The /FF switch is useful for incremental backup
between volumes of different file systems.

-----  The following switches cope with time zones -----

/TS+<n>  Adds an offset (Hr) to the time of source (and the copied ) file.
/TS-<n>  Subtracts an offset (Hr) from source (and the copied) file.
/TD+<n>  Adds an offset (Hr) to the time of the destination file.
/TD-<n>  Subtracts an offset (Hr) from the dst file for comparison.

Note:  The offset value <n> for /TS and /TD is specified in hours
unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S
which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds respectively).

-----  The following switches control timestamps -----

/TTA  Touches (modifies) timestamp of Last Access of src.
/TTA0  Preserves timestamp of Last Access of src (default).

/TCA  Copies the timestamp of Last Access fm src to dst.
/TCA0  Uses current time for dst Last Access (default).

/TCC  Copies the timestamp of Create Time fm src to dst.
/TCC0  Uses current time for dst Create time (default).

/TCW  Copies the Last Write time fm src to dst (default).
/TCW0  Uses current time for dst Last Write time.

/TC  Shortcut for /TCA/TCC/TCW  (copies all three types of timestamps)
/TC0  Shortcut for /TCA0/TCC0/TCW0.

-----  The following switches qualify the source by file size -----

/SZ:<n>-<m>  Copies a file whose size is between n bytes and m bytes.
/SZ:<n>-  Copies a file whose size is equal to or greater than n bytes.
/SZ:-<m>  Copies a file whose size is equal to or less than m bytes.
/SZ:<n>   Copies a file whose size is exactly n bytes.
/SZ!<n>-<m>  Copies a file whose size is NOT between n bytes and m bytes.
/SZ!<n>-  Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or greater than n bytes.
/SZ!-<m>  Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or less than m bytes.
/SZ!<n>  Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to n bytes.
/SZ:-  Disables size-based selection (/SZ!- also works).

Note:  The size values <n> and <m> are entered in bytes unless appended
with a suffix letter (K, M, or G which stands for metric kilo
(x1000), mega (x1000000), or giga (x1000000000) respectively).

-----  The following switch limits the destination file size -----

/TR<n>  Truncates the new file to (copies the first) n bytes.

-----  The following switches deal with subdirectories -----

/S  Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.
/E  Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty ones.
Same as /S /E.
/T  Creates directory structure, but does not copy files.  It copies
all directories including empty ones (implicitly sets /E).

/SG  Same as /SGN (see variations in handling duplicates below).
/SGF  Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted First file 1st).
/SGL  Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted Last  file 1st).
/SGN  Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Newest file 1st).
/SGo  Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Oldest file 1st).
/SGFo  Gathers files into one-level directory (First  only).
/SGLo  Gathers files into one-level directory (Last   only).
/SGNo  Gathers files into one-level directory (Newest only).
/SGoo  Gathers files into one-level directory (Oldest only).
/SG0  Cancels file-gather switches (/SG...).

Note:  /SGL and /SGLo is works well with other file-selection switches.
E.g., /SGLo /BZL to gather the largest file of its kind.

/SL  Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Left   (see below).
/SX  Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Middle (see below).
/SR  Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Right  (see below).

/SL, /SX, and /SR are the same as /S except the output files
will be saved as a flat directory without adding levels of
subdirectories.  The source subdirectory name will become a
part of the target filename.  /SL and /SR add the subdir name
to the left or right of the name respectively.
/SX inserts the subdirectory name in the middle.

/SLR  Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the left).
/SXR  Rebuilds flattened directory (path in the middle).
/SRR  Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the right).

/SLR /SXR, and /SRR do opposite of /SL, /SX and /SR respectively.

/S<d>  Sets the directory delimiter character for /SL, /SX and /SR,
where <d> is any legal non-alphabetic, non-blank character.
The default delimiter is back-apostrophe ().

/DL<n>  Limits processing of directory nesting to n levels.
/DL0 removes the limit.  /DL works only when /S or /E is set.

-----  The following switches controls the maximum path length -----

/VL  Enables the Very Long Path (same as /VL32767).
/VL<n>  Sets the maximum path length to n chars (up to 32767).
/VL0  Disables the Very Long Path (default with 259 chars).

-----  The following switches check the destination directory -----

/I  If the destination does not exist and you are copying more
than one file, this switch assumes that the destination must
be a directory (no prompting).
Note: when the destination specifier ends with a backslash, it
declares itself as a directory which implicitly sets the /I switch.
/IA  Continues if destination is absent (terminates if it exists).
/IA<item>  Continues if the specified item (file/directory) is absent.
/IP  Continues if destination is present (terminates if absent).
/IP<item>  Continues if the specified item (file/directory) is present.
/ILD<label>  Continues if the destination volume label matches as specified.
/ILS<label>  Continues if the source volume label matches as specified.

/Z  Deletes extra files or subdirectories in destination.
/ZY  Same as /Z except there is no confirmation prompt.

-----  The following switches control the file copy buffer size -----

/ZB<n>  Sets the size of the file copy buffer (in bytes).
/ZB0  Cancels the buffer size setting (uses the default size).

-----  The following switches are for safe file overwrite -----

/So  Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (Same as /So1).
/So0  Disables Safe File Overwrite.
/So1  Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (default).
/So2  Enables Very Safe File Overwrite (always via temporary file).

-----  The following switches controls file versioning -----

/JV  Archives existing dst file with a versioning number (9999).
/JV<n>  Archives existing dst file up to up to n versions.
/JV0  Disables versioning by simply overwriting the existing file

-----  The following switches control the prompting behaviors -----

/P  Prompts you before creating each destination file.
/PC  Prompts you before creating new files.
/PC0  Suppresses warning on file-creation.
/PD  Prompts you before processing each directory.
/PD0  Suppresses prompts before processing each directory.
/PJ  Prompts before a different type dst is overwritten (default).
/PJ0  Suppresses the warning for trans-overwrite (different type).
/PM  Prompts before deleting existing file at the move destination.
/PM0  Suppresses prompts on deleting existing file at move destination.
/PN  Prompts when on excessive failures on /NX operations.
/PN0  Suppresses prompts on excessive failures of /NX operatoins.
/Po  Prompts you before overwriting existing files (default).
/Po0  Suppresses warning on file-overwrite (Legacy /Y).
/PP  Enables  the space bar press-for-pause feature (default).
/PP0  Disables the space bar press-for-pause feature.
/PR  Prompts on removing a file whose path contains reparse pt (default).
/PR0  Does not prompt before removing a filw with reparse point path.
/PW  Enables  Prompt with Dialog Window.
/PW0  Disables Prompt with Dialog Window (default).
/PZ  Prompts you for confirmation of the dst (for /CLONE /Z /ZY).
/PZ0  Suppresses the prompt for directory confirmation on /CLONE /Z /ZY.

/W  Same as /WS.
/WS  Prompts you to press a key at the start of copying.
/WS<n>  Waits at the start of operation for a specified period (n sec).
/WE  Prompts you to press a key at the end of copying.
/WE<n>  Waits at the end of the operation for a specified period (n sec).
/WD0  Suppresses warning for copying a non-directory source.
/WD  Prompts with a warning for copying a non-directory src (default).
/WL  Issues a warning when the path length exceeds the limit (default).
/WL0  Suppresses warning for the path length exceeds the limit.
/WN  Displays a warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy.
/WN0  Suppresses warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy.
/WU<n>  Prompts with a warning for unneccary destination (default).
/WU0<n>  Suppresses warning for unnecessary destination specifier.
/WV0  This switch is now obsolete and has no effect.
/WV  This switch is now obsolete and has no effect.

/C  Continues copying even if errors occur (default).
/C0  Disables the /C switch (terminates upon error).
/CB  Continues batch file if XXCOPY ended OK last time.
/CBQ  Same as /CB except suppresses console output to end immediately.
/CB0  Cancels the /CB and /CBQ switches.
/CE  Same as /CBQ/EC (most useful in batch file with @echo off).
/CR<n>  Sets the retry period (n seconds, default = 3) on failed copy.

/Y  Overwrites existing files without prompting (See /BB).
/-Y  Prompts you before overwriting existing files.
/Y0  Same as above (/-Y).
/YY  Suppresses ALL prompts unconditionally (good in a batch script).

-----  The following switches control Remove (file delete) -----

/RC  Removes files in src after a successful copy (equivalent to move)
/RS  Removes files in src which qualify (no copying).
/RD  Removes files in dst which qualify to be overwritten (no copying)
/RX  Removes files in dst which are absent in src (no copying).
/R0  Undo any of /RC, /RS, RD, or /RX switches.
/RCP  Prompts on source-file-remove after successful copy (default).
/RCY  Suppresses prompts after a successful source-file-remove.

Note:  Whereas /Y and /-Y modify prompting for the copy action
of /RC (Remove after Copy) switch, the suffix 'P' or 'Y' controls
the prompt for the file remove action after copy.

Note:  The suffix 'P' or 'Y' can also be added to any of /RS, /RD,
or /RX switches which will insert or suppress respective prompt.
For these remove-without-copy switches, the /Y and /-Y switches
also control the prompt for the remove action.

Note:  /RX can be thought of a /Z operation without copying files.";
In general, the /RS/BB combination (by swapping src and dst)";
provides more file-selection controls than the /RX switch.";

Note:  /PD and /PD0 control additional prompt on each directory.

/RMDIR  Removes a directory Same as /RS/S/H/R/PD0/ED0.

-----  The following switches control Move operations -----

/MVD  Moves directories (the src and dst must be in the same volume).
/MVF  Moves files (the src and dst must be in the same volume).
/MVX  Moves files, if fails then tries /RC (remove-after-copy).

-----  The following switches control empty directories -----

/ED0  Deletes an empty directory (default)
/ED  Preserves the directory even if it becomes empty.
/ED<n>  Preserves n levels of empty directories.

Note:  These switches are in effect only with file/directory removal
operations (/Z, /RC, /RS, /RD, /RX, and /CLONE cases).

-----  The following switches control cyclic directory copy -----

/CC0  Disallows cyclic copy (src includes the dst directory).
/CC  Warns a cyclic copy with a Y/N prompt.
/CCY  Allows a cyclic copy by excluding the dst from src (default).

-----  Filename pattern matching  -----

/N  Uses the short (8.3) name for name matching, and creation.
/N0  Disables /N and /NP (default, uses longname when applicable).
/NP  Uses precise name matching (default, ignores match in alias).
/NP0  Uses loose name matching (longname or shortname match).
/NX  Preserves the shortname when the file is copied.
/NX0  Disables the /NX (shortname preservation) feature.

Note: /N, /NP, and /N0 are mutually exclusive.

Note: If src and dst are both local drive, the shortname will be
preserved (/NX) by default, but if either src or dst is
specified by a UNC (starts with \\), /NX0 is default.

/NL  Renames longname to match the source (No copy operations).
/NS  Renames shortname to match the source (No copy operations).
/NC0  Disables /NCL, /NCU, or /NCX (accepts letters of both cases).
/NCU  Uses Uppercase-only name when a new file is created.
/NCL  Uses Lowercase-only name when a new file is created.
/NCX  Uses Uppercase-only name when a new short-name file is created.
/NW  Uses the new (Win32) wildcard matching scheme.
/ND  Uses the old (DOS) wildcard matching scheme.

Note: /ND and /NW are mutually exclusive choices.

-----  The following switches terminate when a quota is met ----

/QF  Quits when the quota for the file count has been reached.
/QBL  Quits before the byte count exceeds the limit (same as /QB).
/QBT  Quits when the total byte count reaches the trigger point.
/QSL  Quits before the space dips below the limit (same as /QS).
/QST  Quits when the remaining space reaches the trigger point.

-----  Miscellaneous switches -----

/NI  Becomes nice to other tasks by idling (1000 msec) between actions.
/NI<n>  Same as /NI.  Specifies n msec as the idle time (0 to disable it).

/CF<fname>  Specifies a Command File whose contents are treated as if
they were entered at the position it appear in the command line.
The Command File is a text file which may have multple lines.
//  Starts a comment field.  The rest of the line will be ignored.
::  Starts a comment field.  The rest of the line will be ignored.

(See XXTB #37 for a full coverage of this feature.)

/V  Verifies after copy default (same as /V1).
/V1  Verifies after copy (quick test --- file size match).
/V2  Verifies after copy byte-by-byte check (DATMAN 2-pass).
/V0  Disables verify switch (canceling /V, /V1, or /V2).
/ER  Emulates XCOPY's exit code (for ERRORLEVEL check in batch files).

/CLONE  Duplicates a directory (volume).  This switch is a shortcut of
the following combination: /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY/ZE/oD0.

/CK  Checks remaining space before copy (default).
/CK0  Disables the pre-check of remaining space before copy.

-----  The following switches control the progress bars -----

/PB  Shows Progress bar for the job (default file progress >= 1M).
/PB<n>  Shows Progress bar for the job and another Progress bar for a
single-file progress with file length greater than <n>, which is
specified in bytes (or with a suffix, K, M or G) (default: 1M).
/PBH  Enables  Progress bar Halt/Abort button (default).
/PBH0  Disables Progress bar Halt/Abort button.

-----  The following switches control List output -----

/L  Same as /LLZ which performs the list operation (no file copy).
/L<items>  Customizes the format for List operation (no file copy).
<items> is a string of one or more of the following letters
which selects the combination and the output order.

D   file date
T   file time
H   history (creation, last-write, last-access timestamps)
Z   file size in bytes
S   short name (8.3)
N   long name (lastname) without path
L   long name with full directory path
P   parent path name without the lastname
R   long relative (below base directory) name
,   comma as a separator (for a CSV format output)

Note: When S and L are both missing, L is used by default.

Note: The format specified by /FM<items> will be used
for /L output if /L is present without its own parameter.

/LTREE  Lists directory tree (without copy or making directories).

Note: with /LTREE, the /DA/DB/Do parameters apply on dir time.

/F  Displays full source and destination file names while copying.
/Fo<fname>  Displays full source and file names and also saves into a file.
/FM0  Cancels the /FM<items> parameter previously set.
/FM<items>  Specifies the output line format for /L and or /Fo output.

<items> is a string of one or more of the following letters
which selects the combination and the output order.

D   file date
T   file time
H   history (creation, last-write, last-access timestamps)
Z   file size in bytes
S   short name (8.3)
N   long name (lastname) without path
L   long name with full directory path
P   parent path name without the lastname
R   long relative (below base directory) name
,   comma as a separator (for a CSV format output)

Note: When S and L are both missing, L is used by default.

Note: /L/FM<items> can be combined into a /L<items> switch.

-----  Miscellaneous switches -----

/MD<dir>  Makes directory before other actions (even with /L).

Tip: make a date-encoded directory with a macro reference.
e.g.,  /MDc:\Bkup/$DATE$ (even good for log files).

-----  The following switches control Security Information -----

/SC  Same as /SC3 (copies security info).
/SC0  Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (no security info copied).
/SC1  Copies security info (Permissions only) when a file is copied.
/SC2  Copies security info (Auditing only)    when a file is copied.
/SC3  Copies security info (both Perm, Audit) when a file is copied.
/SF  Same as /SF3 (fixes up security info)
/SF0  Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (equivalent to /SC0).
/SF1  Fixes up security info (Permissions only) (no file copy).
/SF2  Fixes up security info (Auditing only)    (no file copy).
/SF3  Fixes up security info (both Perm, Audit) (no file copy).

Note:  /SC and /SF work only when src and dst are both NTFS.

-----  The following switches control file sharing -----

/SHR  Enables file-sharing for read-only with other programs (default).
/SHW  Enables file-sharing for write-only with other programs.
/SHRW  Enables file-sharing for rd/wr with other programs (same as /SH).
/SH0  Disables any sharing (Exclusive file access only).

-----  The following switches control junctions and symbolic links -----

/JS0  Treats file symbolic links as regular files.

/JH0  Treats file hard links as regular files.

/JL0  Treats directory symbolic links as regular directories.

/JP  Treats junction (non-mount) points as junction pts (default).
/JP0  Treats junction (non-mount) points as regular directories.

/JM  Treats volume mount points as volume mount points(default).
/JM0  Treats volume mount points as regular directories.

/JJ  Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS/JH (default).
/JJ0  Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0/JH0.

/JR  Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS.
/JR0  Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0.

/JX<mask>  Excludes the specified J-thingies from normal processing.
Note:  The <mask> specifies one or more J-thingies (FSHDLMP).
/JX0  Processes all J-thingies without being excluded (default).
/JXJ  Same as /JXLMPSH (excludes all J-thingies including HLNK).
/JXR  Same as /JXLMPS  (excludes all reparse points (not HLNK)).

/JI<mask>  Includes the specified J-thingies (inverse switch of /JX).
Note:  The <mask> specifies one or more J-thingies (FSHLMP).
E.g., /JIM is equivalent to /JXFHLPS (D is not excluded).
/JIJ  Same as /JXF  (selects <LNK>,<JCT>,<MNT>,[SYM] and [HLK]).
/JIR  Same as /JXFH (selects <LNK>,<JCT>,<MNT> and [SYM]).

/PJ  Prompts before a different type dst is overwritten (default).
/PJ0  Suppresses the warning for trans-overwrite (different type).

/PR  Prompts on removing a file whose path contains reparse pt (default).
/PR0  Does not prompt before removing a filw with reparse point path.

/WR  Warns if src or dst specifier contains a reparse point (default).
/WR0  Suppresses warning for src or dst specifier with a reparse point.

/JCYCLIC  Shows cyclic links (<LNK><JCN><MNT>) in the src directory.

/MLH  Makes a hard link file in dst for each file in the src.

-----  The following switches control file-write cache -----

/CA  Enables all cache.  Same as /CA7 (default).
/CA0  Cache control:  src-rd = OFF  dst-wr = OFF  dst-rd = OFF
/CA1  Cache control:  src-rd = OFF  dst-wr = OFF  dst-rd = ON
/CA2  Cache control:  src-rd = OFF  dst-wr = ON   dst-rd = OFF
/CA3  Cache control:  src-rd = OFF  dst-wr = ON   dst-rd = ON
/CA4  Cache control:  src-rd = ON   dst-wr = OFF  dst-rd = OFF
/CA5  Cache control:  src-rd = ON   dst-wr = OFF  dst-rd = ON
/CA6  Cache control:  src-rd = ON   dst-wr = ON   dst-rd = OFF
/CA7  Cache control:  src-rd = ON   dst-wr = ON   dst-rd = ON

-----  The following switches control the console output -----

/EC  Echoes the entire command line (after macro processing).
/Q0  Displays all file names.
/Q  Same as /Q1.  Does not display files which are skipped.
/Q1  Does not display files which are skipped.
/Q2  Does not display directories which are excluded.
/Q3  Does not display file and directory names while copying.
/WI<n>  Sets the output line width to n columns (default:auto).
/ZS  Disables the sign-on message and statistics output.

-----  The following switches control the log output -----

/oA<fname>  Appends to a logfile, reporting errors. (does not overwrite log).
/oN<fname>  Outputs a new logfile, reporting errors (make a new log) file.
/o0  Cancels the /oN or /oA switch specified earlier.
/oQ  Surrounds pathname output with quotation marks.
/oQ0  Disable quotation marks that surround pathname.
/oR  Displays the target path of reparse point.
/oR0  No display of the target path of reparse point.

The screen and the log file output can be fine tuned by the followng:

/oB<n>  Brief switch (both specified and default) list.
/oC<n>  Displays links (<LNK><JCT><MNT>) that are cyclically referenced.
/oD<n>  Deleted-file list (by a /Z or /ZY switch).
/oE<n>  Error summary with the system error code
/oF<n>  File list (files which were successfully operated on).
/oH<n>  Displays the list of hard link(s) to the selected file if linked.
/oI<n>  Include-item (alternate file template) list.
/oP<n>  Parameter (command switch detailed) list.
/oS<n>  Skipped-file list (with the reason why skipped).
/oX<n>  Exclude-item list.

The suffix value <n> for /oB/oD/oE/oF/oH/oI/oP/oS/oX works as follows:

0: No output
1: Screen only
2: Log file only
3: Screen and Log file both

Note:  It is advised that the log file created by /oA or /oN to be
free from the names of successfully copied files that would
overshadow relatively infrequent lines of error and warning.
Instead, use the /Fo switch to create a separate file for a
list of successfully copied files.

/UT  Encodes output file(s) in UTF-8 text.
/UT0  Encodes output file(s) in ANSI text (default).

/DEBUG  Shows the command parameters and prompts you to start.
/DEBUGX  Shows the command parameters and exits.
/HELP  Shows the switches in detail (print this output).
/HELP /X  Shows Partial Help (switches starting with letter X).
/HELPA  Shows the /HELP listing in alphabetical order.
/HELPE  Lists the Exit codes (ERRORLEVEL values) returned by XXCOPY.
/?  Shows a summary of the switches on one page.
... /?  Shows related switches when entered with other switches.

Note:  All XXCOPY command switches are case-insensitive.
The alphabet, O, is spelled in lower-case (o) in this page to
help distinguish it from the numeric zero (0).

Note:  Virtually all of the switches can be disabled by adding 0 (zero)
at the end (e.g., /A and /A0).  Due to the space limitation and
their redundant nature, only some of these cases are listed in
the help text.

-----  Pre-defined macros to embed current date and time ----

/$xxxx$  Pre-defined macros for current date and time which may appear
anywhere in the command argument and other XXCOPY parameters.
Examples below are for the current time, Dec 25, 2002 13:15:30
/$DATE$  Expands to month and date (equivalent to /$MMDD$) --> "1225".
/$TIME$  Expands to hour and minutes (equiv. /$HHNN$) --> "1315".
/$YYMMDD$  Expands to 2-digit year month day --> "021225".
/$YYYY-MM$  Expands to 4-digit year month --> "2002-12".
/$YY-M-D$  Expands to 2-digityear-mo-dy (mo and dy without leading zero).
/$HHNNSS$  Expands to hour minutes second --> "131530".
/$MON-DD$  Expands to month day --> "DEC-25".
/$WWW$  Expands to day of the week --> "WED".
/$W$  Expands to ordinal number of day of the week --> "3".
/$II-IWK-K$  Expands to the ISO 8601 year-week --> "02-W52-3".
/$HOSTS$  Expands to the name of the host (curren) computer.

/TM0  Cancels the time offset set by /TM+ or /TM-.
/TM+<n>  Adds an offset to the current time of macro reference.
/TM-<n>  Subtracts an offset to the current time of macro reference.

Note:  The offset value <n> for /TM+ and /TM- is specified in days
unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S
which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds respectively).

-----  Environment Variables in XXCOPY command files ----

/%xxxx%  Environment variable (E-Var) reference in command files
(/CF and /EX).  Like the macro reference counterpart,
the string value which correspoinds to an E-Var can be
brought in the command line text using the /%xxxx% syntax.
Note that this syntax should be used only inside the
external file text for XXCOPY (/CF and /EX) which cannot
be processed by the OS's command processor.  That is, in
the regular command line, the E-Var reference is already
supported (without a leading slash as the prefix).

-----  Installation of XXCOPY ----

/INSTALL  Installs the XXCOPY software package on your computer.
/INSTALL:<dir>   Installs XXCOPY at user-specified directory.
/SKIPIC  Skips the creation of XXCOPY Desktop Icon with /INSTALL.
/SKIPXC  Skips the installation of the XXConsole with/INSTALL.
/UNINSTALL  Uninstalls XXCOPY from your computer.
/HOSTS  Displays the names of remote hosts accessed by XXCOPY.

-----  Miscellaneous commands ----

/NoP  Performs no file operations (good for /MD, /oN, etc.).
/WHICHX  Itendifies which XXCOPY.EXE file is launched (no action).

-----  Environment variables that affect XXCOPY-----

COPYCMD  Specifies file-overwrite prompting.
/Y  suppresses the prompt (always overwrite)
/-y prompts you for a Yes/No/All option for a file overwrite
(This feature is for the COPY/XCOPY compatibility.)
XXCOPY  Specifies XXCOPY's command argument.  This argument string
is evaluated first and therefore the user-typed command line
can override it.  The syntax is the same as regular argument.
XXCOPYX  Specifies a list of exclusion specifiers (xspec).
Do not use switch prefix (/X). See the /X switch for details.

/ZE  Disables the use of all Environment Variables for XXCOPY.
/ZX  Disables the use of the Environment Variable XXCOPYX.
/ZX0  Enables the XXCOPYX settings.  Good for /CLONE and /RMDIR.

The shortcut /CLONE and /RMDIR contain /ZE as a component.
e.g., /CLONE/ZX0 allows the use of XXCOPYX settings.

Summary   XXCOPY switches that check two directories:      -------
/  src  \
Files are classified into four groups;               |    ---+---
---------------------------------------------         | A / B |   \
A    files in src which do not exist in dst          |   |   |   |
B    files in src which also   exist in dst          \   | C / D |
C    files in dst which also   exist in src           ---+---    |
D    files in dst which do not exist in src              \  dst  /
-------
/BB   all files in A       (none in B)
/BI   all files in A plus  files in B that are different in filetime or size
/BA   all files in A plus  files in B that are diff. in filetime, size or attr
/BX   all files in A plus  files in B that are different in filetime
/BZE  all files in A plus  files in B that are the same size
/BZL  all files in A plus  files in B that are larger
/BZS  all files in A plus  files in B that are smaller
/BZX  all files in A plus  files in B that are different in size
/BN   all files in A plus  files in B that have newer filetime
/Bo   all files in A plus  files in B that have older filetime
/BE   all files in A plus  files in B that have exactly the same time and size
/BS       (none in A)      files in B that have exactly the same time and size
/U        (none in A)  all files in B (subject to other switches)
/U/BI     (none in A)      files in B that are different in filetime or size

Note:  all the variations in the backup switches (/Bx) include the files in A
with the exception of /BS to be consistent with the spirit of BACKUP.
As shown in the example (/U/BI), adding /U eliminates the files in A.

/RS    files in A and/or B that satisfy other specified switches (for remove).
/RC    same as /RS (for remove-after-copy).
/RD        (none in D)     files in C that would be overwritten (for remove).
/RX                    all files in D (for remove).

Note:  /BS for copy usually accomplishes nothing but is useful as /RS/BS.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Source Specifier:

XXCOPY's first argument (without regard to command switches) is
the source specifier.  The source specifier is usually a path
specifier for the source.  But, for XXCOPY (as well as for XCOPY),
the source specifier may contain the "Base" directory and an
optional file pattern specification whose subtleties are not fully
appreciated by many XXCOPY users.

The source specifier has three parts:

[ volume_spec ] [ base_dir ] [ pattern ]

Example (the destination specifier is omitted here):

xxcopy    c:\mydir\*.doc
xxcopy   "c:\program files\mydir\myfile.doc"
xxcopy    \\myserver\drivec\config.sys

Here, the three parts in the source specifiers are quite obvious.  In
the second example, the double-quotes (") allow XXCOPY to treat the
entire command argument as one source specifier.  Without the double-
quotes, the embedded space character would make it two parameters

volume_spec

In most cases, the volume spec is a drive letter followed by a
colon (e.g., C: ).  But, it can be a universal naming convention
(UNC) string for a volume in a network (e.g., \\myserver\drivec ).
If you omit volume_spec, the current drive is assumed.

base_dir

The name of the source directory.  When the XXCOPY command
contains the subdirectory switch (/S and/or /E), the base_dir
specifier denotes the starting directory where the source
files and subdirectories are located.  The base_dir part
must not contain wild card characters.

pattern

The last part within the source specifier denotes the pattern
matching string which may contain wildcard characters (* or ?).
It matches only the last components within a full filename.

You may omit any of the three parts, but you may need something
as the source specifier as the space holder so that you can specify
the destination specifier as the second non-switch argument.  In
this case, you may use "." which denotes the current directory
as the source.

When you omit either the base_dir part or the pattern part,
that is, when a source specifier without a backslash separating the
two parts, the exact meaning of the command become ambiguous.
We will discuss the source specifier ambiguity in a later
article.

Destination Specifier:

The destination specifier has two parts:

[ volume_spec ] [ dest_dir ]

volume_spec

As for the source specifier case, the destination may contain
a volume specifier (e.g.,  C: ).  If it is omitted, the volume
of the current directory will be used.

dest_dir

The name of the destination directory.  Here, the destination
must be a directory name (which may or may not yet exist
in the destination volume).  Unlike the original COPY command,
you are not allowed to specify wildcard characters in the
destination specifier which would be conveniently used to
perform renaming action while copying the files.

XXCOPY does not rename files while they are copied. therefore,
no wildcard characters have no place in dest_dir.

Unlike the source specifier counterpart, the destination specifier
consists of only two parts both of which are optional.  When you
omit both of them, then the command line would have no explicit
argument as the destination specifier.  Don't worry, the current
directory will be used as the default destination directory.  Or,
you may just type "." which denotes the current directory explicitly.

Prefix and Delimiters:

XXCOPY's command switches always start with a slash (/) as the only
legitimate prefix (the Unix-style hyphen (-) is not recognized as
a switch prefix).

Usually, command line parameters are separated by blanks. However,
you may safely combine switches (the non source/destination specifiers)
without separating blanks for the command switches (e.g., /s/t/u/v).
However, you must separate the source and the destination specifiers
by blanks.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #02

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: What are the differences between XCOPY and XXCOPY?
Date:    2000-11-30 (revised)
===============================================================================

Introduction:

When we designed XXCOPY, one of the key design principles was to
keep the command syntax and the behavior of XXCOPY as close to
those of the original XCOPY program.  Although we did not agree
with all the idiosyncrasies of XCOPY, modifying anything XCOPY
already implements would cause substantial confusion to the users.
If we change things arbitrarily, any incremental improvements we
may add would be more than offset by the burden of remembering
the specifics of changes we make.  That would not benefit anyone.

Therefore, the changes we added to XXCOPY on purpose are kept to
the absolute minimum.  The changes we made are those with
substantial benefits to the users.

The key arguments, source and destination:

Like XCOPY's predecessor, the built-in COPY command of COMMAND.COM,
XXCOPY has two basic arguments without counting any other switches.

XXCOPY source  [ destination ]

Here, the semantics of the first argument (source) are almost the
same as the first argument of the traditional XCOPY command.  It
is the source file/directory specifier, which is a combination of
the source directory and optional filename pattern specifier.
To be precise, this combination of directory specification with
the filename pattern connected by a backslash does not conform
to a regular so-called pathname specifications. (We will discuss
the exact definition of the source specifier in another Technical
Bulletin article in full detail.)  Just remember that the source
specifier is pretty much the same as that of XCOPY.

The destination specifier is optional as in the case of the
original XCOPY and COPY commands.  When the destination is not
specified, XXCOPY uses the current directory as the destination
direction.

Destination specifier (Difference #1):

In XXCOPY, the destination specifier (when supplied by the user)
refers to the name of a directory whether it exists or to be
created by the command.  In any event, the destination never
specifies any particular filename.  It always specifies the name
of the destination DIRECTORY.

The reason for this change was the confusing and bothersome
behavior of XCOPY.  For one thing, when you specify a non-exist
directory as the destination of XCOPY, you would be greeted by
the familiar prompt:

Does XXXX specify a filename
or directory name on the target
(F = file, D = directory)?

In nearly all cases, you would type D and sigh a long DUHHHHHHH!!!!
Yet, because XCOPY allows the action to include renaming the file
while it is being copied, this ambiguity arises.  It is simply
carrying on the legacy of the COPY command.  While the copy command's
simplistic "rename-while-you-copy" features using a wildcard
specifier works, we consider the action quite dangerous.
When you use a wildcard with "rename-while-copy" feature which
involves a large number of files, you may accidentally create a
filename collision, which would abort the "rename-while-copy" action
in the middle.  The result would be a big mess of partially
renamed files.

We consider the "rename-while-copy" a source of much trouble and
therefore, we discourage your using it.  After all, XXCOPY is not
designed to handle one or two files.  You can always use the simple
COPY command to do just that.  Therefore, in our opinion, eliminating
the double meaning of the destination specifier from XXCOPY's second
argument, we can avoid the side-effects of the "rename-while-copy"
operation altogether and also eliminate the bothersome prompt of
"Do you mean F = File, or D = Directory".  Also, we are sure that
everybody has experienced the huge file which is accidentally
created by a simple COPY command with a directory as the source
and a non-existent directory as the destination.  The copy command
interprets the destination as a filename rather than a directory and
accumulates all the source files combined into a huge pile of useless
bytes.)  Anyway, we had enough confusion with the double meaning
of the destination specifier.  XXCOPY dares to correct this problem.

With XXCOPY, the destination is always a directory, never a file.

XXCOPY.EXE  (Difference #2):

In the case of XCOPY, it automatically switches between XCOPY.EXE
(a 16-bit program) and XCOPY32.EXE depending on the environment.
In fact it is quite convenient for most users to forget about
the distinction between XCOPY and XCOPY32.  Some users may not
even know the existence of XCOPY32.EXE.  The actual mechanism is
that when you run XCOPY.EXE in the Win32 environment, XCOPY.EXE
automatically detects the current environment and will execute
XCOPY32.EXE instead.  We also consider this feature quite dangerous.
That is because the behaviors of XCOPY and XCOPY32 are not identical.
For example, the treatments of a pathspec with wildcard characters
in the DOS and Win32 environments are significantly different.
Therefore, any large-scale batch file invocation should distinguish
the usage of XCOPY and XCOPY32 to be safe.

The /C switch as the default (Difference #3):

XCOPY32 added the much needed switch, "/C" which allows an
automatic continuation of the copy operations after encountering
an error condition.  The C stands for "Continue on error".

Before Microsoft introduced Windows 95, and therefore, the new
XCOPY32.EXE utility, DATMAN-DOS users demanded a solution to
the "share-violation" problem in a backup job of NetWare server.
Even within a modest sized network, there are always a few files
which are open at the time of a server backup job.  When XCOPY
tries to open a file which is already opened by another process,
the access results in  the error condition where the user had
only three choices:  Abort, Retry, or Fail.

None of these choices would let XCOPY continue the operation.
As a matter of fact, XXCOPY's predecessor (DCOPY.EXE) was born
to correct this problem even in the DOS-only days.  The first
enhancement to the XCOPY command was the /C switch.  Now, with
XCOPY32, which supplies the much-needed switch, the problem was
pretty much behind us.

We had XXCOPY's /C switch work exactly the way XCOPY32's /C
switch works.  When it was specified, an error condition that
would have aborted the entire copy operations will continue
until all the qualified files are copied.  Alas, the most
frequent technical support issue with the earlier versions
of XXCOPY was due to the omission of the /C switch.  After
answering many tech support Emails, we have reached the
conclusion that Microsoft should have made the /C switch its
default mode with a provision to disable it.

For this reason, we broke our rule of adhering to XCOPY32's
behavior exactly, for better or worse.  Here, we made XXCOPY's
implementation of the /C switch the exact opposite of how XCOPY32
handles the case.  We believe it is in the best interest of the
users.  As of this writing, Microsoft's 16-bit counterpart,
XCOPY does not have the /C switch.

With XXCOPY, the /C switch is automatically invoked by default.
You need to specify /C0 to disable this feature and to allow
XXCOPY to terminate at the first instance of an error condition.

The /T switch always enables /E (Difference #4):

Since the /T switch is to construct the directory tree (without
the files), it makes no sense to run it without /S or /E (which
handles subdirectories).  We consider the /T/S combination
quite useless and hence chose to always include the E switch
implicitly.  We believe the /T switch is now trouble free.

The use of quotatoin marks in a command line (Difference #5):

When a pathname contains an embedded space, the whole string
must be surrounded by a pair of quotation marks (").

Microsoft's XCOPY allows a very liberal usage of quotation
marks to an extent it even accepts bizarre strings.  For
example, XCOPY allows the following strings without problem:

"c:\Program Files\My Directory\Myfile.doc"     // OK
"c:\Progra""m Files\My Directory\Myfile.doc"   // two pairs
c:\Program" Files\My "Directory\myfile.doc     // bizarre

We feel XXCOPY should not allow such questionable constructs
even though they are accepted by XCOPY.  While it is not
impossible for us to make XXCOPY imitate the behavior closely,
we would have hard time defining and explaining the exact
syntactic rules.  So, we chose to deviate from XCOPY's rules.

XXCOPY's rule for the quotation mark is very simple:

The quotation marks must be at the both ends of a pathname.

Other differences:

In almost all other cases, the differences between Microsoft's
XCOPY and our XXCOPY are a result of enhancements rather than
alteration of the XCOPY behavior which already existed.

differences between XCOPY and XXCOPY are remarkably small.
For example, XXCOPY pays attention to the short name alias
which preserves the short name after the copy (TB#02).  But,
this is a pure "improvement" rather than "change" which does
not require user attention or precaution.

Therefore, you need not worry much about how to use XXCOPY
if you already know XCOPY.  You can pick just a few new
features when you want to learn XXCOPY.  Over time, you may
come to like XXCOPY and exploit its unique features to write
your own very powerful batch script for a backup operation.

XXCOPY's major enhancements:

0. Wild-Wild Wild-Wildcard, multi-level, multi-wildcard source
1. /X        exclusion specifier and related switches (/EX)
2. /IN       inclusion specifier for alternate file pattern template
3. /Bx       variations in backup related switches
4. /NX       retains the short name exactly
5. /NS /NL   renaming short name and long name based on the other
6. /D        date matching with many variations
7. /Rx /Z    removes files using the versatile file selection schemes
8. /SG/SX    gathering files or flattening a directory tree
9. /SZ:      select file by the file size (range)
10. /CC /CCY  cyclic copy cases handled with the exclusion method.

If you have a suggestion for a new XXCOPY feature, tell us about
it.  We will consider any user feedback very seriously.
questions, etc.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #03

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Problems in filename aliases (8.3 names) in Win32
Date:    1999-11-27
===============================================================================

Background:

When Microsoft implemented the long filename in Windows 95,
it came up with a scheme which assigns an alias (or short name in
the so-called 8.3 format) for every long name.  Typically, a short
name starts with the first 6 letters in the long name followed by
a tilde and a digit, (numeric tail like XXXXXX~1.XXX), discarding
remaining characters except the three-letter extension.  The short
name is synthesized by the file system driver for the volume, in
such a way that all filenames become unique one another within
a given directory.  The rule to assign the numeric tail is very
simple; it picks the smallest decimal value not yet claimed in the
directory.

As long as the aliases are used by legacy programs to access files,
the actual filename assigned to a file should not be very important.
But the truth is that even Windows 95 itself accesses certain files
using their short name aliases.  One notable situation is when the
most primitive virtual drivers (VxD) are loaded at the beginning
of Windows 95 system start up sequence.  Since the long name support
is provided by a module called IFSMgr (InstallableFileSystem Manager)
which is itself a VxD module, locating and accessing the VxD files
are all performed strictly using the short name alias.  If you
examine various parts of the system registry, you will find many
8.3 name strings.  In short, the system relies on the 8.3 naming
scheme in a very crucial manner.

The problem:

2  The problem arises when a directory contains a number of files
whose aliases share a common base part (differing only by the numeric
tails).  When you copy these files to another directory, the
aliases will be assigned by the simple (first-come-first-served)
algorithm, the first such file copied to the destination directory
will have numeric tail of ~1 regardless of what was its alias
in the source directory.  Therefore, the Windows operating system
does *NOT* preserve the alias after copying.  We consider this a
very serious defect in the file system design.  Most file copy
programs ignore this aspect in file copying.  This includes
Explorer (drag-and-drop), COPY, and XCOPY.

Example:

Here, we make a simple sequence in a DOS Box to illustrate the point.
It is assumed that you have the \autoexec.bat file handy (can be any
file).  Let us create a pair of files with names that would have the
same short name base for the alias.

C:\> mkdir \src
C:\> copy  \autoexec.bat  \src\LongNameA.bat
C:\> copy  \autoexec.bat  \src\LongNameB.bat
C:\> dir   \src

LONGNA~1.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameA.bat
LONGNA~2.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameB.bat

Use the traditional method to copy the files.  When you use another
method like Drag-and-Drop, you would get the same result.  First,
pick the file whose short name numeric tail does not end with ~1.

C:\> mkdir \dst
C:\> copy  \src\LongNameB.bat  \dst
C:\> copy  \src\LongNameA.bat  \dst
C:\> dir   \dst

LONGNA~1.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameB.bat
LONGNA~2.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameA.bat

Here, the first file created in the destination received the numeric
tail of ~1, even though its alias in the source was not that.
If you don't see the difference in the left hand side (the aliases),
see the long names to your right (---B and ---A are opposite).

Enter XXCOPY:

Now, try the same operation using XXCOPY in the \new directory.

C:\> mkdir  \new
C:\> xxcopy \src\LongnameB.bat  \new
C:\> xxcopy \src\LongnameA.bat  \new
C:\> dir    \new

LONGNA~2.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameB.bat
LONGNA~1.BAT       1234       11-21-99 11:27p LongNameA.bat

Here, the files in the \src directory and in the \new directory
match exactly (both the long names and the aliases) albeit the
new order reflects the order of copying.

Other cases:

The above example is just one of the many problems with aliases.
For example, when you delete the file with the numeric tail of
---~1 in the source directory and copy the files; the first
files copied to the destination will be assigned with an alias
ending with ---~1.  In essence, the short name alias is
systematically synthesized by Windows kernel without regard to
what the original alias in the source directory was.  This kind
of discrepancies in file and directory names lead to subtle but
serious problems which are often very difficult to even diagnose.

How safe is XXCOPY?

XXCOPY performs the alias name change using only published
standard Win32 file I/O API.  XXCOPY does not attempt to
manipulate the raw directory data structure of the file system.
Nor does XXCOPY perform any unorthodox techniques to implement
the alias matching feature.  The operation utilizes a combination
of simple file-renaming system calls.  Therefore, it is completely
safe.

On the other hand, when the destination directory already has
a file with the needed alias (i.e., a case of alias name
collision), XXCOPY does not perform such an operation which
would otherwise create an invalid directory data.  Of course,
the same name for more than one file is No No in a file system.

Since XXCOPY supports remote machines over a network, the alias
(8.3 name) support function also works across network.

Win95/98 and WinNT/2000/XP:

If your use a dual-boot system (Win95/98 and WinNT/2000/XP), there
is one more pitfall which is related to the shortname.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #04

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: What is and what is not included for copy
Date:    2001-01-18
===============================================================================

"includes" alternate filename pattern ]

The problem of being "Too Powerful"...

With the huge set of command switches offered by XXCOPY, even
a serious user starts to wonder if a particular file is included
in the XXCOPY operation or not.  Indeed, there are a number of
switches which sound very similar and become quite confusing
which of the switches has "precedence" over the other.  Yet,
there is hardly any mention of precedence in the XXCOPY help
which resolves all such questions and gives you the confidence you
need when you use XXCOPY in your day-to-day computing.

Combining switches:

Some XXCOPY switches suggest an inclusion of files with certain
characteristics.  For example,

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\   D:\newdir\   /H

It is understood by many XXCOPY users that with the /H switch,
hidden and system files (which would normally be excluded) will
be "included" in the copy operation.  Let us add another switch.

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\   D:\newdir\   /H /U

The /U switch is used to "update" existing files in the destination
directory.  In this case (/H/U), hidden files will be included in the
operation by the /H switch,  but the files which are not already
present in the destination will be excluded by the /U switch.  Then,
what about the files which are hidden (to be included) but are
not present in destination (to be excluded)?  The question seems to
be whether /H or /U has the precedence.  Let's add some more.

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\   D:\newdir\   /H /U /BI

/BI stands for "Incremental Backup" meaning that it will select
files which are different (by comparing the file date and file
size between the files of the same name in the source and the
destination).  The /BI switch includes those files which exists
in the source but not in the destination.  But, if you combine the
three, /H/U/BI, then the /U switch (which excludes new files to the
destination) and the /BI switch (which includes new files) seem to
contradict each other while the effect of /H seems fine.

Does the order of these switch makes the difference?  The answer is
No.  At least that is not the case because /U and /BI are not in a
mutually exclusive set of switches.  But, clearly, these two switches
seems to have opposing effects on the files which do not exist in the
destination directory.  What is the precedence?  What is going on?

The golden rule:

XXCOPY's switches are all exclusionary.

Well, it has some element of over-simplification, but it is the
shortest rule that you can remember.  Each XXCOPY switch excludes
certain group of files by some measure.  By adding another switch,
some more files are excluded.   Obviously, there are many
switches in XXCOPY which do not participate in the file selection
process.  For example, the /W switch is to let XXCOPY wait for a
keyboard input before the copy action really begins.  It has
nothing to do with qualifying files for inclusion or exclusion.
But, for all the command switches which determine whether a
file is to be copied or not, the above golden rule applies.

The exclusion process:

If you consider that all of XXCOPY file-selection switches are
exclusionary parameters, everything will start making sense.
And you will realize that the precedence of switches becomes a moot
point.  You may need to view some of the switches from a different
angle.  Here, we need some rephrasing of the nature of the switches.

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\  /H

Earlier, we said /H was to include hidden/system files.  Now, let
us rephrase it by saying "/H does not exclude hidden/system files".
Yes, it is still awkward.  But, remember this is a case where the
default switch in the same category (/H0) did the exclusion and
you are simply negating it.  Let us revisit the implied case;

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\
XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\  /H0

These two lines produce exactly the same result.  Since it is a
default, most XXCOPY users do not add such a switch.  These lines
should read that "the /H0 switch excludes hidden/system files from
the copy operation".

Once more,

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\  /H

We now know that the /H switch simply negates the default exclusion.
The wording, "/H does not exclude hidden/system files" sounds OK, now.

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\  /H /U

Adding the /U switch, it becomes "/H does not exclude hidden/system
files" but "/U excludes files that are not present in the destination
directory".  Here, the exclusion rule of /U goes by the face value.

XXCOPY  C:\mydir\    D:\newdir\   /H /U /BI

Again, we have the /BI (incremental backup) switch which reads as
"/BI excludes files that exist in destination with identical time
and size".  This does not contradict with the /U switch which
"excludes files that are not present in the destination".  All of
the excluded files will be excluded.  That's simple.

Exclusion by the name:

Of course, by far, the most obvious parameter to be used in the
exclusion process is by the directory and filename.  Because it
gives us a very wide range of opportunities to exploit in
expressing what to exclude, we did put a lot of thoughts in the
design of this (probably the single most significant enhancement)
feature.  Therefore, the /X switch deserves its own treatment
in a separate article, XXTB #05.

It is indeed a very natural way of excluding a group of files.
Now, to come to think of it, we wonder why we have not seen
similar features in most other file copy utilities...

Conclusion:

In essence, each command switch has its own way of specifying the
files to exclude.  Each and every switch adds more exclusions.
Determining whether a file is excluded from the copy operation is
now easy.  Once a file is excluded by a switch, it is out and gone.
Therefore, the more switches you add, the more files you are going
to exclude from the copy operation.

As we add more and more switches, it has become increasingly
difficult for even experienced users to remember all the switches
(it's now over 120 variations and still growing).  So, we added
a new feature called "Smart-Help".  Just add "/?" at the end
(or anywhere) in your XXCOPY command line.  It will select only
the switches you specified in the line, their related switches and
its opposing and mutually-exclusive switches as a group.  We find
this new feature quite convenient.  You should definitely try it.

Example:    XXCOPY c:\mydir d:\yourdir  /I /BI /FF /?

To further assist the user in constructing the right combination
of the command switches, XXCOPY now a set of useful switches
which list pertinent command parameters.

/OP       outputs parameter list (in exclusionary wording)
/OX       outputs exclusion list (after optimization)
/DEBUG    displays source and destination and prompts before continue
/DEBUGX   displays source and destination and terminates
/W        waits for user keyboard input after /OP and /OX switch

Many users find the output text generated by the /OP switch more
understandable than any other documentation of XXCOPY.  So, if you
have any doubt on the effect of switches, just add "/OP | MORE"
at the end of the command line.  So, to review the whole thing,
a good alternative to the "/?" trick is "/OP/W".

Example:    XXCOPY  c:\mydir d:\yourdir  /I /BI /FF /OP /W



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #05

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: The Exclusion specifier in XXCOPY
Date:    2010-12-07  (revised)
===============================================================================

Much of the mostly hidden power of XXCOPY lies in the exclusion
mechanism.  Starting with v.2.97.7 (2009-01-13), the exclusion
specifier is fully compatible with the "Wild-Wildcard" feature.
That is, you may use wildcard characters (* and ?) anywhere in
the exclusion specifier in any number of times.  (Earlier
versions of XXCOPY had complicated rules on the wildcard usage).

XXCOPY Exclusion switch syntax

/X<xspec>       excludes the file or directory item given by
<xspec> which is an exclusion specifier.
If the specifier contains an embedded space,
the specifier must be surrounded by a pair
of double-quotes (").

/EX<xfile>      specifies a text file whose name is <xfile>
which contains a list of <xspec> separated by space.

You may specify as many exclusion specifiers as you like.

Some examples of the /X switch

The exclusion parameter must be specified immeidately after /X
(without a space).

/Xc:\mydir\myfile.txt // specifies just a single file
/X*.tmp               // all files that end with ".tmp"

To improve readability, we suggest inserting a colon after X.
Here are more examples:

/X:mydir\             // the entire directory, "mydir" in the source
/X:mydir\*\*          // same as /Xmydir\ which is a shortcut
/X:mydir\*\*.tmp      // inside mydir, all files matching "*.tmp"
/X:my*xyz\*\abc*.c    // in directories that match my*xyz, all "abc*.c"
/X:*\cache\           // multiple-level subdirectories
/X:*\cache\*\*        // same as above with a trailing backslash
/X:*\cach?\*\*        // multiple-level subdir spec may have wildcards
/X:"\Program Files\"  // use quotes (") with a pattern with a space
/X:C:\windows\        // it's OK. Two colons with a full path name

Here, you may see the glimpse of the powerful syntax in the exclusion
specifier.  The first example seems the most straight forward.  The
fourth example which ends with a backslash is a shorthand of for the
common case of excluding a directory (it abbreviates "*\*" which follows).
Therefore, all of the above examples except the first one contain
or imply at least one wildcard specifier.  The last example includes
one asterisks in each of the three parts.

Don't worry about the complexity yet.  At least the first example shows
a case which you can use it immediately without any further reading.
Yes, if you have energy to list all of the files you want to exclude,
you may painstakingly list all of such files by giving the full
file specification of each file.  Since you will soon run out of the
command line space, you will probably want to set up a text file using
the /EX switch.

E.g.,  /EXmyexcl.lst

and myexcl.lst  contains the following specifiers:

// this is a comment line
c:\win386.swp               // comment may start like this
c:\autoexec.bat  myfile.tmp // one line may have multiple items
"c:\program files"          // use quotes (") for embedded space
mydir\myfile.txt            // pathspec relative to the source dir
yourdir\                    // entire yourdir\*\*

Characteristics of exclusion specifier (a short explanation):

1.  The Wild-Wildcard feature fully supported for exclusion.
2.  A pattern for direcotires always ends with a backslash.
3.  A pattern for files has no trailing backslash.
4.  A relative specifier is relative to the source base directory.

Syntactic rules of exclusion specifier:

1.  Add the exclusion item immediately (without space) after /X.

/Xmyfile.txt          // exclude "myfile.txt" anywhere

2.  You may insert an optional colon (:) between /X and the rest.

/X:xyz.doc            // the colon improves the readability

3.  The trailing backslash distinguishes directory from file.

/X:Windows\          // specifies the "Windows" directory
/X:pagefile.sys      // specifies the "pagefile.sys" file

4.  Use a pair of quotes (") for an exclusion item with embeded space.

/X:"\Program Files\"  // the space would split the string

(with an optional drive letter or UNC pattern).

/X:c:\mydir\myfile.txt     // an absolute pattern
/X:\mydir\myrecord.doc     // you may omit the drive letter
/X:\\john\c\windows\       // UNC always starts with \\

6.  Relative exclusion specifiers (without leading backslash)
are relative to the source base specifier.

/X:dir_abc\myfile.txt      // relative to the source base dir

7.  A bare exclusion item (without any backslash) is treated
as a file name pattern that applies to all directories.

/X:desktop.ini             // equivalent to /X:*\desktop.ini
/X:*.mp3                   // equivalent to /X:*\*.mp3

This feature allows for a filename pattern to apply for all
directories.  On the other hand, you may want to specify a
file pattern that explicitly apply only to the files in the
source base directory.  In such a case, use a ".\" prefix.

/X:.\*.tmp                 // for files in the top directory

8.  A bare directory pattern (the only backslash is at the end)
is treated a pattern that applies only to the source base
directory, unlike the bare file name case exlained above.

/X:dir_xyz\                // applies only the top directory
/X:.\dir_xyz\              // the same as the one above

The Wild-Wildcard feature in exclusion specifier:

Starting with v.2.97.7 (2009-01-01), you may use wildcard character
anywhere in an exclusion specifier for any number of times.

Astrisk (*) denotes a string of zero or more of any character.

Question Mark (?) denotes exactly one character.

/X:*.mp3      // any file that ends with ".mp3"
/X:abc*\      // any directory that starts with "abc"
/X:xyz???     // starts with xyx followed with 3 more chars
/X:*a*        // a filename that has at least one letter "a"

The Special "wild subdirectory"  (..\*\..) notation:

The \*\ (an asterisk sandwiched by backslashes) sequence
denotes a pathname pattern with zero or more of directories.

/X:c:\mydir\*\abc\    excludes the following directories

c:\mydir\abc\
c:\mydir\xyz\abc\
c:\mydir\klm\xyz\abc\

Such a pattern does not always match the first one.

/X:c:\mydir\*\a\b\    excludes the following directories

c:\mydir\a\b\           // the first instance
c:\mydir\a\xyz\a\b\     // 1st \a\ does not but 2nd one does

Syntax rule for the Exclusion List File (/EX).

An "Exclusion List File" specified in the /EX switch is a plain
text file which contains a list of exclusion specifiers.
You may list as many exclusion specifiers in one line.
Exclusion specifiers are separated by one or more blank, tab,
and/or newline character.  An exclusion specifier cannot be
broken into two or more lines.  When a space character is
embedded, the exclusion specifier must be surrounded by a
pair of double-quotes (").  A line may contain a comment field
which will be ignored by XXCOPY.  A comment field starts with
two consecutive slashes (//) or two consecutive colons (::)
and ends at the end of the line.  You may also use another
comment style (starts with /* and ends with */ that can span
over multiple lines).

A few examples of common exclusion specifiers.

The directory template may have the following four variations
in the ending.

dir_pattern\         // full directory
dir_pattern\*\*      // full directory (same as above)
dir_pattern\*        // files in the directory (one-level)
dir_pattern\?*\      // all subdirectories but not files

Even though the second example is to specify files (as opposed
to directories) without the mandatory trailing backslash,
it behaves exactly like the first one because it covers
all files in all subdirectories which is equivalent to the
whole directory contents that is the directory itself.

Examples:

/X:dirtmpl\*\*     // excludes all matching directories in the
// base (src) directory and its contents
/X:dirtmpl\        // same as above (the triling backslash
// denotes everything inside the directory)
/X:.\dirtmpl\      // in the case of the directory template,
// it applies to one directory relative to
// the base (src) directory (1-Level)
/x:*\dirtmp\       // you may make a directory template apply
// to many instances (Multi-Level)

/x:c:\windows\*    // specifies all the files in the first
// level of the c:\Windows directory such
// as, EXPLORER.EXE, WIN.INI,

/x:c:\windows\?*\  // this does not includes the first level
// files but all subdirectories in it such
// as \WINDOWS\SYSTEM\  \WINDOWS\DESKTOP\, etc.

Note that the following two are distinct:

/Xdir_spec\*     // one layer only (subdirectories not excluded)
/Xdir_spec\*\*   // the entire dir_spec directory is excluded

Beware of a few pitfalls:

xxcopy mydir\  x:\mydst\  /S /X:mydir\a*\

The exclusion item specifies a pattern (directory starting with
letter a) as a relative path.  As you explained above, it is
relative to the source base directory.  Therefore, this command
excludes directories that matches  mydir\mydir\a*\  not
the subdirectories immediately in the mydir\.  Rather, the
exclusion specifier stipulate mydir inside the source base
directory which happens to spell the same.

xxcopy \src\  \dst\      /S /X:*.tmp

The exclusion specifier is equivalent to /X:*\*.tmp that applies
to all subdirectories.

xxcopy "C:\Program Files\"  \dst\   /S /X:Microsoft*\

The exclusion specifier deos not implicitly applies to all
subdirectories as the filename template does.  In this case, only
directories whose name starts with Microsoft immediately inside
the C:\Program Files\ directory, but not at other levels.

The optimization of exclusion matching.

In a very large scale backup operation, an XXCOPY job may encompass
an entire volume as the source directory (such as c:\*).  To make
the matters worse, the more files the source directory contains,
the more the need for the exclusion specifiers grows.  Therefore,
it is entirely possible that the entire C: drive may contain
70,000 files and the total number of exclusion items the user specify
in the exclusion list file with the /EX switch may contain literally
hundreds of various exclusion specifiers.  If we were to test every
file against this very large number of exclusion list, the combination
will easily reach tens of millions which would slow down the entire
backup process.  Therefore, XXCOPY performs preprocessing steps
to analyze the set of exclusion specifiers.  First by classifying
them into the five classes, some redundant exclusion specifiers can
be removed.

Debug feature

Because a liberal use of wildcard characters in exclusion feature
could become fairly complex, sometimes the user may want to test
if a given set of exclusion items really achieve the intended
result.

The /oX switch generates a list of exclusion specifiers after
XXCOPY's initial exclusion parameter optimization step.  The list
is organized by the internal classification of the wildcard usage.
It is most effective in combination with the /DEBUG function.
(This output is mostly for Pixelab's support activities.)

The /ZLX function provides a special test by listing all the files
and directories that would be excluded without actually making any
copy or delete operation.  It suppresses the display of regular
(selected) files and generates a list of files and directories that
would be excluded by the /X and /EX switches.  It is analogous to
the /L function that lists the files that would be selected by
a given set of command arguments.

Automatically excluded files.

Since the few output files (e.g., the error log files) which are
generated by the XXCOPY program itself could not be successfully
included in the current copying job if any of them happens to be
in the source directory (or its subdirectories), those files will
be automatically excluded.

Note on earlier (pre v.2.97.7) versions:

In earlier versions of XXCOPY (prior to v.2.97.7), the exclusion
feature was the hardest one to fully master by XXCOPY's users.
That was because the exclusion specifier in earlier versions
did not support the "Wild-Wildcard" capablitity to the fullest
extent.  Rather, XXCOPY provided a total of 11 classes of wildcard
usages with a complex set of syntactic rules.  So, the many users
had to stick with a few simplest ways to add wildcard characters
for the exclusion items.  It was simply very difficult to implement
an efficent algorithm to support such a feature.

In the old (pre-v.2.97.7) versions, the exclusion feature defined
a special syntactic rule as follows:

dir_pattern\?\*

When an exclusion item with the \?\* ending, it excludes the
subdirectories of the directories that matches the pattern.  The
above exclusion pattern can be written as

dir_pattern\?*\

which does not rely on the special syntactic rule (which is now
being abolished).

Use of the /GX switch:

In order to support the old syntax for the \?\* ending in the
exclusion specifier, we have added the /GX switch with which
a command line with the older exclusion specifier is treated
in the old way.

However, we urge all users to replace all usages of \?\* ending
with \?*\ that excludes exactly the same group of subdirectories.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #06

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: File Attributes: what are they and how to use them.
Date:    2000-01-17
===============================================================================

Since XXCOPY has features which interact with the file attributes,
a discussion of XXCOPY cannot be complete without touching the basics
the file attributes and how XXCOPY manipulates them.  In addition,
some common techniques with the file attributes are discussed.

What are the file attributes?

The operating systems (DOS, Win95/98, WinNT/2000/XP) maintain certain
properties associated with every file and directories in addition to
the file contents (data inside the file).  Such properties include

file size in bytes
file date/time (creation time, last-modify time, last-access time)
file attributes
archive bit   (shows that the file has not been archived yet)
directory bit (distinguishes a directory from a file)
hidden bit    (hides from an ordinary directory listing)
system bit    (denotes a system file whatever that means)

These properties are mostly maintained by various components of
the operating system and they are handled automatically.  So,
the users may not be concerned with them.  However,  manipulating
some of the properties are not very difficult and it can even be
associated with the file attributes.

The file size is always determined by the actual size of the file
and the only way to change it is to increase by appending more
bytes to the existing file, or to decrease by overwriting with a
shorter file.  The file date/time can be more easily changed.
Since changing any of the three date/time values is supported by
Win32 file I/O API, one can write a program to change them.  In fact,
there are many utility programs available to do so.  Here, we will
discuss the file attributes with greater details.

What is the file attributes?

Although one can say the file size and the file date/time are file
attributes (i.e., any properties associated with a file other than
the file contents), with the more narrow definition and popular
usage, the file attributes are collection of flags stored as a bit
mapped 32-bit quantity which describes various aspects of the file.
The original MS-DOS file attributes had only 8 bits in the file
attributes, the Win32 file attributes are stored as a 32-bit quantity.

Although the exact bit positions of the file attributes are not
officially guaranteed to remain the same by Microsoft, they will
probably never be changed.

Bit 1     Hidden
Bit 2     System
Bit 3     Volume Label
Bit 4     Directory
Bit 5     Archive

Bit 3 (Volume Label) was used in MS-DOS to store the volume label
just like an ordinary file in the directory.  Bit 4 (Directory)
distinguish a file from a directory.  These two bits cannot be
modified easily.  But, the remaining four bits (bit 0, 1, 2, and 5)
can be examined and/or modified by the ATTRIB.EXE utility which is
supplied by DOS/Windows.

The official Microsoft's way to manipulate the file attributes.

Windows 95/98 provide a system utility program, ATTRIB.EXE which
is usually stored in the C:\Windows\command\ directory.

Here is the ATTRIB utility's command syntax

ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] filespec [/S]

+   Sets an attribute.
-   Clears an attribute.
A   Archive file attribute.
S   System file attribute.
H   Hidden file attribute.
/S  Processes files in all directories in the specified path.

For example if you want to clear the Archive attribute bit of all
the files in a directory, execute the following command line.

ATTRIB  -A c:\mydir\*

This bit is useful to make a file write-protected by software.
For example, by setting the \AUTOEXEC.BAT file Read-only, you may
protect the file from accidental deletion.  Or you may set a
few files with the Read-only attributes and delete all the files
using a "DEL *" (Delete all) command, the read only files will
not be deleted under normal circumstances.  Certain files in the
Win95/98 system are kept as Read-only by default (e.g., the system
registry files).

Before you can delete or overwrite a Read-only file, you must
remove the Read-only file attribute bit.

XXCOPY can force overwriting (or deletion) of a Read-only file by
the /R switch.

The Hidden and System attribute.

The purpose of the Hidden attribute bit is to make the file
invisible in certain applications' file list display.  Since many
file applications has the feature to ignore the Hidden attribute
bit, the file with the Hidden attribute bit is not always invisible.

The System attribute bit is probably the least rigorously
defined in its usage.  From the early days of MS-DOS, the System
attribute bit has been used in inconsistent manners that the bit
seldom has much meaning.  The DIR command treat the System
attribute similarly to the Hidden bit for directory listing.
But, the COPY command does not care whether a file has the System
attribute or not for copying it (Interestingly the DIR and COPY
commands are both "built-in" commands which is implemented within
the COMMAND.COM program).

In most Win95/98 systems, you will find about twenty files in the
root directory which are marked both Hidden and System.  These two
attributes are often go hand in hand.  But, the choice seems
quite arbitrary.

While the usage of the Hidden and the System attribute bits are
not well defined, the presence (or absence) of these attribute
bits seldom change the actions of most system utilities except for
the DIR and COPY commands, in most case, removing the Hidden and
System attributes on most files do not cause any harm (except
maybe some layer of protection from accidental erasure).

XXCOPY by default (/H0) ignores a file with either Hidden or System
attribute.  With the /H switch, you may include files with the
Hidden or the System attributes in XXCOPY's copy action.

The Archive attribute.

The Archive attribute was first introduced by MS-DOS version 2.0
when the XCOPY utility was also created.  Therefore, the Archive
attribute is probably best explained by how XCOPY handles the
Archive attribute.  The purpose of the Archive attribute was clearly
to quickly determine whether a file requires a back up (archiving).

The Archive attribute is set whenever an existing file is either
overwritten or modified (i.e., renamed or moved to another directory)
by the file system.  A new file is usually created with the Archive
attribute set.  The idea is to have a utility or application program
to take the responsibility of clearing the Archive bit when a
file is successfully backed up.  The next system backup operation
will be made much more efficient by focusing only on the files with
the Archive attribute bit set which are either newly created or
modified in any way since all the Archive attributes are cleared the
last time (i.e., the last backup time).

Incremental Backup using the Archive attribute.

When XCOPY was the only "officially" designated system archive utility
in MS-DOS, the Archive attribute had its usefulness.  Or, if only
one backup regime in the system manipulates the Archive attribute bit
and no other programs modifies the bit, the scheme works well.
However, there are many backup and archive utilities that are
capable of clearing the Archive attribute.

Unfortunately, the operating systems do not enforce this
"only-one-program-can-modify-the-Archive-bit" policy.  Because of
possible interference with other applications which might clear the
Archive attribute, we consider that the incremental backup scheme
based upon the Archive attribute too risky to depend upon.

Therefore, we do not recommend the use of the /M switch to perform
any system backup operation.  For an incremental backup,  XXCOPY's
/BI switch performs similar function with more confidence by
comparing the files in the source and the destination with regard
to the file size AND file date/time.  If either of the two does not
match (or the file does not exist in the destination), the file will
be copied.  This method is nearly as efficient as looking at the
Archive bit.

Other usage of the Archive attribute.

1.  You can determine which file(s) an application makes file
changes (creation and modification) in a directory.  First,
clear the Archive attribute of all the files in the given
directory and run the application.  Then, check to see which
files are marked by the Archive attribute.

E.g.:  ATTRIB  -A c:\mydir\*       // clear the A bit first
XXCOPY  C:\mydir\*  /A/L    // list files with A bit set

2.  Say, you have a directory with many files which you want to
copy to a set of diskettes (one diskette cannot hold all of
the files).  You can first set all the files with Archive
attribute set first.  Then, run XXCOPY /M (or XCOPY /M).  The
copy job will terminate as soon as the diskette becomes full.
But the files which has already been copied are cleared of the
Archive attribute.  So, run the same XXCOPY /M command again
with a new diskette.  This time, the files which has been copied
will be skipped.  Just repeat this operation until the files
with Archive attribute run out.

E.g.:  ATTRIB +A C:\mydir\*        // set the A bit set
XXCOPY C:\mydir\*  A:\ /M   // copy files with A bit
XXCOPY C:\mydir\*  A:\ /M   // repeat for next diskette
...                       // continue until all files
...                       // are copied.

Full Backup using the Archive attribute.

We have stated that the use of the Archive attribute is not suitable
for a reliable incremental backup.   However, once we abandon the
notion that the Archive attribute serves as a persistent marker, it
becomes even more useful.  Yes, the Archive bit as a temporary marker
can be quite convenient.  The example in the preceding section of
directory-copy to a set of diskette is a backup in a small scale.

When you run Microsoft's ATTRIBUTE utility,

ATTRIB  +A  C:\*  /S

You will encounter the following messages:

Not resetting hidden file C:\WINDOWS\...
...
Abort, Retry, Fail?

In this case, entering "F" should let you continue.  But, apparently,
the ATTRIB utility treats the "Fail" option as "Abort".  This is
provably a bug in the Microsoft program.

Our XXCOPY behaves more predictably.

XXCOPY  C:\*  /S /AA

The /AA and /AZ switches make XXCOPY to perform the same function
similar to the ATTRIB utility does except it does a better job.
XXCOPY's /AA switch sets (/AZ clears) the Archive attribute bit
including the hidden files (it has automatically set the /H switch
to include hidden files) and handles share-violation gracefully.
If you need speed, you may suppress the console output by /Q or /Q2.

XXCOPY  C:\*  /S /AA /Q    ;shows only the files which changes
XXCOPY  C:\*  /S /AA /Q2   ;shows only statistics at the end

After setting the Archive attribute bit of all the files in the
volume, you can start repeated backup using the /M switch

XXCOPY  C:\*  T:\mybackup   /S /M /H ...

(change the target media when it is full and try again)

You may apply the same basic technique to a full-scale volume backup
using the Archive attribute.  This is quite useful when you are
backing up a large volume into smaller removable medium
(e.g., CD-R, CD-RW, Tape-based file system, or even floppy disk).

If you have an AutoLoader tape drive (e.g., HP SureStore 12000),
a working batch file example based on this scheme is available at
http://www.datman.com/tbul/dmtb_038.htm.

List of XXCOPY's file attributes related switches.

Archive bit

/A0   Cancels *ALL* /A, /M, /AT, and /AX switches.
/A    Excludes files without Archive bit set
/AC   Ignores the Archive bit (always clears Archive bit)
/M    Excludes files without Archive bit set (clears Archive bit)
/AA   Sets   the src file archive bit (without actually copying)
/AZ   Clears the src file archive bit (without actually copying)
Note: Both /AA and /AZ implicitly set /H (can be overridden)

Hidden and System bit

/H0   Excludes files with Hidden or System Attributes bits (default)
/Ho   Excludes files without Hidden or System Attributes bits.
/H    Ignores the Hidden or System Attributes bits

/R0   Excludes a file when it exists in dst as read-only (default)
/R    Allows overwrite/delete of a read-only file if necessary

Destination file attributes

/K0   Keeps H-bit and S-bit, sets A-bit, clears R-bit (default).
/KS   Keeps the source attributes including the read-only bit.
/KD   Keeps the attributes of destination (overwritten) file
/KN   Sets the destination attributes to normal (only the A-bit)



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #07

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: XXCOPY's Handling the case of Cyclic Copy
Date:    2004-12-18 (revised)
===============================================================================

What is a Cyclic Copy?

Try this with Microsoft's XCOPY (not XXCOPY).

XCOPY  C:\  C:\temp\ /S

You will be greeted by the following message:

Cannot perform a cyclic copy.

A cyclic copy refers to the situation where the source directory
contains the destination directory.  Since the destination directory
is part of the source, the copying process eventually starts copying
the destination directory to a deeper portion of the destination.
This process will continue until, of course, the finite disk space
eventually runs out.

To avoid this condition but to achieve the objective, one can
specify a temporary destination which is on another volume (e.g.,
D:\temp\) and later copy the temporary destination to the final
destination, and delete the temporary directory at the end.

The safety net against a Cyclic Copy:

Microsoft's XCOPY detects this disastrous situation with an error
message.  With our XXCOPY, you may continue the normal file copy
operation by excluding the directory that would be cyclic after
a warning.

Cases where a Cyclic Copy is useful:

A Cyclic Copy is certainly useful with a combination with other
switches such as /TR0 (create corresponding zero-byte files) or
/T (make a directory tree without files).

Or, you may be tempted to make a collection of certain data files
into one directory:

XXCOPY  C:\*.doc   c:\my_word\  /S

Of course, it is senseless to let the recursive meltdown to occur
by allowing the freshly copied files in the destination to partake
in the copy process.  By now, it is quite apparent that what we
really need is a mechanism to cut off this vicious cycle in the
process.

Enter XXCOPY's new switch for Cyclic Copy.

XXCOPY comes with a few variations to handle the cyclic copy case.

/CC     Warns you for a cyclic copy case and gives you a prompt
where you may terminate the process immediately, or
you may let XXCOPY continue by adding the destination
directory in the exclusion list.

/CCY    Continues the copy operation by automatically adding
the destination directory in the exclusion list without
prompting the user (as if you typed "Y" at the prompt).

/CC0    Terminates the copy operation unconditionally without prompt.
This is the old XCOPY behavior --- hardly useful but if
you want to emulate XCOPY, you may do so with this switch.

A few interesting examples taking advantage of the /CCY feature:

XXCOPY  C:\*.doc  C:\my_word\  /CCY /S

This example collects directories which contains .DOC
files in the destination with the .DOC files.

XXCOPY  C:\*.doc  C:\my_word\  /CCY /SX

This is a variation of the fist example.  It uses XXCOPY's
handy /SX switch.  It gathers all .DOC files from the entire
volume and saves them in a flattened directory.  If you have
little idea what a "flattened directory" is, just try it
and examine the destination.  You will see what it is.

XXCOPY  C:\  C:\skeleton\      /CCY /T

This gives the whole volume tree (except the \skeleton
itself) inside the destination without files.

XXCOPY  C:\  C:\summary\       /CCY /E /TR0

This one includes files without copying the file contents
(creates zero-length files corresponding to the source).

These operations are not possible using Microsoft's XCOPY.
Incidentally, the explicit /CCY suppresses the warning message:

"Detected a cyclic copy (the source includes the destination)."



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #08

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Short names made by Win95/98 and by WinNT/2K/XP
Date:    2003-10-14 (Revised)
===============================================================================

In our earlier article, XXTB #03, we discussed the subtle problem
of long and short filenames commonly encountered by Windows users.
The problem has been widely known and various solutions have been
devised to handle most such cases.  XXCOPY can handle such cases
correctly in most cases.

Unfortunately, when you mix the two types of OS in operation, one
more potential problem may arise.

Although all Windows operating systems except early ones (Win 3.x)
support long filenames, there is a subtle difference in the
algorithm of alias synthesis by the various OSes.  The difference
may adversely affect XXCOPY's effort in preserving the short
filename.

First, let us examine the difference.  Windows 95 and 98 use a
straightforward scheme in picking up the short name alias, whereas
Windows NT4, 2000 and XP add a little twist in the way the numeric
tail is generated.

It is easy for anyone to observe the filename related idiosyncrasies.
Just pick a file and repeatedly copy it in a directory under a series
of long names having the same beginning.  For example:

mkdir c:\temp
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname1
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname2
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname3
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname4
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname5
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname6
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname7
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname8
copy  c:\autoexec.bat   c:\temp\mylongname9

Then, using an appropriate tool, examine the destination directory.
The following table shows the result of the copy operations in
Windows 95/98 and the Windows NT/2000/XP variations.

Longname         Windows 95/98/ME  Windows NT4/2K/XP
----------------------------------------------------------
mylongname1          MYLONG~1          MYLONG~1
mylongname2          MYLONG~2          MYLONG~2
mylongname3          MYLONG~3          MYLONG~3
mylongname4          MYLONG~4          MYLONG~4
mylongname5          MYLONG~5          MYA476~1
mylongname6          MYLONG~6          MYA486~1
mylongname7          MYLONG~7          MYA496~1
mylongname8          MYLONG~8          MYA4A6~1
mylongname9          MYLONG~9          MYA4B6~1

Whereas the Win9x OSes use a simple decimal number in the numeric
tail, the WinNT family OSes follow the same pattern only in the
first four cases.  After that, they start using a 4-digit
hexadecimal number in the middle of the 8.3 name as the
distinguishing part (only the first two letters remains the same).

The hexadecimal value is probably a hash value for the string to
supposedly shorten the filename matching operation which could be
very time consuming.  Microsoft programmers chose to keep the first
four match done numerically for the sake of compatibility to the
Win9X systems.  What they failed to realize is that they allowed
only the first four such names for compatibility.

The adverse effect of the two alias algorithms.

As long as you use XXCOPY in a homogeneous environment where
the files are generated under one OS, XXCOPY can preserve the
short name.  But, when you have a mixed environment (e.g., with a
dual-boot system), you may copy a directory with many similar
names which were created under one OS and then perform a directory
copy operation using XXCOPY under the other OS, XXCOPY may not be
able to preserve the short name.

One consolation is that the great majority of files will receive
the correct short name alias using XXCOPY since the numeric tail of
the first four aliases in a directory are common in all Windows OSes.
Therefore the problem should be quite rare.  Ironically, if your
system has many Microsoft software packages, you will find quite
a few directories which all start like:

"\Program Files\Microsoft xxxxx"

One can argue that exactly because it is so rare, this phenomenon
would not be widely known.  Therefore, when the rare problem occurs,
it will take many agonizing hours for the user to discover the
cause of the problem.

Then, what happens with XXCOPY?

Since XXCOPY does not access the raw directory contents in the
process of preserving the short name alias, its magic does not work
the XXCOPY utility breaking the rules of good programming practice.
At least we can list the situations where the potential problem may
arise and how you can avoid it.

1.  Stay within the 8.3 naming convention if possible.
2.  Stay away from a dual-boot system if possible.
3.  If you have a dual-boot system and you switch the OS from
time to time, make sure a directory is written exclusively
under one OS if possible.
4.  Finally, when you have to copy a directory, use XXCOPY and
perform the copy operation under the same OS in which the
files in the directory were created.
5.  In a networked environment with different types of OS between
the source and the destination directories, expect the worst.

Note that although it is ideal that when you copy a directory,
all the files in the destination should be identical to those in
the source, in most case, it is not the end of the world.  As a
matter of fact, in most cases, the discrepancies in short names
do not cause any problem.  As long as the files and directories
that are affected by this problem is "non-system" files, the
problem would be benign if present at all.

In the case of Windows 95/98, the most well documented problem
which are associated with the unmatched short name is a few
directory and filenames which are stored in their short name
alias in a few critical cases in the system registry.  Since
Windows 95/98 references these files at the system initialization
difference would be life and death (that is, success and failure
in system initialization).

If you have a large number of collided aliases (where the short
name distinctions are made by the synthesized numeric tail only),
and you are copying across OSes (from Win95/98 to WinNT/2000/XP
or vice versa), we suggest you turn off XXCOPY's short name
preservation switch by /NX0 in order to avoid the time consuming
and futile effort by XXCOPY.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #09

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Date:    2001-07-10
===============================================================================

from our own server, select an ftp site which is close to you.

Our sincere thanks go to Simtel.Net which has the world-wide
network of mirror sites.

Unfortunately, due to the agreement with Simtel.Net we are unable
to provide direct links to the files.  You should visit the
following page which has the actuali links of the mirror sites:

Simtel.Net List of Mrror sites

XXCOPY Freeware ver 2.60.0  (xxfw2600.zip)

________________________________________________________________________

US, ALL (primary)        US, Arizona              US, Georgia

US, Illinois             US, Indiana              US, Massachusetts

US, Missouri             US, New York             US, Oklahoma

US, Oregon               US, Pennsylvania         US, Virginia

Australia                Austria                  Belgium

Czech Republic           Denmark                  Finland

France                   Germany                  Hong Kong

Hungary                  Italy                    Japan

Netherlands              Norway                   Poland

Portugal                 Russia                   Singapore

Slovenia                 South Africa             South Korea

Spain                    Sweden                   Switzerland

Thailand                 Turkey                   UK

________________________________________________________________________

US, Arizona              US, Minnesota            US, California

US, Indiana              US, New York

Australia                Austria                  Brazil

Denmark                  Finland                  Germany

Japan                    Norway                   Portugal

Russia                   South Africa             Spain

UK



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #10

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Cloning the Win9x system disk using XXCOPY.
Date:    2003-11-07  (revised)
===============================================================================

The disk clone operation has become one of the most popular usages of
the XXCOPY utility.  Therefore, I decided to have this dedicated
page just for the subject.  But, if you just arrived at this page
for the first time and have not really learned much about XXCOPY,
I would like to remind you that this Disk Clone capability is rather
a small portion of what XXCOPY can do for you.  If you are in a hurry,
go ahead and finish your disk clone job by following the instructions
below.  But, I suggest you come back and explore the rest of XXCOPY.

In this article, I would like to discuss the most common case of
disk cloning operation.  Some related topics which were once part

for Windows 9x and ME cases.  If your C: drive is loaded
with Win NT4/2000/XP, you will not get a bootable disk.  If you
have a dual-boot system (Win 9X and NT/2000/XP), then it is best
you perform the operation from Win 9x.  But even in that case,
the newly cloned drive will not be dual-bootable because XXCOPY
does not touch the Master Boot Record (MBR) of a hard disk
(we believe it should be handled by FDISK or other tools).

As of this writing, we do not have a simple solution to reliably
produce a bootable system disk for an NT4/2000/XP system using
the XXCOPY utility.

System Disk Cloning:

Say, you bought a hard disk with an astronomical number of bytes
(at least, it seems that way for now), and you want to install

Typically, you would connect the brand new drive to the EIDE
port (either as the primary port's slave or the secondary port's
master or slave --- whichever is available on your computer).
Most new disk drives have the jumper setting printed on the top
cover of the drive (the selection involves only master/slave).

The overall procedure goes like this:  first, you connect the
new drive and assign a temporary drive letter to it.  Then, copy
the contents of the current Drive C: to the new drive's volume.
Usually, the new drive has more capacity than the old one.
Therefore, you can copy the entire C: drive to the new drive
and still you will have much free space.  After the files are
copied from the old drive to the new one, you will remove the
old drive and place the new one as Drive C:.  It is quite
straightforward.  Here, I assume your new drive will be
temporarily assigned as Drive D:.

Summarizing this, the sequence is as follows:

. connect the new drive as D:
. FDISK                         (initialize a partition)
. FORMAT D:                     (init volume for file access)
. XXCOPY C:\ D:\  /CLONE        (copy all the files)
. connect the new drive as C:
. FDISK                         (set active partition)

Step-by-Step Instructions:

Now, let me go over the sequence, step-by-step with more details.
If you have a printer, you may make a hard copy which will be
handy for a beginner.

In this article, the main drive is assumed to be C: and the
Windows directory is located at C:\Windows.  If your settings
are different, make necessary adjustments in the commands shown

-----------------------------------------------------------
How to create a DOS Box

XXCOPY is a console application which is most
conveniently launched from a DOS Box in Win9x.

If you don't have an icon handy for DOS Box on desktop,
you may create one by Right-click at an empty point in
the desktop and click New > Shortcut.  Then, type in
the box labeld Command line [ command.com ] and
click [ Next ] and then click [ Finish ].
Now, you will find an icon labeld "MS-DOS Prompt".

Or, you may create a DOS Box directly by starting
at the taskbar, click [ Start ] and click [ Run...].
Then type in the box labeld Open [ command.com ] and
click [ OK ].
-----------------------------------------------------------

0. Clean up the system disk

Before you start the disk cloning operation, it is best if
you clean up the original disk.  It is highly recommended
that you run the SCANDISK utility.  Since some long-named
files/directories are not reachable in DOS, you should run
SCANDISK in the Win32 environment (the regular Windows 9X/NT/2K).

Perform any additional cleaning up on the drive to remove
garbage files which include the files generated by SCANDISK
for retrieved data (check the root directory for names like
FILE0000.CHK).  This is an ideal time to throw away other
junk.  Don't forget to empty the Recycle Bin at the end.

1. Making the system diskette

The next hard disk preparation steps (FDISK and FORMAT) may
be carried out either in a DOS box of Windows or in the
real-mode DOS.  Since you need to boot the system from a
diskette at least once (to run FDISK), it is usually faster
if you perform the initial FDISK and FORMAT operations in
the real-mode (DOS) environment created by the system diskette.

If you have a Win9x boot diskette, you may skip this step.
But, the boot diskette which you create using this method
will take considerably less time to initialize the DOS
need CD-ROM for this) than with the Win9x boot diskette.

In a DOS Box, run the following commands to prepare a system
diskette for the bootup, FDISK and FORMAT operations.

FORMAT A: /S
COPY  C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FDISK.EXE   A:\
COPY  C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FORMAT.COM  A:\
COPY  C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SYS.COM     A:\

-------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  In Windows ME, you have to run the "FORMAT" command
without the /S switch which is no longer supported.
Therefore, you need to run the following commands by
hand from a DOS Box to achieve the same result.

FORMAT A:
COPY    C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EBD\IO.SYS      A:\
COPY    C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EBD\COMMAND.COM A:\
COPY    C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FDISK.EXE       A:\
COPY    C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FORMAT.COM      A:\
COPY    C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SYS.COM         A:\
-------------------------------------------------------------

Since you have plenty of room in the diskette, you may
copy a few basic tools (we do not use any of them in this
procedure).  If you don't know how to use them, skip this.

EDIT.COM        (or your favorite text editor)
XXCOPY16.EXE
HIMEM.SYS
SMARTDRV.EXE
DOSKEY.COM
ATTRIB.EXE
DELTREE.EXE

2. Attach the new disk as Drive D:

Once you have a system diskette which can boot up the
system, you can shut down the system now.

If you have  not attached the new disk drive, now is
the time to connect it as a non-boot disk by leaving
the current system disk (Drive C:) as it is.  We assume
your new drive is the 2nd drive (referred to as
Drive 2 by FDISK).

There is an well-written site which shows this step with
good illustrations at Adding a 2nd Hard Drive.

3. Initialize the new disk partition (FDISK)

Power up the system and boot up using the system diskette.
From the command prompt of DOS, run FDISK.EXE by typing:

FDISK

After confirming that you go along with the "Large Disk Support",
Select choice 5 (Change current fixed disk drive), and enter
the correct "Disk Drive Number".  After making the new drive
the current disk drive, select choice 1 (Create DOS partition
or Logical DOS Drive).  You now specify the space you allocate
for the new partition (most people select 100%).  Exit FDISK.

4. Initialize the new volume (FORMAT)

After the new drive's partition is intialized by FDISK,
reboot the system using the system diskette which you made in
Step 1.  The next step is to format the new partition which
can be done either in Windows' DOS Box or in the real DOS.  But,
here we choose to boot up the system using the newly created
diskette since it verifies that the diskette really works
before we remove the current bootable hard disk.  Also, it
is a bit faster.

The diskette-reboot will lead you to a DOS prompt at A:\>.

Before formatting the disk, you should check if the drive
letter is right (you don't want to format the other drive).

DIR D:

The system should complain by saying:

Invalid media type reading drive D
Abort, Retry, Fail?

This is exactly what you want with the partition which was
just initialized by FDISK, but has not been formatted.  If you
see any other message, you should run FDISK, select 5
(Change current fixed disk drive) in the main menu, and
examine the overview of the disk partitions.  The listing
conveniently displays both the disk number (1, 2, etc.)
and the drive letter assigned to the various partitions.
Type ESC a few times to exit the FDISK utility.

Once you are sure of the drive letter, run the next command.

FORMAT D:

This time, it may take some time (depending on the capacity
of the drive) while the sectors are verified for read/write
operations.  Before the FORMAT command finishes its job,
it will prompt you to enter the volume name.  You may enter
any name (up to 11 characters).  I urge you to name it
something rather than leaving it blank.

Once the volume is formatted, you may access the drive now.
Just type the following command in a DOS Box.

DIR D:

If you see lines like this, then it is good.

Volume in drive D is XXXXXXXXX
Volume Serial Number is 1234-5678
Directory of D:\
...

5. Reboot after format (back to Windows 9x)

Although it is possible to enter Windows from this
environment (provided that you installed HIMEM.SYS),
we do not recommend doing so at this point.  Remove
the system diskette from the floppy drive and reboot
the system and enter the regular Windows environment.

-----------------------------------------------------
If you were preparing the new partition inside a
DOS Box, rather than in real-mode DOS, you could
access the volume and proceed to the next step
(XXCOPY /CLONE), but you should still reboot now.
Because after a volume is formatted, it remains
in the so-called "MS-DOS compatibility mode" where
the disk I/O cache is disabled.  Without a reboot
extremely slow --- the XXCOPY action would take
literally hours rather than minutes without reboot!
-----------------------------------------------------

6. Duplicate the volume (XXCOPY /CLONE)

Once you have prepared the new disk with FDISK and FORMAT,
you are ready to run the centerpiece of this procedure.
This step is the most important operation in the entire
procedure.  You must be in the Win32 environment, that is
you must enter the Windows' GUI world (not booting into
the "Command Prompt Only" (real mode, DOS) environment.
Then, open up a DOS Box.  When you have followed the standard
XXCOPY installation procedure, XXCOPY.EXE should be present at
the \Windows\command directory so that XXCOPY is the "path".

Run the following command from a DOS Box.

XXCOPY  C:\  D:\  /CLONE

----------------------------------------------------------
The /CLONE switch looks deceptively simple. But,
it is actually a combination of eight distinct
switches.  Much of XXCOPY's flexibility comes from
combining a variety of switches.  This particular
case is equivalent to the following command.

XXCOPY  C:\  D:\  /ks/h/e/r/q/y/bi/zy/ze

Explanation:

/ks ; keeps source files' attributes exactly
/h  ; copies hidden and system files
/e  ; copies subdirectories (including empty ones)
/r  ; overwrites read-only files if such files exist
/q  ; suppresses display of skipped file in backup
/y  ; overwrites existing files without prompt
/bi ; backs up incrementally (skips identical files)
/zy ; deletes extra files in destination if present
/ze ; disables XXCOPY's use of Envrionment variables
----------------------------------------------------------

The XXCOPY operation takes anywhere from 10 minutes to
over several hours, depending on the amount of data you
transfer (typically 2-15 GB/hr)..

7. While XXCOPY /CLONE is in progress...

When XXCOPY is carrying out the clone operation, you don't
have to sit idle.  You may actively use the computer as
usual, browsing the Web, operate a word processor, or use
spreadsheet --- whatever.  Just consider the on-going
XXCOPY operation a background task.  There may be a few
files which may not be copied the first time due to
file-access contention.  That is expected and not a serious
problem at all.

Once the first round of XXCOPY /CLONE operation is over,
finish your foreground work, close all active programs
at this point.  Then, run the exactly same command again.

XXCOPY  C:\  D:\  /CLONE

The key here is that the /CLONE operation behaves as an
incremental backup (by the virtue of the /BI component).
It compares the source volume and the destination volume
and skips files which already exist in the destination
with the same size and time.  The second /CLONE step
should take only a few minutes at most.

You may still observe a few failed copies.  The most
notable one in the Win9x system is the virtual memory
swap file (WIN386.SWP).  In the case of Win NT4 and
Win 2000, the equivalent file is named PAGEFILE.SYS.
It is safe to ignore these swap files.

You may run the /CLONE command as many times as you like:

XXCOPY  C:\  D:\  /CLONE

8. After XXCOPY /CLONE is complete.

When the entire volume has been copied by XXCOPY, you are
ready to remove the old Drive C: and connect the new drive
and reconfigure your hard disks. You may need to remove
the jumper plug which made it a slave drive.  You may also
need to adjust the BIOS setting (Primary/Secondary IDE,
Master/Slave drive parameters).  All recent models of
motherboard come with a BIOS which has the AUTO sense mode
which is trouble-free.  If you select a manual setting,
you may need to adjust the hard disk paramters.

9. Make the new partition "Active" (FDISK).

Since the new drive is still not bootable, but it has to
be connected as Drive C: since FDISK can activate only the
first disk drive's (Drive C) Primary DOS Partition.  So,
we need the system diskette once more to boot the system.

Now, the remaining thing is to make the new drive bootable.
The Master Boot Record (MBR) must contain the partition table
where the Primary DOS partition is set "Active".

FDISK

Select choice 2 in the first FDISK menu (Set active partition).
When you display Partition Information by choice 4, the main
partition should show Status 'A' (for Active partition).
Pressing the ESC key will terminate the FDISK utility.

10. Make the new drive bootable (FDISK).

The normal FDISK operation you have just performed modifies
the contents of the partition table in the first logical
sector of the drive (MBR).  But, the operation does not
change the section of the MBR which contains the bootstrap
program (a very small machine-language program which will
receive control of the system at the very beginning of the
system bootup process).  FDISK has a "well known" undocumented
feature which initializes the bootstrap program inside the MBR.
Run the following command line.

FDISK /MBR

Unlike the regular interactive FDISK operation, with the
/MBR switch, it quietly carries out the MBR-initialization
operation.  As a matter of fact, it does not say anything.
If you are a bit nervous, visit the following Microsoft site:

Q69013: FISK /MBR Rewrites the Master Boot Record.

Microsoft documents this feature in the article and yet it
calls this feature "undocumented" in the article itself!!!
So, I guess it remains undocumented...

11. Boot to the Windows (DONE)

Remove the system diskette from the floppy drive and
let the system boot from the new Drive C: to windows.
You may just leave the original system disk (now as D:)
for daily backup storage.  If you set up a well written
backup batch file script (using XXCOPY of course), you
may use a much smaller disk drive for system drive
backup.

12. If the new disk has a difficulty in booting up by itself,
consider running the SYS command.  If you follow all of the
steps described above, you need not run the SYS command.
However, if you skipped the format step, the boot sector
may not have proper boot code.  Or, if your procedure
is slightly deviated from the above steps in any way, the
boot sector may not have been properly initialized.  At any
event, it does not hurt to run this step.  From the DOS
prompt using the system disktte, run the following command:

SYS  A:  C:

This procedure copies IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM
from the diskette to the root directory of the C: drive
(which is not necessary) and also re-initializes the
boot sector of the C: drive.  (The boot sector is usually
initialized when the volume is formatted.)  Now, you can
try rebooting from the hard disk.

================================================================

Q and A about Disk Cloning:

Q:  Can I stay in DOS (real mode) to duplicate the disk using
XXCOPY16?

A:  We strongly recommend the use of XXCOPY.EXE (the 32-bit
version which must run under the Win32 environment), as
described in this page.  When you stay in the DOS (real mode)
environment, you may not be able to access all the files and
directories in your disk drive.  This is due to the fact that
the DOS environment cannot handle a pathname which exceeds
the 80 character limit.  Although each long name comes with
its short name (8.3 format) alias, there could still be a
heavily nested, very long path which exceeds the 80-character
limit after converting all of the long directory names into
their short name alias (for the same reason, SCANDISK fails
on certain volume in 16-bit mode).

If all of the files in your drive have a full pathname less
than 80 characters, you can use XXCOPY16 with the /CLONE switch
to create an interim copy of the source disk which can be made
bootable.  After you boot into the Win9x environment, you
should convert all of the shortnames in your system disk
into the corresponding longname using the following command
(assuming the D: drive is the original source drive)

XXCOPY D:\  C:\  /S  /NL

This procedure lets you restore most of the long filenames.
However, there will be a small number of files and directories
which are made prior to this XXCOPY run (immediately after the
first Win9x initialization).  That is, you need to perform
In short, this procedure is troublesome at best and we don't
recommend it to anyone who asks this question in the first place.

Q:  I thought you need to use the /S option when you format the
new hard disk in disk in order to make the drive bootable.
Why?

A:  It is true that you should take advantage of the /S switch
when you make the boot diskette as

FORMAT A: /S

The bare FORMAT command formats the media (which tests the
sectors and initializes the FAT and the root directory).
With the /S switch, it performs additional file copy
operation. (COMMAND.COM, IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and DRVSPACE.BIN).
Since the XXCOPY /CLONE procedure copies these system files
anyway (provided that the source volume contains these files),
it is redundant to run "FORMAT D:"  with the /S switch when
you initialize the new hard disk (it does not hurt though).

Q:  I did not find the "SYS" command in the sequence you showed.
Why can you skip this step?

A:  The SYS command performs the equivalent of the "/S" switch
in the FORMAT command.  For the same reason mentioned above,
you can skip the SYS command when you run XXCOPY /CLONE.
Some people believe that the SYS command initializes the
MBR (see below) to make the drive bootable.  This is not
correct.  The MBR is usually managed by FDISK. Not by
FORMAT or SYS utilities.  (Also, see Step 12.)

Q:  In which steps does the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the new
drive initialized?

A:  If you follow the step-by-step instructions described in
three times.  The first time, you will initialize the primary
partition of the new drive.  At that time, the drive is
tentatively assigned as a non-bootable drive (e.g., D:).
Unfortunately, FDISK does not allow you to make the primary
DOS partition of the new disk "Active".  For some reason,
FDISK sets only the first drive's (C:) primary partition
"active".  That is why in the above procedure, you need to
boot up the system using the boot diskette.  In your second
invocation of FDISK, you make the primary DOS partition
"Active".  Then, the the third time with the FDISK /MBR
switch, the bootstrap section of the MBR is initalized.

Q:  Can you write (or read)  the MBR using XXCOPY?

A:  No.  XXCOPY does *NOT* touch the MBR block which is the
very first logical sector of the volume.  It contains both
the partition information and the system initialization
code (a very tightly written machine language program).
We strongly believe that a "well-behaving" program such
as XXCOPY must not touch the area of the disk which is
handled by specialized tools.  In this case, FDISk is the
official utility whose only job is to manage the contents
of MBR.  Microsoft's utilities FDISK and FORMAT have never
been combined to be just one simple utility for this very
reason.  In the future we may make add a MBR backup
feature.  But, it is a dangerous operation at best.
Of course, we all know how bad Microsoft's FDISK design is.
But, it gets the job done..

For more on cloning, see XXTB #20.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #11

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: XXCOPY Cookbook: Recipes of common usages
Date:    2001-03-03
===============================================================================

A few examples are often more useful than pages of rigorous and
boring definitions and reference material.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are made on or after February 1st, 2000.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DA:2000-02-01

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are made before January 1st, 2000.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB:1999-12-31

Note: The date for /DA and /DB is inclusive of the date.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are made today.

XXCOPY  c:\src\  c:\temp\   /Do:. /S

Note: /DB:.  selects files of yesterday or earlier
/DA:.  selects files of today (and with future dates)
(see below for a variation)

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select all the files in the entire volume which are made today

XXCOPY  c:\    c:\temp\   /Do:. /S /CCY

Note: this is a case of cyclic copy situation where the
destination is a part of the source directory (the root),
which requires the /CC switch to avoid a recursive meltdown.
Here, /CCY (with the Y at the end) suppresses the warning
message for the case.

XXCOPY  c:\    c:\temp\   /Do:. /SX /CCY

This variation (with /SX) creates a flat list of files
in the \temp directory.  By substituting the subdirectory
delimiter character (backslash) by another character,
the files in the destination are easily examined.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are modified (or newly created) today (or after).

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DA:.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DA#.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DA#0

All of the above will give you exactly the same result.

Note: the single dot "." is a shortcut for TODAY's date
when used with the "After" prefix.

Although in most system, you seldom find a file with a future
date, the operating system does not prohibit a program from
setting any legal time.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are created today (or after).

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /FC/DA:.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /FC/DA#.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /FC/DA#0

All of the above will give you exactly the same result.

Note: the single dot "." is a shortcut for TODAY's date
when used with the "After" prefix.

Although in most system, you seldom find files dates which
are "newer" than the current time, the operating system does
not prohibit a program from setting file time as such.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are made within the past 45 minutes.

XXCOPY  c:\src\  c:\temp\   /S  /DA#30M

Note: /DA#30M   The age parameter after /DA# (or /DB#) may be
appended with a suffix (D, H, M, or S for Days,

Variations:

/DA#10      10 days (Days if no suffix)
/DA#365D   365 days
/DA#90M     90 minutes (1 hr 30 min)
/DA#330S   330 seconds (5 min 30 sec).
/DB#36H     46 hours or before

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Select files that are made on or before yesterday.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB:.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB#.
XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB#1

All of the above will give you exactly the same result.

Note: the single dot "." is a shortcut for YESTERDAY's date
when used with the "Before" prefix.

Caution: The meaning of the dot "." character used in conjunction
with the "B(efore)" prefix is different from that with
the "A(fter)".  That is because "On-or-Before-Today" is
hardly ever used and there is no use to designate a
special shortcut for it.  On the other hand, the number
of days specified with the "#" prefix always counts the
days from today (which is designated by #0).

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are older than 30 days.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB#31

Note: /DB#30  would include the 30th day.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are 30-60 days old.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB#30 /DA#60

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are *NOT* 30-60 days old.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DA#29 /DB#61

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Select files that are 6-12 hours old.

XXCOPY  c:\srcdir\  d:\dstdir\  /DB#6H /DA#12H

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Copy files and remove extra files in the destination

XXCOPY \src\  \dst\  /Z

The /Z switch remove all files in the destination whose
counterpart is not present in the source.  In this most
primitive form, the /Z switch itself does not check whether
the remaining files are the same or not.  But, in this
particular case, all files in the \src directory will be
copied to the \dst directory.  If the file to be copied to
the destination is brand new (no file with the same name
exists in the destination), then the file will be copied
quietly.  The file that exists in the destination will give
you a warning for overwrite (Yes/No/All).  If you say No,
then, the old file will be left alone --- possibly causing
some mismatch in file.  You may automate this command by
adding /Y which is equivalent of typing 'Y' to all prompts.
But, for each extra file to be deleted from the destination,
XXCOPY will give you another warning with Yes/No/All prompt.

XXCOPY \src\  \dst\  /Y /ZY

This variation suppresses the two types of warning prompts.
But, in order to make the two directories really the same,

1. hidden and system files are not included in a normal copy.
2. subdirectories in the directory should be included.
3. you may want to preserve the file attributes exactly.
4. a read-only file in destination would prevent an overwrite.

So, you need a combination of more switches to really make
two directory the same (see below).

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Variations in directory synchronization to F: (e.g., a Zip disk).

XXCOPY  "C:\My Documents\" F:\        /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY

This example is the standard way to duplicate the source
directory at the destination.

/KS    Keeps the file attributes of the source exactly
/H     Includes hidden and/or system files
/E     Copies subdirectories including empty ones
/R     Overwrites existing files that are read-only
/Q     Suppresses display for skipped files
/Y     Suppresses the Y/N/A prompt for a file overwrite
/BI    Backs up incrementally (skips file with same size/time)
/ZY    Deletes extra files in destination (without Y/N prompt)

Note that the first argument was surrounded by a pair of
double-quotes (").  This was necessitated by the presence of
embedded space (between My and Documents).

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!

XXCOPY  "C:\My Documents\" F:\        /CLONE

The /CLONE switch is equivalent to typing the /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY
combination.

XXCOPY  "C:\My Documents\" F:\MYDOC   /CLONE/I
XXCOPY  "C:\My Documents\" F:\MYDOC\  /CLONE

These variations show the use of subdirectory in the destination.
The /I switch or the trailing backslash in the destination name
suppresses a possible Y/N prompt in case the destination
directory does not exist.

When you use a removable media (e.g., a diskette, or Zip disk),
you should just reverse the action on the target system.

XXCOPY  F:\   "C:\My Documents\"      /CLONE

In this example, any extra files that exists on the target
system will be deleted.  If you do not want to delete any of
existing files (or directories), you should do the following:

XXCOPY  F:\   "C:\My Documents\"      /CLONE /Z0

The /Z0 switch after /CLONE will negate the /ZY switch which
is declared within the super /CLONE switch.  This command
will leave any additional files and directory in the destination
untouched.

Note that if any opposing or mutually exclusive switches exist
on a command line, they are interpreted from left to right.
Therefore, if you place /Z0 before /CLONE, the effect of /Z0
will be lost.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Cloning a DOS/Win9x drive to another

XXCOPY  C:\  D:\     /CLONE

Cannot be simpler than this!!!  The above section scrutinizes
exact meaning of /CLONE in terms of its true switch components.
This command is repeatable (first time, you run this command
in background while you continue using the system).  While you
are running this command, you may type a Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Break
to abort the command.  You can always run the exactly same
command to resume where you stopped the last time.  While you
are running this command in the background, a number of files
may be created.  No problem.  When you are ready for the final
round, just stop all activities and just run the command once
more.  It will quickly save the newly created file.  Usually,
the virtual memory swap file (WIN386.SWP) cannot be accessed
when you run Win9x.  For all practical purposes, this file
need not be duplicated in order to use the drive as the system
(bootable) drive.  You need not format the hard disk as the
system disk prior to running this XXCOPY command.  Nor you need
to run the SYS.COM command (to transfer the system files).
All hidden/system files necessary to boot the system will be
there.

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!

Note:

The only thing which may be missing from the newly cloned disk
is the Master Boot Record (MBR) which is not really a file.
The first logical sector (512 bytes) on the drive is called MBR
which must be initialized by FDISK (or by some third party
products).  Keep a bootable diskette with FDISK.EXE handy.
After connecting the new drive as the first drive (FDISK
call the first drive DISK 1), reboot the system using the
bootable diskette, run FDISK and make the first Primary DOS
partition Active.

Note:

We do not recommend using XXCOPY16 to clone the entire drive.
(details are discussed the XXCOPY10.HTM article).

A complete discussion is found in another article (XXTB #10)

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Coping files from another computer on a network.

XXCOPY  \\myserver\c\yourdocs\*.doc   c:\mydocs\

This command copies all .DOC files (Microsoft's Word document)
from a computer named "myserver", drive named 'C'. directory
named \yourdocs\.  The source name starting with two consecutive
backslashes are so-called UNC (Universal Naming Convention) name.
When a resource (such as a hard disk) is made sharable to other
users outside the computer, the resource must be given a name.
Usually Drive C is named just 'C' by convention (NetWare encouraged
the naming like "DRIVEC").  Therefore, the "root" of the remote
resource over the network will not be the computer name alone.
At the minimum, you need to specify the resource name for the
drive (such as \\myserver\c\" which will act as the root directory
of the volume).  In this example, the source directory is locally
(on the computer) known as C:\dest\.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Coping files to another computer on a network.

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.doc    \\myserver\c\dest\

The UNC path specifier can be used for the destination directory.

Caution:  If the target resource is available on a read-only
basis, then, it cannot be made the destination of copy operation.
Some system allows you to access only on a read-only basis.  In
that case, you can read the files but cannot write to the
directory, rename or, delete.  Any modification of the contents
is considered a write-access.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
List up device driver files of certain date.

XXCOPY  c:\Windows\*.DLL      /S /L /DO:1999-04-23

The date shown here happens to be one of the Microsoft release
dates.  The DLL files originally installed from the setup
CD-ROM will be listed by this command.

XXCOPY  c:\Windows\system\*.DLL  /L /DO:1999-04-23

This is a variation of the above, without /S so that the listing
is made only from the specified directory.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Create a list of all files in the volume.

XXCOPY  c:\  c:\mylist\   /H /E /TR0 /CCY /KN

This command creates a directory entry for each and every file
in the volume in the destination directory.  The file contents
are not copied (using /TR0 to limit the new file to be 0 byte).
It effectively create a catalog of existing files.  /CCY prevents
the cyclic copy meltdown. /H includes hidden files.  /KN is an
optional switch to convert hidden/system files to visible file
for your convenience (you may drop this switch).

XXCOPY  c:\  c:\mylist\   /KS /H /E /R /Q /Y /BX /ZY /TR0 /CCY

A variation to the one before.  This command synchronizes the
file list created earlier by removing extra files (/ZY) and
adding those files that has different file time (/BX).  Although
we could have chosen /KN as before.  But, we chose to use a
different way to save the file attributes using /KS.  It retains
the same file attributes as they are in the source directory
--- which in turn necessitates /R which is needed to overwrite
read-only files.  Here, the /BX is a superior choice to /BB
because /BX rewrites the file which had a different file time
whereas /BB would skip the file which already exists --- leaving
files with old file time without being updated).  /BX is better
than /BI (which checks both file time and file size).  That's
because with /BI, the presence of /TR0 forces the file size to
be different (0 byte) for nearly all files, almost all files
would be rewritten.

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Copy files and delete them from the source (i.e., move files).

XXCOPY \src\  \dst\  /RCY /S

The /RC switch stands for Remove-after-Copy.  The Y suffix
suppresses the (Y/N/A) prompt on each file delete.  To suppress
the (Y/N/A) prompt for file-overwrite cases, add /Y.  /S goes
through subdirectories.  Of course, you may add other common
switches such as /H (include hidden/system files), and

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Delete files which are present in the reference directory

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /RS /U

The /RS switch removes files in the first (src) directory which
matches the template (*.doc).  The /U switch specifies that the
delete operation will be performed on files that are present
in both the ssrc directory and the reference directory.  To
understand the file selection mechanism, first consider this is
an ordinary file-copy operation.  If so, the /U switch (which
stands for "update") selects files which exists on the
destination directory.  The /RS switch changes the mode of
operation from file-copying to file-deletion.  But, the file
selection mechanism is identical.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Clean up the Windows temporary directory

XXCOPY %TEMP%\  /RS /DB#1 /R /H /PD0 /Y /ED

/RS    Removes files in the source (the only) directory
/DB#1  Selects files made on or before yesterday
/R     Deletes even a read-only file
/H     Deletes even a hidden/system file
/PD0   Suppresses the prompt which would appear on a directory
/Y     Suppresses the prompt prior to each file-delete
/ED    Preserves the directory even if it becomes empty

In the standard Win9x system setup, the %TEMP%  Environment
variable is set to the Windows designated temporary directory
(usually C:\Windows\temp).

By specifying the files that were made on yesterday or earlier,
this command will not accidentally delete files that may be
still in use in the current session (i.e., files created today).

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Treatments of redundant files

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\dst\   /BI /S

This command is a common case where incremental backup is
performed on a selected (*.doc) files in the source (and its
subdirectory).  The /BI switch skips files that are already
present in the destination with the same file time and size.
That is, files which are different or the files that are
new to the destination will be copied.

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\dst\   /BS /S

This is a hypothetical command and such an operation is seldom
carried out.  But, it helps understand what /BS does.  /BS is a
strange switch for an ordinary copy operations.  That is because
/BS (Backup Same) is exact opposite of /BI (Backup Incremental).
It selects and copies files that are identical in file date and
the size --- which results in no net change!!!  The /BS is not
useful under normal circumstances (unless you want to exercise
the hard drive for testing purposes).

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /RS /BS /S

The funny /BS switch now makes a lot of sense when combined
with /RS (remove files in source).  Files which are present
in both the source and reference directories will be examined
with respect to the file time and file size.

Here, the files with the same file time and size which matches
the pattern (*.doc) in the source directory (/S specifies its
subdirectories) will be removed.

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /RS /BS /S /L

The /L switch gives you a list of files which would be
selected by the duplicate-elimination operation.

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /BS /S /L

For that matter, the presence of /RS makes no difference
because, /L has precedence over /RS.  Therefore, the operation
becomes file-listing only.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Eliminate redundant files (delete identical files)

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /RS /BS /S

This is another RS variation.  Again, two directories are
given (the second directory provides the reference files for
comparison).  /BS is a strange switch for an ordinary copy
operations.  That is because /BS (Backup Same) is exact opposite
of /BI (Backup Incremental).  The BI switch compares a pair
of files between the source and destination and checks whether
the pair of files have the same file-time and size.  If both
matches, the two files are considered to be the same and file
copy will be skipped.  Being the exact opposite of /BI, the BS
switch would normally copy only identical files --- which
results in no net change!!!  But, the file selection mechanism
makes a lot of sense when it is applied for file deletion.

Here, the files with the same file time and size which matches
the pattern (*.doc) in the source directory (/S specifies its
subdirectories) will be removed.

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /RS /BS /S /L

The /L switch gives you a list of files which would be
selected by the duplicate-elimination operation.

XXCOPY c:\src\*.doc  d:\reference\   /BS /S /L

For that matter, the presence of /RS makes no difference
because, /L has precedence over /RS.  Therefore, the operation
becomes file-listing only.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Remove files in all subdirectories but leave certain files.

XXCOPY c:\mydir\  /RMDIR /Y /Xtemplate.* /X*.doc

/RMDIR is like DELTREE.  Here, /Y suppresses confirmation.
The two /X switches specify filename patterns to avoid
deletion.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Three-way Differential Backup

The scheme works like this:

1.  Initially you make a full backup from \src\ to \ref\.
2.  Later, you want to perform a daily differential backup
from \src\ to \dst\ using the difference between \src\ and \ref.

The initial step is usually a full backup

XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\  /CLONE

The daily differential backup requires three steps as follows
(for illustration purpose, common switches are deliberately left
out here).

XXCOPY  \src\          /AZ
XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\   /AA /BI
XXCOPY  \src\  \dst\   /A

The first step clears the archive bit of every file in the source.
The second step sets the archive bit of the files you select.
The third step performs the actual file copy.

Very common cases (subdirectory included, hidden files also copied)

XXCOPY  \src\          /AZ     /S
XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\   /AA /BI /S /H
XXCOPY  \src\  \dst\   /A      /S /H /KS

With a twist of incrementally do the three-way differential backup
to the same destination every day (remove extra files)

XXCOPY  \src\          /AZ     /S
XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\   /AA /BI /S /H
XXCOPY  \src\  \dst\   /A      /S /H /KS /ZY

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Differential Backup using a skeleton directory.

This scheme is similar to the Three-way differential backup
described above.  In that case, the reference directory \ref\,
consumes a relatively large storage space just to provide the
reference (where the file contents are never referenced).
This variation drastically cuts down the storage usage by the
reference directory by storing only zero-length files.  It
still allows you to compare filename and the file date as the
criteria for differential backup.  In other words, the skeleton
directory serves as a file set specifier for regularly performed
backup.

The initial step here uses /TR0 to make zero-length files.

XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\  /CLONE /TR0

You may remove whatever files you are not interested in
backing up (such as WIN386.SWP), thereafter in order to
make the most desired file set in the reference directory

The daily differential backup in this case uses /U to
(for illustration purpose, common switches are deliberately left
out here).

XXCOPY  \src\          /AZ /S
XXCOPY  \src\  \ref\   /AA /S /H /U /BX
XXCOPY  \src\  \dst\   /A  /S /H /KS

Note: the second step here uses /U (selects files that are
present in the reference directory) and  /BX (exclude files
with the same file date).

Caution:

The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra
directories and files in the destination.  If you inadvertently
specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very
severe.  Some careless users have lost many files by this!!!



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #12

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: The file removal features in XXCOPY
Date:    2000-11-17  (revised)
===============================================================================

Why are we always short in the storage space?

No matter how big your hard disk is, it gets full sooner or later.
Microsoft is often blamed for their "bloatware".  But, here is
another theory.  There are just more programs which create files
than those which delete files.  If you look at common applications,
usually they offer more ways to create files than to destroy them.
Therefore, to maintain a healthy equilibrium between the file
creation and the file deletion, we need to put more conscious
effort in file removal.  In the case of XXCOPY, it has been used
primarily for file copying, and not much for file removal.

Now, starting with Version 2.25, XXCOPY has a whole new set of
file removal features.

File removal using a file copy utility?

Why are we adding to XXCOPY more features which are not directly
related to the file-copy function?  A good question.  Why not
produce a separate file-delete utility?  That makes sense if you
expect a simple one.  But, for that matter, you already have
DELTREE from Microsoft.  Again, XXCOPY fills the void.

Once you learn XXCOPY's rich set of file selection scheme in
various file copy operations, you would want the same kind of
power in file removal operations as well.  Therefore, instead of
making a very similar program for file deletion, it is more
natural to use the exact same file selection mechanisms of
XXCOPY for file removal operations.  The notion of a file copy
utility with a patch to handle file deletion should be thrown
away.   It is only in its name, XXCOPY, which may mislead you on
what it is capable of.  It is now a general purpose file management
tool and the file removal feature is certainly an important one.
In totality, we believe that you will spend less time learning the
new features in the enhanced XXCOPY utility than you would spend
in studying a brand new file delete tool.

The design principle of XXCOPY's file removal.

We added just a few file removal functions which combine well with
existing framework of XXCOPY's file selection schemes.  The new

Switch   Mnemonic          Files to be removed
------------------------------------------------------------------
/RC   Remove-after-Copy   files in source after a successful copy
/RS   Remove-Source       files in source which qualify
/RD   Remove-Destination  files which qualify to be overwritten
/RX   Remove-Extra        files which do not exist in the source

(More minor variations are specified by optional third letter).

Any of the above switches modifies the basic operation from file-
copy to file-removal.  But, most other switches which engage in
the file selection process apply equally to the file removal case.

The actions by the four variations in the file removal.

With the first two variations (/RC and /RS), the file removal takes
place in the source directory whereas in the last two cases (/RD
and /RX), the operation takes place in the destination directory.

The file copy operation is performed only with the first variation
(/RC) and no copy is performed by the other three (/RS, /RD, /RX).
Therefore, the designation of the source and destination for the
command arguments (the non-switch parameters, ones without a slash)
is admittedly weak.  But, in light of their origin being the file
copy operation, they still carry some nuances.  The reference
(destination) directory plays a vital role in file selection.

/RC  (Remove-after-Copy)

This switch first performs a regular file copy operation,
and then removes the source file when the copy is successful.
In essence, it is a file move operation.  Nearly all common
XXCOPY switches designed for file copy apply in this case.

/RS  (Remove-Source)

This switch removes the source file without a copy action.
In some cases, you specify only the first argument
(the source specifier) without the destination.  However,
there are many instances where you select files based on
the relationships to the files in the reference (destination)
directory.  For example, you may delete the files in the
source that are older than the one in the destination.  You
will probably use this switch more often than the other
switches in this group.

/RD  (Remove-Destination)

This switch removes the files which would normally be
overwritten.  The file selection process is exactly the
same as in the cases of file copy.

/RX  (Remove-Extra)

This switch removes the files in the destination whose
corresponding file is not present in the source directory.
This command is somewhat similar to the /Z switch which
accompanies regular file copy operations.  The difference
with the /Z and /ZY commands is, of course, these commands
carry out file copy actions whereas /RX does not copy at all.

The cases with /RD and RX --- Cautions.

When you use the /RD or /RX switch, there are a few things
you should remember.  Although the focus of the action is
on the files which are to be removed, when these files are
in the destination, many of the XXCOPY switch parameters
does not work with the files in the destination directory.

For example, when you specify /RD (remove destination) with
/DB#4 (files more than 5 days old), the file date in the source
is checked, not the one that would actually get removed.  This
is because the /RD switch borrows XXCOPY's basic file-selection
mechanism to determine which source-destination file pair
to operate on.  This particular operation happens to be to
remove the file in the destination rather than the one in
the source.  It may be a little confusing but we can't help.

It may be even more true with the /RX switches where the
files are removed simply by the virtue of being in the
such as /A (files with Archive bit set), /DB#4 (older than
four days), or even /DA (when the file in destination is
older than in the one in the source).  Remember, with the
/RX switch, the files to be removed has no counterpart in
the source!!!  So, all these switches will be just ignored.

Our recommendation is that you should use the /RD and /RX
switches for relatively simple file selection cases only.
you rewrite the XXCOPY /RD command using /RS/U with the source
and destination reversed.  Similarly, an XXCOPY /RX command
can be written using /RS/BB with source and destination
reversed.  By having the files for removal in the source
side in the command, you will have all the switches which
applies to the files which would actually be removed.

Convenient shortcut:

/RMDIR  Removes the specified directory including the files and
subdirectories inside.

This /RMDIR switch makes XXCOPY to behave like Microsoft's
DELTREE utility.  The following two commands are very similar.

DELTREE c:\mydir

XXCOPY  c:\mydir  /RMDIR

However, the power of XXCOPY become evident when it is combined
with other switches.

XXCOPY  c:\mydir  /RMDIR /DA:2000-04-01 /Y /X*.doc

This command removes files inside the directory which are made
on or after the specified date but avoids deleting .DOC files.

Examples of the file removal switches.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*  c:\destination\  /RC

The files which match the pattern, "myfile.*" in c:\mydir\ and
all of its subdirectories will be deleted after copying.  If
copy fails for any reason, the files in the source will *NOT*
be removed.  It behaves essentially like the MOVE command.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*  /RS /S /H

It is similar to DELTREE, subdirectories are specified.  The
files which match the pattern, "myfiles.*" in c:\mydir\ and all of
its subdirectories will be deleted.  No copying will take place.
The /H switch is needed if you want to include hidden and/or
system files.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*  c:\reference\   /RS /S /H /DB

The /DB switch uses the second directory (c:\reference) which
supplies the filenames to compare the file time against the
files in the source.  The files in the source which are made
before (/DB stands for DATE:BEFORE) their counterpart in
destination will be removed.  In this case, the files that
do not exist in the reference directory will also be removed.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*  c:\reference\   /RS /S /H /DB /U

This is exactly same as the one above except this has the
/U switch (update --- applies only to files that exist in the
destination) will not remove files that do not exist in
the destination.  This is a quite useful combination to remove
those files whose new version exists in the reference directory.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*      c:\reference\   /RS /S /H /U
xxcopy c:\reference\myfiles.*  c:\mydir\       /RD /S /H /U
xxcopy c:\reference\myfiles.*  c:\mydir\       /RD /S /H

Here, three variations of file removal actions are specified.
But, they achieve exactly the same result.  The first one
removes the qualified files in the source (and its
subdirectories) if they exist in the reference directory.
Please note the change in the position of the c:\mydir
argument in the second and third examples above.  In the
second example, the /U is superfluous because the /RD switch
(file in the destination that would be overwritten) implies
that in order to be overwritten, its counterpart must exists
in the source.  The third example proves that /U in the second
example was not necessary.  On the other hand, /U must be
in the first example; without it, the files in the reference
directory will be totally ignored.

xxcopy c:\reference\myfiles.*  c:\mydir\       /RX /H /S
xxcopy c:\reference\           c:\mydir\       /RX /H /S

These examples eliminate all files in the destination whose
counterpart does not exist in the source directory will be
removed.  They resembles the /Z switch where qualified files
will be overwritten by the source files.

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*  c:\destination\     /RS /H /S
xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*                      /RS /H /S

These two will result in the same action, namely, removing
the matched files in the source and its subdirectories.
In the first example, since there is no switches which
references the second directory specifier (c:\destination),
the second argument was totally unnecessary and ignored
(without warning).

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfiles.*   /RS /S /H /DB#7

Remove files which match the template in the source and
its subdirectories which are more than seven days old.

xxcopy c:\       /RS /S /H /DA:2000-02-01 /DB:2000-02-29

Remove all files which were made during the month of
February 2000.

xxcopy c:\mydir\  c:\backup\   /RS /S /H /BI

Remove files in c:\mydir\ and its subdirectories that are
identical in date and size.

xxcopy c:\mydir\               /RS /S /Ho

Remove all hidden files in c:\mydir\ and its subdirectories.

xxcopy c:\                    /RS /A

Remove all files in the root directory with the archive bit set.

xxcopy c:\mydir\*.jpg         /RS /Xmydear.jpg

Remove all .JPG files but keep mydear.jpg.

Confirmation prompts.

for confirmation before removing a directory.  As a matter of fact,
XXCOPY provides two levels of confirmation prompts.

1.  On each directory to process.
2.  On each file to delete.

Of course, for batch file execution, you normally do not want such
confirmation.  Also, to allow flexible control, the prompt includes
a choice to eliminate further confirmation in the current and
subsequent items.

Unfortunately, the rules for the confirmation prompts are quite
complicated because of the many cases involved.  You may skip the
following three sections for now and come back to read the gory
details later.  Just remember that you can suppress the Yes/No
prompts in the two levels by /PD0 and /Y, respectively.

Directory-removal confirmation prompt.

Before each directory to process, you will be given a chance to
skip the directory by a prompt with

(Y/N/A/R/S)?

Y  for Yes (Yes, process the current directory for removal)
N  for No  (No, skip the current directory and go to the next one)
A  for Yes for All remaining directories (suppresses subsequent prompts)
R  for Yes for the current and Remaining siblings and its subdirectories.
S  for Yes for the current and its subdirectories.

The Y(es) and N(o) inputs are the most obvious cases.  They apply
to the current directory only.  The A(ll) input is also pretty easy
to understand.  It applies the current and all subsequent cases by
and suppresses the prompts once for all.  The R and S inputs are
partial suppression and a bit confusing: When you type R, the current
directory and remaining (sibling) directories will be removed without
further prompting.  But, the effect of R response will not affect the
parent directory level.  When you type S, it is the most restrictive
response of all.  It affects the current and its subdirectories only.
The next directory in the same level will not be affected by the R
input.

Here are how to suppress and unsuppress the directory-removal prompts.

/PD   Enables the directory-level prompt.
/PD0  Disables the directory-level prompt.

File-delete confirmation prompt.

Another level of confirmation is on a file-by-file basis.  Before
each file is to be deleted, you will be asked by a prompt with

(Y/N/A)?

Y  for Yes (Yes, delete this file)
N  for No  (No, skip this file)
A  for Yes for All remaining files (suppresses subsequent prompts)

Here are how to suppress and unsuppress the file-delete prompts
(applicable for /RS, /RD, and /RX cases).

/Y   Disables the file-delete prompt.
/-Y  Enables the file-delete prompt.
/Y0  Enables the file-delete prompt (same as /-Y).

More confirmations on /RC (Remove-after-Copy).

The /RC switch is a special case in the removal switch group.  It
performs a file copy action before the source file is deleted.
As with other file-copy functions, /P insert a confirmation prompt
(Y/N/A)? to perform the copy operation first.  The regular rules
for the /P switch applies exactly in the case /RC switch.  There is
one more case of (Y/N/A)? prompt which may appear with the /RC
operation --- file-overwrite confirmation.  Just like the regular
file copy operation, when there is a file in the destination, you
will be asked for confirmation.  The /Y, /-Y, and /Y0 for /RC switch
control the suppression of the file-overwrite prompt rather than
the delete-after-copy prompt.  Therefore, we need one more switch
convention to enable/disable the file-delete confirmation prompt:

/RC  (Remove-after-Copy) enables Y/N prompt on remove (same as /RCP)
/RCP (Remove-after-Copy) enables Y/N prompt on remove
/RCY (Remove-after-Copy) suppresses Y/N prompt on remove

The optional third letter (P or Y) specifies the removal prompt.

Similarly, the other variations in the file remove operation also
accepts the third letter (to be symmetrical to the /RC switch).

/RS  (Remove-Source)   enables Y/N prompt on remove (same as /RSP)
/RSP (Remove-Source)   enables Y/N prompt on remove
/RSY (Remove-Source)   suppresses Y/N prompt on remove

/RD   (Remove-Dest)    enables Y/N prompt on remove (same as /RDP)
/RDP  (Remove-Dest)    enables Y/N prompt on remove
/RDY  (Remove-Dest)    suppresses Y/N prompt on remove

/RX   (Remove-Extra)   enables Y/N prompt on remove (same as /RXP)
/RXP  (Remove-Extra)   enables Y/N prompt on remove
/RXY  (Remove-Extra)   suppresses Y/N prompt on remove

The /Y and /-Y switches also control the prompt for file remove
action for /RS, /RD and /RXn (not with /RC) switches.

To undo any of the /RC, /RS, /RD, or /RX switches, append letter zero
(e.g., /RC0, /RS0, /RD0, and /RX0 respectively).

Conclusion:

The examples given here hopefully show that the file removal
feature in XXCOPY is merely an extension to other XXCOPY switches
and basically the same rules apply here.  In the case of file
removal, probably less than a half of operations use the files
in the second directory (destination) as a reference where the
/RS switch is usually selected.  The next common cases involves
in /RD which is used for elimination of multiple copies of the
same files.  Although there are some switch combination which
makes no sense with the file removal cases, many are expected
to be quite useful.  Since not all of the switch combinations
are thoroughly tested, there may be some contradictory definition
of rules (or even actions) may arise during the beta testing.

If you find an interesting switch combination which is quite
unique and valuable in common cases, please let us know.  it
seems that this scheme generates a very large number of
combinations many of which are not intuitive.  It is entirely
possible that someone may come across an interesting behavior
which none else has ever thought of.  Only time can tell.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #13

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: XXCOPY Frequent Asked Questions (FAQ)
Date:    2012-05-30
===============================================================================

Q0:  Can I do xxxxxxxxxxx with XXCOPY?
(Fill in xxxxxxxxxxx with your own words)

A0:  The most likely answer to the question is YES.  XXCOPY can do
most common file management jobs quite nicely.  But, as the
number of the XXCOPY switches grows, it is getting harder and
harder to find the right command line argument for a given job.
The recent addition of a few technical bulletins should help.

for Command Line Syntax                          XXTB #25
for Command Reference Alphabetic Listing         XXTB #26
for Command Reference Functional Classification  XXTB #27
for The Wild-Wildcard Source Specifier           XXTB #28

Especially, the Functional Classification article, XXTB #27
seems to be the easiest way to see the overall picture.

If your company has an urgent need for a file management job whose
requirements are mostly met by XXCOPY but not exactly, and you wish
to have an XXCOPY with a minor customization, please consult us.
We may provide solutions to your need at reasonable time/price.

Q1:  What is the difference between XXCOPY, XCOPY, and other similar
programs.

A1:  Let us list the utility programs which are related one another.

XXCOPY.EXE   The logical extension to XCOPY - most powerful.
XCOPY.EXE    Microsoft's command-line based copy utility
COPY         Internal command to COMMAND.COM (Microsoft)
XCOPY32.EXE  XCOPY's Win-32 program which XCOPY runs when
invoked inside Win9x/ME/NT/2K.
XXCOPY16.EXE XXCOPY's predecessor. written for 16-bit (real mode)
environments such as DOS.  Supports most but not
all of XXCOPY's switches.
ROBOCOPY.EXE Microsoft's version of an extended XCOPY utility.
It is bundled in Windows NT/2000/XP Resource Kit.
ROBOCOPY runs on WinNT or Win2000, not DOS nor Win9X.
DCOPY32.EXE  Essentially the same as XXCOPY.EXE.  It is bundled
with Pixelab's DATMAN-99 tape control software.
DCOPY.EXE    Essentially the same as XXCOPY16.EXE.  It is bundled
with Pixelab's DATMAN-DOS tape control software.

In short, XXCOPY and XXCOPY16 are Pixelab's products which
extend the features of XCOPY32 and XCOPY respectively.

Q2:  I need to copy the top level of a directory structure only.
I want to copy the user home directory structure from one server
to another without copying any sub dirs or files.  I have tried
the /T switch but it seems to copy the sub dirs.

A2:  Among all switches, the feature to go deep into subdirectories
is controlled by /S (for subdirectory) and /E (for subdirectory-
even-if-it's-empty).  Therefore, if you don't use /S or /E in
the switches, it's OK.  However, these switches are also
incorporated in a few other combined switches such as /BU
(equivalent to /R/I/BI/Q/C/H/E/V/Y) and /CLONE (equivalent to
/KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY) which makes it tricky.

The easiest way to avoid the inclusion of /S or /E in such hidden
cases is to explicitly cancel such hidden inclusion by adding
/S0 the end of your switches.  That is, you can combine with any
switches and put the /S0 switch to the right which will be
evaluated last and therefore override any earlier inclusion.

XXCOPY c:\mysource  c:\mydest  /CLONE  /S0

Q3:  I want to clone source to destination but only files with certain
extension(s). When I use    XXCOPY c:\src\*.ext d:\dest /CLONE
it also deletes files with different extension at destination.
I cannot figure out which switches to use.

A3:  As explained in A2 above, the /CLONE switch is a shortcut for a
combination of switches.  In this particular case, the /ZY switch
is responsible for the file deletion.  As the name implies,
the CLONE operation is to create a destination directory which
resembles to the source directory as closely as possible.  That
includes the removal of extra directory and files that should not
be there.  So, to retain all the component switches of /CLONE
except the /ZY part, just add the cancelling switch (/Z0) to the
right hand side.  That is  /CLONE /Z0  will do the job.

When you glance over the set of switches that are supported by
XXCOPY, you will find a cancelling switch for nearly every switch
(which usually ends with a zero (0) at the end).  The cancelling
switches are convenient to reverse the effect of a long combination
of switches which has been set earlier (to the left hand side).

Q4:  When I use the Win9x boot diskette, I cannot use XXCOPY since
it is the 16-bit (essentially a DOS) environment.  Although I
can use XXCOPY16, it does not use any long filename.  How can
I copy directories in DOS (real mode) and restore long names.

A4:  It is true that there is no one-step solution to deal with the
long filename.  But, this is what we recommend.

1. Copy files using any of the 16-bit utilities you have.
This will give you many files and directories with funny
names (e.g., \PROGRA~1).  That is fine as the fist step.

We suggest the use of XXCOPY16, simply because it is the
most versatile utility with lots of options.  If you want to
include hidden files and also to preserve file attributes,
we suggest XXCOPY16.

XXCOPY16  c:\mydir  d:\mydir /KS /H /E /R

2. Once you are in Win32 (Win9x/ME/NT/2K), run XXCOPY with the
special file renaming switch as follows

XXCOPY  c:\mydir  d:\mydir  /NL /E

In most cases, you probably want to add the /E switch to
handle all files and subdirectories inside.

following errorr message pops up on my screen.

xxcopy.exe is not a valid Win32 application.

A5:  The error message generated by the operating system is misleading.
Recent release versions of XXCOPY (v.3.09.0 or newer) are created
with the most recent development tool from Microsoft (Visual
Studio 2010) that expects some obscure Win32 DLL functions that are
not provided Windows 2000 or NT4.

If you wish to use XXCOPY on Windows 2000 or NT4, you need to
acquire XXCOPY v.3.08.0.

acquire XXCOPY v.2.96.8.

Q6:  My computer is very old (Windows 2000) for which I have problem
installing the current version of XXCOPY.  Is an old version of
XXCOPY available?

A6:  The following legacy versions are available for Test Drive for
which a paid license is available (we no longer provide freeware
for old versions).

For Windows 2000 or NT4, sign up for a test drive XXCOPY v.3.08.0.

Q7:  When I use the /RS switch to delete a directory, it always shows
a prompt "Dir (Y/N/A/R/S)?  How can I get rid of the prompt inside
a batch file.  Also, what are the meaning of the prompt?

A7:  The Remove switch group has additional level of confirmation
prompt due to the deadly consequences.  The prompt is controlled
by the /PD (Prompt-on-Directory) and /PD0 (No Prompt-on-Directory)
switches.  It appears before a directory is to be processed.

Rather than having All-or-Nothing control, it provide the R and S
responses which gives you Partial-Yes options.

(Y/N/A/R/S)?

Y  for Yes (Yes, process the current directory for removal)
N  for No  (No, skip the current directory and go to the next one)
A  for Yes for All remaining directories (suppresses subsequent prompts)
R  for Yes for the current and Remaining siblings and its subdirectories.
S  for Yes for the current and its subdirectories.

Q8:  I try to run a server backup using XXCOPY's incremental backup
switch (/BI).  It works well with local drives.  But when I
try /BI from one volume to another, sometimes nearly half of the
files always get copied even though I know most of them have never
been changed since the last backup.  Why /BI does not work on
some volume?

A8:  Add the /FF (Fuzzy Filetime) switch in such cases.  With the
switch, XXCOPY considers two timestamps the same if they are
within a pre-determined number of seconds (/FF is the same
as /FF2 --- for plus/minus 2 seconds).  In most cases, the
default setting of plus/minus 2 seconds works well.

Here is why...

The /BI operation compares the file size and time stamp between
the file in the source directory and in the destination.  Due to
different file time format used in various file systems, the time
stamp on a file gets truncated, resulting in a different file time
after a copy.  When such files are compared against their
counterparts in the source directory, the file times do not match.
This is most commonly experienced when you copy files from an
NTFS volume to FAT (both FAT16 and FAT32) volume.  Similarly,
FAT and Unix/Linux file system has file date incompatibilities.

File system    Time Resolution (Granularity)
----------------------------------------------
FAT12             2 sec
FAT16             2 sec
FAT32             2 sec
NTFS              100 nsec
Unix/Linux        1 sec

Whenever you run XXCOPY operation which involves a file date
comparison (e.g., /BI, /BX) across different file systems,
use the /FF switch.

Q9:  Is there a way to perform an incremental backup but ignore the
file time.  That is, I want to select files of different size.

A9:  Yes, the /BZ switch is for you.  You can choose a backup scheme
from the following variations.

/BI  Backs up incrementally, different (by time/size) files only.
/BB  Backs up brand new files only (does not overwrite existing ones).
/BN  Backs up newer files only     (includes brand new files).
/Bo  Backs up older files only     (includes brand new files).
/BX  Backs up different-date files (includes brand new files).
/BZ  Backs up different-size files (includes brand new files).
/BS  Selects exactly the same files (this is useful with /RS).
/BU  Standard Backup switch (same as /r/i/bi/q/c/h/e/v/y)

Note:  The /Bx switches are mutually exclusive one another,
but /U may coexist with a /Bx switch.

Q10: I have seen variations for the home page URL of XXCOPY.

http://www.xxcopy.com/

http://www.pixelab.com/

following directory:

In the past, we have also used the following addresses

http://www.xxcopy.com/xxcopy/
http://www.datman.com/xxcopy/

Now, we encourage you to use the shorter form.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

We also run a beta test for which we estabished a full web site:

http://www.xxcopy.com/betatest/

If you are looking for a feature which is not supported by the
current release version, you may try the beta test site.  The
documentation files in the batatest site reflect the extended
functionality of the beta version.

Usually, a beta test version is well debugged.  But, of course,
it is less mature than the current release version.  Since we
pay close attention to bugs and we try to correct serious
problems as soon as they are discovered, you may estimate the
stability of a particular beta test version by the date it was
created.  If you feel uneasy to run an "untested" version, wait
a few weeks.  If the same beta test version is still there,
it will have gone through the scrutiny that much longer.

Q11: I can't back up the Program File directory using XXCOPY.  Why?

A11: It is very likely that you are not using quotation marks around
the source directory name.  XXCOPY processes the command line by
splitting the string of command line text into pieces using the
space (or tab) character as the delimiter which separates the
line into components.  When you have a multi-word name such as
"Program Files",  XXCOPY will see it as two components.  You
must tell XXCOPY that the two words are actually just one piece
by surrounding the directory name using the double quotes (").

XXCOPY c:\Progam Files     d:\dest\      // WRONG!!!

XXCOPY "C:\Program Files"  d:\dest\      // CORRECT

This is not XXCOPY's idiosyncrasies.  You can apply this technique
to any operation in a DOS Box.  E.g., try it with DIR, CD, etc.

DIR  "C:\Program Files"
CD   "C:\My Documents\My Pictures"

Q12: I can't make the /Fo, /ON and even /OA to work.  Here's my command
line looks like.  What is wrong?

XXCOPY  c:\mysrc\  c:\mydest\  /s  /Fo c:\temp\mybackup.log

A12: This is a quite common problem with first time users.  As stated
in the previous answer (A8), the space (and tab) character plays
a very important role in the command line.  Although it may seem
hard to read, any parameter for an XXCOPY command switch (such
as /Fo which needs the filename) must follow the command switch
immediately without a space character.  So, in your case, type

/Foc:\temp\mybackup.log    (without space after /Fo)

Although there are many command-line programs which permit or
even require a space between the command switch and its parameter,
XXCOPY is one of those programs that does not allow a space there.
Actually, allowing an optional space between the command letter(s)
(such as /Fo) and its parameter would create undesirable ambiguity
in the command line syntax, it is best to keep it strict, albeit
a bit ugly to read without a space there.

Q13: My log list which is created by either /ON or /OA does not
include the list of files just copied.  How can I list the
files which are successfully copied in the log file?

A13: The /ON/OA output was meant to be for error logging.  When
you make a big backup job and save a log file, the few lines
of error will be buried in the huge list of filenames.  Therefore,
it is a deliberate XXCOPY design not to dilute the log file
with voluminous success cases.  If you want a list of backup log
that contains the names of the files which are copied, use the
/Fo switch which is equivalent to the console output you get
using the /F switch.

Q14:  But, /Fo always overwrites the existing list file.  Is there
a switch which allows me to append the list to an existing
list file?

A14:  No, there is no Append equivalent in the /Fo switch.  But, you
can write the following sequence in your batch file to achieve
the same goal.

...
xxcopy  \src\ \dst\ /fonew.lst
type    new.lst >> grand.lst
...

Q15: When I run a backup using XXCOPY (XXCOPY src dst  /CLONE), on
some file, I get a "data mismatch" error message.  What does it
mean?

A15: Immediately a file is copied, XXCOPY checks the size of the newly
created file in the destination directory.  If the file size does
not match the source, the error message will be shown.  Under
normal circumstance, this should not happen.  But, in a multi-
tasking environment such as Windows, a file which was just
closed may be subjected to a modification by another process which
is not necessarily a fatal condition.  XXCOPY does not interpret
the severity of such an incident.  Therefore, it is up to you to
make the assessment as to the purpose of the file.  In many cases,
the error condition is not  very serious.  Otherwise, you may turn
off *ALL* processes except XXCOPY when you clone the current volume
to another volume.

Q16: I want to obtain a list of files using XXCOPY's rich set of file
selection mechanism but without acutally causing any actions like
copying or removing files --- just a listing only.  Also, I want
just a bare listing without even the file size info.

A16: XXCOPY is no longer just a file copy utility, but a general purpose
file management tool and searching and making a list of files is one
of the jobs XXCOPY is well equipped.  I will show you a few examples

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.jpg  /S /L

The searchspec has the base directory part and a template part.
/S is to include subdirectories (which usually the case)
The /L switch is the starting point.  It shows file size.

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.jpg   /S /L /ZS

/ZS  without the sign-on and statistics info.  The bare list.

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.jpg   /S /LL /ZS

/LL  gives you longname only

Actually, /Lxxxx is a general purpose list-formatter.  You can add
L(ongname), S(hortname), Z(size), D(ate), T(ime), A(ttributes).
Since Longname varies in length, for best list, place L last.

Some more variations:

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.jpg  /S /ZS /LD      // D(ate) L(ongname)
XXCOPY  c:\mydir\*.jpg  /S /ZS /LDZL    // D(ate) S(ize) L(ongname)
XXCOPY  c:\      /DA#0  /S /ZS /LDZL    // Only the files made today

Q17: When I use XXCOPY16 in DOS and duplicate the entire C: drive to D:
using the following command, I get funny filenames in the destination
like XXXXXX~1.XXX.

XXCOPY16  C:\  D:\  /CLONE

How come the files are not copied correctly?

A17: Although XXCOPY16.EXE supports almost all XXCOPY.EXE command switches,
the longname related features (such as the handling of files using
the long filename) cannot be supported.  The limitation is not of
the XXCOPY16 program.  It is the real mode (DOS) environment which
does not support the long filenames.  This is exactly why Microsoft
invented the "alias" 8.3 filename in order for legacy (DOS) programs
to be able to access files created under Win9x and NT/2000/XP with a
under Win9x, there is another article on the subject with great detail
XXTB #10.

Q18: I understand XXCOPY can duplicate the system disk for Win9x/ME.
What about the Windows XP or Windows 7?

A18: No.  Since XXCOPY accesses storage devices primarily with high-level
Win32 system API functions (at the file/directory level) rather than
low-level device I/O functions to maintain the robustness of the
program, XXCOPY cannot make the destination disk self-bootable (which
was once possible for DOS-based (Win 9X/ME) Windows).

We now offer a new product,
Q19: Is there a way to backup a directory and keep the time-stamp of
the source directory (and those of the subdirectories) so that
when I restore the directory later, the time-stamps will exhibit
the original directory-creation time?

A19: If you run XXCOPY under NT/2000/XP, newly created directories in
the destinaion will get the same timestamp.  But, under Win9x/ME,
unfortunately no.  As far as we know, there is no File I/O API
in the Win9x programming (or in DOS for that matter) which allows
a program (such as XXCOPY) to set or modify the time value for
a directory.  We feel it is a serious omission of in the Win32
implementation.  The only ways to achieve the objective are to use
some programming tricks.  But, possible side effects and risk of
compromising the system integrity is too great.  It is a serious
omission in API functionality when Microsoft implemented Win32
for the Win9x/ME environment.

Q20: When I right-click the icon of the XXCOPY.EXE file and examine
the version number, it is different from the one the program
shows at the banner line.  Why?  And, which one to believe?

A20: We have traditionally used version numbers which consist of
four digits which are grouped in to three parts like 2.60.0.
Unfortunately, the version information which can be attached
to an EXE file (to be viewed in the property sheet of the
EXE file) has a format of four digits which are always split
into four parts of single digit.  We don't really like the
format and we can't do anything about it.

Besides, it is somewhat time consuming to set the property sheet
version number every time we build a beta version (which are
often made for tentative debugging purposes).  To be honest,
more often than not, we forget spending time in adjusting the
property sheet section while we are concentrating on removing
bugs and making a few experiments to see a particular problem
is gone for a user's environment.  The property sheet is just
a distraction as far as we are concerned.

Just disregard the version number property sheet and take
XXCOPY's banner line (which are very prominent) at its face
value.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #14

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Tutorials in Command Line (DOS Box) Operations
Date:    2001-09-02
===============================================================================

One of the common problems in providing a command line tool like
XXCOPY is that many computer users now do not feel comfortable with
non-GUI operation.  They prefer the comfort of drag-and-drop and
mouse clicks.  While the GUI operation is certainly more intuitive
and quicker to learn, it is not the fastest way to get job done
when the job is to handle several thousand files in hundreds of
directories.  And, that's what you have now in your humble disk!!!

We see no substitutes for command line processing especially with
batch file programming (or other scripting techniques) to automate
it.  Once you have set up a well-written script with XXCOPY commands
inside, you can make an icon for it and you will then enjoy the
comfort of clicking the icon, sit back and relax while XXCOPY is
doing the hard work.

You should at least give yourself a chance to acquire the basic
skill of exploiting the power of your computer (and it will remain
with you for the rest of your life).  The basic DOS-box skill helps
you not just for XXCOPY.  Moreover, the command line operation will
probably be there for many more generations of operating systems
(Win9x, NT/2000/XP/XP, and beyond).

The following list is a non-exhaustive collection of pointers to
tutorials in command line (DOS) operations.

=================================================================

1. http://home.att.net/~gobruen/progs/dos_batch/dos_intro.html

4-page series.  Step by step.  Good narrative tutorial.

2. http://www3.sympatico.ca/rhwatson/dos7/commandintro.html

Good as a reference, each command is explained with
a dedicated page with examples.

3.  http://teckies.com/tutor/dos/

A very good site.  It is shorter than the earlier one.

4. http://www.animatedsoftware.com/faqs/learndos.htm#cd_command

This site is shorter.  Therefore, if you are in a hurry,

5.  http://www.glue.umd.edu/~nsw/ench250/dostutor.htm

Six lessons.  The page is text-only.  Looks good.

6.  http://cs.senecac.on.ca/~ops134/resources/commandline1.htm

Shortest of all.

===============================================================

If you have seen good sites which are not listed here, please
let us know for future inclusion in this list.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #15

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Windows File Date and Time
Date:    2000-06-07
===============================================================================

File time in DOS

The good old DOS had just one file date value which keeps track of
a file in your storage (hard disk and floppy).  To be precise, the
value has two parts, the date part (year, month, and day) and the
time part (hour, minute, second ---- measured in two second interval),
but we will call it just "file date" in this discussion.

Whenever a file is created, the current system time is stamped to the
file which would remain constant even if it is copied or moved to a
new directory.  A complete rewrite, partial rewrite, or partial
deletion would update the file date value.  Therefore, the DOS file
date represents the last-write (or, last-modified) time.  It was
quite simple and well.

File time in Win32:

The new so-called Win32 environments (Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000)
the file.  Win32 maintains three distinct time stamps on every file.
Inside Windows Explorer, you can examine these values in the property
sheet for a file.

1. Created:    It is the time when the file is created in the
current directory.  When the file is copied to a
new directory, a new value will be set.

2. Modified:   It is the time when the file is last modified.
When the file is copied to elsewhere, the same
value will be carried over to the new directory.

3. Accessed:   It is the time when the file is last accessed.
This value is set by the application program that
sets or revises the value.  Unfortunately some
applications do not revise this value.

The file date value commonly referred to under Win32 is the "Last-
modified" value (2nd one in the list above) whose behavior is
consistent to the DOS file date value.  The Win32 file date values
are stored in much finer resolution than the DOS time stamp (16 bits
for the date and 16 bits for time).   The Win32 file date value
is a 64-bit quantity which represents the time elapsed from
January 1, 1601 (the first date of the current quadri-century)
in 100 nsec granularity.  For the compatibility's sake, even WinNT/2K
uses the same 2-second granularity for the "Last-modified" time for
FAT-based file system (does not apply for NTFS files).

XXCOPY's file date treatments:

XXCOPY provides the following switches to select one of the
three timestamps as the filedate value for time comparison.

/FC     File-Create time
/FW     Last-Modify (Last-Write) time (default)
/FA     Last-Access time

These switches do not perform any action by themselves.  They
are used to modify the semantics of other switches which use
the file date parameters in the file selection process.  For
example, /DA and /DB are often modified by the /FC switch.

The file date (Last-Modify date):

The common file date value (more precisely, the Last-Modify-date)
is the most intuitive and probably the easiest to use.  So, by
default, XXCOPY's file date functions use the Last-Modify date by
default.  For example,

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\  d:\backup\  /DA#7

the last 7 days.  This selection includes files which are created
or modified elsewhere and brought to the source directory by
either a copy or move operation.  The COPY or MOVE operations
carried out by practically all file copy utilities (i.e.,
Drag-and-drop, COPY, XCOPY, MOVE, or XXCOPY) preserve the file's
Last-Modify date.

The file creation date (File-Create date):

Another useful date value is the File-Create date.  Unlike the
Last-Modify date, this value represents the date the particular
copy of the file is created in the directory.  Here, the meaning
of creation includes both the case of a newly created file, and an
existing file brought in to the directory by a copy operation.
So, the File-Create date is often newer than the Last-Modify date.
Note that sometimes, the "File-Create" date could be a little
consistent with the way Microsoft calls it.

With XXCOPY, you may use this creation-date value instead of the
more common Last-Modify date.  Here is an example:

XXCOPY  c:\mydir\  d:\backup\  /S /FC /DA:.

This command copies all the files which are either made in
or brought into their present directory today regardless of
the age of the file.  With the /FC switch, XXCOPY uses the
File-Create date rather than the Last-Modify date.  The
/DA:. switch selects files of today or a future date.

Since the use of the File-Create date has serious problems, we
generally discourage the use if this date

Problems with the file creation date (File-Create date),

The problems of the File-Create date can be traced back to
the inconsistency in Microsoft's various file management
utilities.  It seems that the purpose of three distinct
variations in the file date values were never clearly defined
by the designer of the feature.  We as software developers
have not come across any official documents on this subject.
So, we conduct a few experiments using Microsoft's programs
which are part of Windows 95.  Then, you will find many
inconsistent usages in the File-Create date.

Observation 1:  When you perform a copy operation of a file
which results in a new physical copy in the
destination, the File-Create date is set to
the current date.

Observation 2:  When you move a file within a volume, the
operation is translated to the more efficient
renaming operation.  Since renaming a file does
not involve in a newly created file, the File-
Create date will not be updated.

Observation 3:  When you move a file across the volume boundary
(e.g., from C: to D:), the move operation is
carried out as a file copy action followed by
a file delete action, the file in the new
location will receive a new File-Create date.

or WinWord.exe (word), and save the file.  The
newly update file will have the same File-Create
date, but a new Last-Modify time.

The inconsistencies listed above make the File-Create date unfit
for a general-purpose file selection criterion by XXCOPY.  On
the other hand, if you have full control of the file creation
process in a given directory (say, you always use one of the
file copy operations to manage files in the directory), you may
still use it with caution.

The case with the Last-Access date:

This parameter is also a very controversial value that goes with
every file in the Win32 system.  The Last-Access date is set whenever
the file is "Accessed" by a program.  Then, the next question is
what really constitutes an "Access" to a file?

Is opening the file by a program, by any program, treated as an
"Access"?  Thank God, the answer is no.  If that were the case,
whenever the Windows Explorer displays an executable file using its
icon (which is stored inside the file), the Last-Access date would
be set to the current date.  That is because display of the icon
involves fist opening the file and reading the contents to locate
the internal icon.  In this case, although the treatment of the icon
is rather elaborate under the cover, it is not regarded as an "Access".
On the other hand with .EXE and .DLL files, executing the program
constitute the Last-Access.  That makes sense.

But, there are plenty of silly mistakes committed by Microsoft's
programmers which makes the Last-Access date of little use.  The
possibly the worst program mistake with this value is by Windows
Explorer.

As shown above, when you click the right button on an icon of a file
and select the properties menu, you can examine the Last-Access date
(in this case you get only the date without time) along with the other
two file date values.  But, if you are alert, you will notice that
the Last-Access date is always today's date.  Yes, the very act of
examining the Last-Access date value triggers the update of the value.

When a system administrator makes a regularly scheduled backup, he
usually performs a full backup every so often, copying every file
in a drive.  Now, that is an act of Access.  Copying a file will
also update the Last-Access date.

Conclusion:

If Microsoft's programmers had been very careful not updating the
Last-Access values under certain common file access cases, this
value could have become a very useful parameter in file selection
for file management (backup) activities.  Unfortunately, they wrote
so many programs that ignored the designer's apparent intention.
Now, it is too late.  The Last-Access date is even more useless
than the doomed File-Create date.

We recommend the use of /FC (File-Create date) only in carefully
controlled circumstances.  The Last-Access date (selected by /FA)
seems nearly useless for meaningful file management activities.

Original DOS file system had only 32 bytes to represent a file in
the directory.  The very restrictive 8.3 filename and the limited
granularity (2 second) in file date are corrected in the Win32
file systems (VFAT).  But, the generous allocation of lots of
bytes (24 bytes just to store the file date in three flavors) which
bloats the system resource usage but provides little useful
information seems to symbolize what we know as Windows Operating
System.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #16

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Gathering files into one directory using XXCOPY
Date:    2000-09-14
===============================================================================

The trouble is...

Do you know approximately how many files there are on your disk?
Many people don't have a faintest idea.  But, if you find the XXCOPY
utility useful at all, you should check the numbers every now and then.
By the way, in my own modest machine, the C: drive has approximately
150,000 files in 8,000 directories totaling about 20 GB.

At any rate, we all face the same headache; too many files in too
many directories.  Finding a file now becomes a project.  We try
hard to come up with a better tool in our losing battle.

Search and collect files into just one directory.

In many cases, collecting certain files into a directory may save a
lot of time.  For example, if you gather all Microsoft Word document
(.DOC) files from the entire volume into just one subdirectory,
browsing them and locating a particular file become much easier.
That is what XXCOPY's /SX, /SG and their variations are for.

The traditional way to do this is (don't type beyond the comment //... ),

XCOPY  C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /S       // using Microsoft's XCOPY
XXCOPY C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /S       // the same here with XXCOPY

The /S switch makes the copy operation to recursively
go inside subdirectories and copy all matching files.
If subdirectories are not present in the destination,
they will be created as needed.

----------------------------------------------------------
Note that the destination directory was deliberately
chosen in a different drive in the examples above.
Watch out if the destination is in the same volume...

XCOPY  C:\*.doc  C:\mydocs\   /S       // a FATAL error
XXCOPY C:\*.doc  C:\mydocs\   /S /CCY

This is a classic case of the cyclic copy situation which
Microsoft's XCOPY cannot handle.  Using /CCY, our XXCOPY
allows you to specify the destination in the same volume.
See XXTB #07 for detail.
----------------------------------------------------------

Although the files you wanted are all copied into the destination,
the destination directory will inevitably have many subdirectories
which makes your next step still very time-consuming.

XXCOPY provides better solutions.

XXCOPY has a better way to deal with the situation that avoids making
subdirectories in the destination.  Of course, it is inevitable that
many files share the same filename.  So, XXCOPY synthesizes new
names when duplicate files are to be copied into the destination.

XXCOPY C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /SX
XXCOPY C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /SG

Our original directory-flattening functions (/SX, /SL and /SR) combine
the source directory path (only the distinguishing part) with the
source filename to form a long filename which is always unique
(and you can tell where the files are from).

By popular demand by XXCOPY users, we re-engineered the new file-gathering
functions /SG and its variations which retain the original filename.

/SG     same as /SGN (newest one and sorted by newness)
/SGO    sorted, oldest file first
/SGF    unsorted, first come first served

/SGOO   picks the oldest file
/SGFO   picks the first file encountered

That's a total of nine flavors to choose from!  Our favorite is /SGN
which got the honor of being equivalent to its shorter version, /SG.

The /SX (/SL or /SR) switch flattens a directory.

To understand how these schemes work, it is easiest to actually
run the command and take a look at the destination directory.

XXCOPY C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /SX     // puts path in the middle

The result would be

D:\mydocs\MYFILEMy Documentsword.DOC
D:\mydocs\MYFILEJunkVote2000gore.DOC
D:\mydocs\MYFILEJunkVote2000bush.DOC
D:\mydocs\MYFILEJunkVote1996dole.DOC
...

The four MYFILE.DOC files are collected from four directories.
In this case, the backslash (directory name delimiter) is converted
into a legal character which is infrequently used in filenames
(default = back-apostrophe ()).  (See below to select the directory
name delimiter character other than the default character).

The /SL and /SR variations respectively place the pathname part
either at the left or at the right of the filename.  We like the
/SX version the best among the three variations because the new
filename starts like the original and the ending also remains
the same so the Windows knows which application to associate
the file when you double click the file icon.

The /SG switch gathers files into a directory.

All the file-gathering functions (/SG and its variations) work
identically if there is only one file for a given filename.
The switches with O (not zero, but Oh) at the end keep only one file
Newest, Oldest, or the First one found) for a given filename.

On the other hand, other /SG functions have to gather all files
with the same filename into one directory.  Therefore, we need to
synthesize the filenames for the duplicates.  XXCOPY simply adds
a "middle name" to the filename.  For example,

XXCOPY C:\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /SG     // sort, newest file first

The result would be

...

These functions are fun to play with.
For example, just see how many .JPG (image) files are on your system

XXCOPY C:\*.jpg  C:\temp\   /SG /CCY

You may be surprised how much space is tied up with them.
This particular example may become your favorite tool to
snoop your children's computer for questionable pictures!!!

Reversal of flattening = rebuilding the tree.

With regard to the difference between /SX and /SG, for a casual and
temporary usage, the /SG switch seems easier for most people.  The
most important difference of the two approaches is that the /SX (and
also /SL and /SR) switch synthesizes the new filename without losing
the origin of the file.  As a matter of fact, XXCOPY provides the
following three switches which allow you to rebuild the original
directory structure from the destination (flattened) directory.

/SLR   Rebuild the original directory from directory made by /SL
/SXR   Rebuild the original directory from directory made by /SX
/SRR   Rebuild the original directory from directory made by /SR

Note that these switch must match the way the flattened directory
was made.  For example if you flatten a directory using /SL, you
must use /SLR and so on.  Also, the directory name delimiter
character must be consistent between the flattening and the
rebuilding steps.

Examples:

XXCOPY C:\word\*.doc  D:\mydocs\   /SX        // flattens
XXCOPY D:\mydocs\     C:\word2\    /SXR       // rebuilds

The ultimate destination directory (C:\word2\) would contain
the same files and subdirectories as in the above two steps
when you run the following command which copies the files
to the destination directly.

XXCOPY C:\word\*.doc  C:\word2\    /S

About the directory name delimiter character.

The directory name delimiter can be any legal non-alphabetic,
non-blank character.  The following line lists all such characters:

!  #  $% & ' ( ) - . @ ^ _  { } ~ Since many of them are frequently used in common English usage and therefore likely to appear in filename, the choice for the default delimiter character (the back-apostrophe character ) was chosen. The next good candidate is probably the caret symbol (^). The trouble here is that the character used as the substitute for the backslash character must be a legal character for a filename, therefore, it is inevitable that the chosen delimiter may already be a part of existing filename. In such unfortunate cases, the directory name which would be rebuilt from the synthesized name would not be identical to the original path, a small inconvenience. Final note. Lastly, let me remind you that gathering files into a directory is nice, but that contributes to yet more redundant files. So, make sure that you remove all the files you collected for a temporary purpose as soon as you are done with them. One way to deal with it is to always use the same one directory for temporary jobs.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #17 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Selecting files by file date amd time using XXCOPY Date: 2001-02-23 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction The filedate value offers yet another trait to select files for various file management operations. Microsoft's XCOPY allows you to specify a cut-off date to select some recently created files. Our XXCOPY, on the other hand, seizes the opportunity with respect to the filedate (and time) to a much greater extent for qualifying files for a large collection of functions. While the fundamental elements of filedate-related operations are quite simple, the total number of variations may be daunting to some users. So to ease the pain of memorizing the details, here in this article, simpler things are presented first, followed by more complicated aspects. The file date/time related XXCOPY switches. The ten basic filetime switches fall into either of the two groups: Comparison to the reference file (newer/older/same/different) /DA, /DB, /DS, /DX ; newer, older, same, different Relative and Absolute date specifiers (you give the range of date) /DA#n, /DB#n, /DO#n ; as how many days ago from today /DA:date, /DB:date, /DO:date ; date specified as yyyy-mm-dd Comparing the filetime of two files The filetime comparison switches are used mainly for directory synchronization and various backup operations based on file time. Therefore, in all cases, the file time comparison is made on a pair of files; one from the first (source) directory, and the other from the second (destination ,or sometimes reference) directory. In this case, the pair of files are compared not only by the filedate, but also by the file time to the finest value (hour, minute, and second) (see below for /FF for details). Since the comparison is made on the file time value which are stored in the respective directory, the XXCOPY user does not specify the value and therefore, the command syntax for these switches are the simplest; /D, /DA, /DB, /DX, /DS without any user-specified parameter. /D Same as /DA /DA Copies newer files and brand new files. /DB Copies older files and brand new files. /DX Copies different-date files only. /DS Copies same date/time files only. Testing file's date against a user-specified date range Unlike the file time comparison method presented in the preceding section, XXCOPY allows you to select files based on the filedate associated with each file which are expressed in either the relative date (how many days ago from today), or the absolute date (specified in year, month and day). For this feature, XXCOPY maintains one or two dates to qualify files for file management operations. "A-date value" for On-or-After date (entered by /DA: or /DA#) "B-date value" for On-or-Before date (entered by /DB: or /DA#) The relative date specifiers System administrators often refer to a group of files by the age of the files for backup operations. One of the most natural ways of specifying them is the file age measured in days (relative to the current date). /DA#<n> Copies files that were changed on or after <n> days ago. /DB#<n> Copies files that were changed on or before <n> days ago. Examples of command lines using the relative date: XXCOPY src dst /DA#60 // After 60 days ago XXCOPY src dst /DB#30 // Before 30 days ago XXCOPY src dst /DA#60 /DB#30 // files with age of 30-60 days XXCOPY src dst /D#100 // same as /DA#100 As you can see from the examples, you may specify only one of the "A-date value" and "B-date value" or both. If you specify only one date value, then the other end is open-ended. Note that the file age is measured by the number of days starting 0 (zero) as the value for files made today, 1 (one) for files made yesterday, and so on. When you specify both the "A-date value" and "B-date value", the date range you specify may be used for an inclusive selection or exclusive selection, depending on which of the two values are newer. The following examples illustrate this point more clearly. XXCOPY src dst /DA#60 /DB#30 // files with age of 30-60 days XXCOPY src dst /DB#60 /DA#30 // age >= 60 or age <= 30 Here, two same date values are specified for the opposite /DA: and /DB: switches. The first example is the most common case where the two dates specify the beginning and the end of a single period. On the other hand, the second example shows different case where the two date are applied toward the opposite direction in the timeline which in effect excludes files in the excluded period (files with age 31-59 days are NOT selected) --- such a case is accepted as a valid command. Note that when the age is referred to by the number of days, it is not measured by the multiple of 24 hours. Rather, the 0th day (today) began at midnight today to take care any fraction of today. That is, /DA#0 specifies the files made on or after midnight today. This scheme allows the cut-off time to be midnight of each day. The relative time specifiers The relative time specifier adds few more twists to the relative date specifier. In the /DA#n /DB#n or /DO#n switches, when the age value n is given as a number without a suffix, the age will be measured by number of the days. This is probably most common usage. But, you may add a single-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S) to the value (for Days, Hours, Minutes or Seconds, respectively). Examples: XXCOPY src /S /LDT /DA#30M // list files made within 30 min. XXCOPY src dst /s /DA#24H // copy files made within 24 hours XXCOPY src dst /s /DA#0 // copy files made today (since midnight) The absolute date specifiers Since we reference dates by year, month and day quite often in our day-to-day lives, it is also very natural for us to specify the file time as such. /DA:<date> Copies files that were changed on or after the specified date. /DB:<date> Copies files that were changed on or before the specified date. Examples of command lines using the absolute date: XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-1-1 XXCOPY src dst /DB:1999-12-31 XXCOPY src dst /DA:1998-1-1 /DB:2000-8-31 XXCOPY src dst /D:1998-1-1 // same as /DA#1998-1-1 Now, you already know the essential mechanism of XXCOPY which controls file selection based on the filedate. Nearly all of the remaining discussion is for various shortcuts and clarifications of details. The "O-date value" for the same parameter When the "A-date value" is the same as the "B-date value" (to specify a particular date), you may use the third way, the "O-date value" to combine the two into one parameter. You can use the "O-date value" (On the date) whenever the "A-date value" and the "B-date value" are the same. (Here, the letter O (oh, not zero) is shown in lowercase (o) to avoid confusion.) The following two commands are equivalent: XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-5-1 /DB:2000-5-1 XXCOPY src dst /Do:2000-5-1 It also applies to the relative date specifier. The following two commands are equivalent. XXCOPY src dst /DA#80 /DB#80 XXCOPY src dst /Do#80 Shortcut for Today and Yesterday One of the most common date used with XXCOPY is the current date (today) and one day earlier (yesterday). So, we assign the dot (.) parameter as a shortcut for today's date for the /DA and /Do switches, and as a shortcut for yesterday's date for the /DB switch. /DB:. or /DB#. specify filedate date is Yesterday or earlier. /DA:. or /DA#. specify filedate that is today or later. /Do:. or /Do#. specify filedate that is today only. Partial date specifiers You may specify a month by omitting the day-of-the-month value. If only two numbers are given, one must be a 4-digit year value. The following command lines all specify the entire month of February, 2000. The "B-date value" in this context specifies the last day of the month, and the "O-date value" in this context specify the whole month. XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-2-1 /DB:2000-2-29 XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-2 /DB:2000-2 XXCOPY src dst /Do:2000-2 Similarly, you may specify the filedate by the year. The following three cases are equivalent. XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-1-1 /DB:2000-12-31 XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000 /DB:2000 XXCOPY src dst /Do:2000 The partial date specifiers that are shown so far are for the cases of the whole month and the whole year. But, the usage of partial date specifier is not limited to such cases. When it is used for the /DA parameter, the partial date value specifies the first day of the month/year. When it is used for the /DB parameter, it denotes the end of the month/year. And, when it is used for the /Do parameter, it selects the whole month/year. Here are some examples. XXCOPY src dst /DA:1999-4 // same as /DA:1999-04-01 XXCOPY src dst /DA:1998 // same as /DB:1998-01-01 XXCOPY src dst /DB:2000-5 // same as /DB:2000-05-31 XXCOPY src dst /DB:1998 // same as /DB:1998-12-31 XXCOPY src dst /Do:2000-2 // the month of Feb, 2000 XXCOPY src dst /Do:2000 // the whole year 2000 XXCOPY src dst /DA:1998-4 /DB:1999 // /DA:1998-04-01 /DB:1999-12-31 Odd cases: The relative and absolute date specifiers can be mixed in a command. Although most users avoid mixing the two types of expressing the date value, there is nothing inherently wrong about using both the relative and absolute date specifiers. XXCOPY src dst /DA:2000-1-1 /DB#7 This example specifies files that are at least one week old which are made in the year 2000. You cannot specify two periods in timeline in one XXCOPY command. That is, XXCOPY maintains one "A-date value" and one "B-date value". If you specify two A-date values, the first such value will be discarded. International conventions We endorse the ISO-8601 convention (DMXXTB #025) which denotes the date/time value in the most logical order. But, XXCOPY also accepts other conventions if the date value is unambiguously specified. It allows one of the three (ISO, US and EU) conventions to be used for an absolute date specifier as long as it is value is unambiguous. For example, /DA:2000-01-02 // ISO the first value is larger than 1970 /DA:0-1-2 // ISO 0 (for 2000) cannot be for month or day /DA:12-13-2000 // US the value 13 cannot be a month value /DA:01-13-01 // US the only one to have 13 in the middle /DA:13-10-2000 // EU the value 13 cannot be a month value This applies to the partial date specifiers. Therefore, both /DA:2000-03 and /DA:03-2000 are accepted as equally unambiguous. But, when there are more than one way to interpret the date value, the system's date format setting will be used to resolve ambiguity. The following date specifiers are such ambiguous cases and we suggest you avoid these cases. /DA:1-2-3 // can be ISO, US, or EU; pretty bad /DA:12-12-12 // can be ISO, US, or EU /DA:1-2-2000 // can be US or EU /DA:11-12-13 // can be ISO, US, or EU /DA:13-12-11 // can be ISO, or EU I hope by now, you are convinced of the superiority of the ISO notation which also gives you the convenience of easy sorting. In the case of the partial date specifier, the year value must always be in a full 4-digit value. In this case, the order of the year and month value can be switched without causing any ambiguity. For example; /DA:2000-01 // partial ISO notation /DA:12-1999 // US/EU File time-related switches All file time related functions can be further modified by various switches to meet your specific needs which may be different from the majority users. /FW, /FA, /FC (Last-Written, Last-Accessed, Created) Under normal circumstances, the file date/time XXCOPY uses is the time the file was last written (the commonly used file time value, /FW as the default), it can be substituted by the last-accessed time (/FA) or file creation time (/FC). /FL, /FU (Local time, UTC time) The commonly used file time is expressed by the local time (/FL as the default). However, in networking environment, it may be more convenient for some users to enter the file time using the UTC time (/FU) which is also known as GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). /FF (Fuzzy Filetime) When file time is compared against one another in a mixed OS environment, the granularity of the file time stamp (which is usually set by the particular file system) may cause problems. For example, the FAT based file systems (FAT12, FAT16, FAT32) uses file time which is measured by two second interval whereas unix-based file system uses one second interval. The NTFS uses much finer filetime. The /FF switch forces XXCOPY to ignore the filetime difference within plus/minus 2 seconds so that a timestamp-based incremental backup between an NTFS volume and a FAT volume (or more broadly beteen different file systems) without selecting all files due to the inherent difference in the timestamp granularity.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #18 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The filename matching schemes in Win32 and DOS Date: 2009-02-10 (revised with a new subject) =============================================================================== Longname revisited When Microsoft introduced the long filename to the Windows operating systems (Windows 95, 98, ME, NT4, and 2000), the legacy file access method using the shortname alias (the so-called 8.3 format) had to be supported. Having two names for an object solved many problems. Yet, it also created a few undesirable side effects, albeit they are rather subtle. The most notorious aspect of the dual identity for the file and directory, is probably the synthesized shortname when a file is copied. XXCOPY's /NX switch (by default) solves most of this problems by preserving the shortname. The filename matching schemes (Loose name-matching) A close examination of the behaviors of Microsoft's XCOPY utility with regard to the filename matching function reveals an interesting but potentially troubling implementation. That is, the filename matching in XCOPY (as well as the DIR command) is performed on both the longname and the shortname. When either of the names matches the filename template, the file is selected. Say, you have a file \src\longname5.txt (shortname LONGNA~1.TXT). When you use Microsoft's file utilities such as the DIR, COPY, or XCOPY commands in the Win32 environment, the file can be accessed in any of the following commands, DIR \src\*5.txt DIR \src\*1.txt COPY \src\*5.txt COPY \src\*1.txt XCOPY \src\*5.txt XCOPY \src\*1.txt So, in the Win32 environment, a filename pattern applies to both the longname and the shortname. Our XXCOPY supported the loose Now, try the following commands: DIR c:\windows\system32\*1.dll XCOPY c:\windows\system32\*1.dll c:\temp1\ ROBOCPY c:\windows\system32\ *1.dll c:\temp2\ You may be surprised that some of the files chosen do not have the filename pattern you specified. A close examination of the source directory (try the DIR /X command) reveals that those files in question have a SFN like MICROS~1.DLL that matches the pattern. ---------------------------------------------------------------- Our XXCOPY supported the loose name-matching scheme until ver 2.97.8. However, as the number of files in a directory has been steadily growing, the chances of encountering an inadvertent match to the short (8.3) name has also lately become a very serious issue. With the demise of XCOPY (that is no longer supported by Microsoft), it is time for us to stop honoring the mindless compatibility in this regard. See below for details. ---------------------------------------------------------------- The /N switch of XCOPY Presumably, the idea behind the /N switch of Microsoft's XCOPY utility is to emulate the DOS (real mode) environment by handling the filename by the shortname (8.3) format. Indeed, when files are copied, the destination will only have the shortnames. But, Microsoft programmed XCOPY's filename matching to behave identically whether or not you specify the /N switch. Let's look at the following lines for the two files listed above. XCOPY \src\*1.txt /N XCOPY \src\*5.txt /N XXCOPY \src\*1.txt /N XXCOPY \src\*5.txt /N In either case, the file, LONGNA~1.TXT will be copied into the destination. Enter the /NP (Precise name-matching) switch As discussed above, a filename pattern is typically matched to both the long name and the short name with most of application programs in the Windows environment. This is due to the fact that most applications simply use library functions supplied by Microsoft. Due to the significant increase in the probability of inadvertent (and often unnoticed) matches with the short name when the total number of files in a given directory becomes very large (say, a few thousand files), it became unacceptable for XXCOPY to maintain the compatibility in its file-matching behavior to Microsoft's products. In order to retain a full control of the name matching operation, XXCOPY offers you an option on this issue: /NP // Enables Precise Name-matching /NP0 // Disables Precise Name-matching -------------------------------------------------------- With versions v2.97.8 or earlier, XXCOPY's default name-matching scheme was compatible with Microsoft's Loose name-matching scheme (/NP0). Starting with v.2.97.8, XXCOPY reversed the default and now uses the "Precise name-matching" scheme (/NP) by default. In practice, you hardly ever need the /NP0 operation. After all, Microsoft's Loose name-matching is madness. -------------------------------------------------------- The relationship between the /N and /NP switches. The /N function forces XXCOPY to view and treat files using the short (8.3) names only. Therefore, even though the /NP switch that operates independently with the /N switch, when when the /N switch is in effect, the /NP switch setting becomes irrelevant. That's because with /N, the file-selection mechanism no longer uses the dual-name matching scheme. In short, with /N, the distinction between /NP and /NP0 is moot. Wildcards: the DOS-way and the Win32-way. With the longname in the Win32 environment, came the new filename matching algorithm which accommodate the new reality. But, the reality is not very clean when you take a closer look. For example,try Microsoft's XCOPY with "very_long_name.html" XCOPY ????????.htm // 8 characters before the dot XCOPY ????.??? // 3 characters after the dot Notice that the filename has 14 and 4 character before and after the dot respectively. But, both of the above command line succesuflly matches the file and proceeds. This is in Win32!!! The following command lines using Microsoft's XCOPY behave differently depending on the DOS/Win32 environments. XCOPY AB*XYZ.?? // In DOS, ABCDEFGH.OK and ABCDXYZ are copied. XCOPY AB*XYZ.?? // In Win32, neither of them is copied. Our XXCOPY/XXCOPY16 faithfully imitates the behavior of XCOPY (to do otherwise would make the user even more confused). There are many other cases which cause unwelcome surprises... We expect many system administrators find themselves in both the DOS and Win32 environments from time to time and choose the appropriate version (XCOPY16 or XXCOPY) accordingly. So, having two sets of file-matching rules is last thing the users need. This is especially true with XXCOPY which now has a lot more cases of filename matching situations: the Wild-Wildcard Source, the exclusion specifiers, and the inclusion specifiers (e.g., alternate filename templates). Enter the /NW and /ND switches: With XXCOPY, you have full control of the algorithm on filename matching with wildcards. /NW Win32-scheme in filename matching (default in XXCOPY) /ND DOS-scheme (the 8.3 filename) in filename matching You may combine this switch with other filename-related switches (/NP /N /NX). In most situations, the best choice for XXCOPY is /NW/NP/N0/NX (which is the plain defaults). You may use /NW and /N combination which applies the Win-32 wildcard matching scheme to the shortname. Note the use of /ND (DOS-way) forces the /N switch enabled.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #19 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY in batch files Date: 2000-12-31 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: XXCOPY as a general purpose file management tool, works well as a hand-typed command in a DOS Box. It is also a useful building block of a complex task written as a batch file for a job like a full system backup, daily incremental backup as well as a specialized project archiving. In these cases, the whole job is made of a series of XXCOPY commands since XXCOPY is better suited to handle one directory (and its subdirectories) at a time. It is not uncommon that a well- written batch file for a backup job consists of ten or more lines of XXCOPY commands. Since XXCOPY plays an important role in batch programming, mastering its command switches which are designed for such purposes will help you write better batch files. The switches that are particularly useful inside a batch file are: /YY /CB /CBQ /CE /EC /IA /IP How to get rid of the Y/N prompt. This is probably the most frequently asked question with regard to batch files. ------------------------------------------------------------- The following command shows the switches which prompt you. XXCOPY /YY /? ------------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY provides various switches to suppress specific user prompts. For example, /ZY is a variation of /Z which does not produce user prompts and good for batch file. Similarly, /PD0 suppresses a user prompt for directory processing (mostly for deletion). But, it becomes a hassle even to an experienced XXCOPY users. Yes, XXCOPY has grown to be a monster with so many switches, you just can't remember all. So, we now have an all-purpose prompt buster switch, /YY (super-YES). ------------------------------------------------------------- Note: although the use of /YY is very convenient to remove the various warning prompts, it is recommended only in well-tested batch files where any typing error would not cause any serious damage. E.g. XXCOPY %1 %2 /CLONE /YY This is probably the worst place to use the /YY switch. A user-supplied parameters (%1 and %2) in a batch file make the command is susceptible to human error. Just remember that the various warning prompts are there for good reason. Using the /YY switch, you are denying yourself benefit of the safeguard. ------------------------------------------------------------ Example of a standard batch file. Advanced batch programmers test the exit code (ERRORLEVEL) returned by a program and branch off if certain conditions are met (e.g., terminate when a fatal error occurs). Due to the severe limitation in the batch language, a typical batch file with conditional branching usually looks quite unsightly. ------------------------------------------------------ XXCOPY c:\windows\ d:\backup\windows\ /S /Y IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step2 IF ERRORLEVEL 1 GOTO end :step2 XXCOPY c:\mydir\ d:\backup\mydir\ /S /Y IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step3 IF ERRORLEVEL 1 GOTO end :step3 XXCOPY c:\yourdir\ d:\backup\yourdir\ /S /Y IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step3 IF ERRORLEVEL 1 GOTO end ... :end ------------------------------------------------------ Here, the ERRORLEVEL returned by XXCOPY is tested for both the lower and the upper bounds to perform the conditional branching. Most of the typing is consumed for the error handling. It takes a lot of self discipline to write a good bath file with proper testing. By the way, a list of the exit code generated by XXCOPY can be viewed by running the following command: XXCOPY /HELPE Also see article: XXTB #31, about Exit Code. Using the /CB switch, the same sequence becomes... ------------------------------------------------------ XXCOPY c:\windows\ d:\backup\windows\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CB c:\mydir\ d:\backup\mydir\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CB c:\yourdir\ d:\backup\yourdir\ /S /Y ... :end ------------------------------------------------------ In this alternative batch file, the IF ERRORLEVEL... lines are eliminated by the use of the /CB switch (except the first line). The /CB switch which stands for "Continue-Batch" examines the exit code returned by the previous execution of XXCOPY and immediately terminates the current execution if the previous error condition was fatal (such as disk-full, or a user-abort). How does one instance of XXCOPY know the exit code of its previous run? Simple. XXCOPY stores its exit code in the system registry for its own retrieval later. Notice that there is no awkward branching in the batch file. Actually, the exit code of one XXCOPY is NOT examined by the batch execution mechanism. Therefore, the flow of the batch file is always to execute all the lines in the file. The /CB switch provides a mechanism where a fatal error reported by one XXCOPY instance will propagate through the rest of the batch file execution that all subsequent XXCOPY lines with the /CB switch will be nullified. Note: The position of the /CB switch within the command line is not significant. Because of it's early action, it seems most appropriate to place it early on the line. /CBQ for a cleaner screen when the batch file is aborted. Actually, /CBQ (the quiet version) is preferred by most users since this version will keep the console screen much cleaner when it is combined with a "ECHO OFF" statement in the batch file. ------------------------------------------------------ @ECHO OFF XXCOPY c:\windows\ d:\backup\windows\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CBQ c:\mydir\ d:\backup\mydir\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CBQ c:\yourdir\ d:\backup\yourdir\ /S /Y ... :end ------------------------------------------------------ The virtue of running the batch file with the ECHO OFF setting is that the XXCOPY lines subsequent to a fatal error of an XXCOPY will not clobber the screen. The last XXCOPY line with the error message will not be pushed off the screen with echoed command lines even though they terminate immediately. --------------------------------------------------------- What does the @ECHO OFF statement do? ECHO OFF inside a batch file turns off the display of the command line (the current line in the batch file. Without it, every line in the batch file will appear on your console. An at sign (@) at the beginning of a line in a batch file turns off echoing just one line (You may add an at sign (@) on every line to have the same effect as ECHO OFF. The first at sign (@) in the first line suppressing the echoing of its line, too. --------------------------------------------------------- /EC and /CE for even a better batch file. The problem of running the batch file with ECHO OFF mode is that the screen will not show the command invocation. What we really want is to generate no output to the console when XXCOPY is terminated by the /CB mechanism but to echo the invocation line if it will continue the execution. That is what /EC (to echo the command line) does. Moreover the /CBQ/EC combination is so handy in a batch file, XXCOPY assigns a new switch, /CE as the shortcut for /CBQ/EC. So, rewriting the same batch file, it should look like ------------------------------------------------------ @ECHO OFF XXCOPY /EC c:\windows\ d:\backup\windows\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CE c:\mydir\ d:\backup\mydir\ /S /Y XXCOPY /CE c:\yourdir\ d:\backup\yourdir\ /S /Y ... :end ------------------------------------------------------ Note that it is not a typo! The first line uses /EC (echo) and the other lines are with /CE (shortcut for /CBQ/EC). It looks symmetrical and even cute. Using XXCOPY macro to create a unique destination. When you create a batch file for a periodic (daily) backup, you may want to encode the current date (today) as a part of the destination directory name you create. XXCOPY's macro reference feature (/$xxxx$) was designed exactly for that. For example, when you can enter XXCOPY C:\ D:\mybackup\DB/$YYMMDD$\ /CLONE and it will be expanded to XXCOPY C:\ D:\mybackup\DB011225\ /CLONE (assuming the current (today's) date is December 25, 2001.) See article: XXTB #24, about Macros. Testing if a directory exists The following sequence is a well established technique to test whether or not a directory exists in a batch file. ------------------------------------------------------ IF EXIST d:\backup\mybackup\nul goto next XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\mybackup\ /CLONE :next ------------------------------------------------------ The IF EXIST (and IF NOT EXIST) construct is good only for a file, not a directory. Here, the neat trick is based upon the fact the virtual file, "NUL" is guaranteed to exist on any directory. Now, using XXCOPY'S /IA (which stands for "If Absent"), the same command line will be re-written as ------------------------------------------------------ XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\mybackup\ /IA /CLONE ------------------------------------------------------ The /IA switch continues to run only if the destination directory is absent (that is, /IA will terminate immediately if the destination exists). It is equivalent to the "IF NOT EXIST" construct in the batch file. On the other hand, /IP (If Present) continues to run only if the destination is present (that is, /IP will terminate immediately if the destination does not exist). it is exact opposite of /IA. Testing a directory using macro. The power of /IA and /IP becomes even more evident when you use a destination directory which is specified by a macro reference. ------------------------------------------------------ XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\DB/$YYMMDD$\ /IA /CLONE ------------------------------------------------------ In this case, it's not a matter of making the batch file shorter and prettier. There is no simple way to test the presence or the absence of a directory whose name is "synthesized". This command executes only when the directory is absent. This technique prevents running the same daily backup routine twice on the same day.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #20 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: More on Directory Cloning using XXCOPY Date: 2000-10-31 =============================================================================== The topics included in this page were originally in the Disk Cloning article XXTB #10. Since most first-time visitors want to learn the simple disk clone operation and tend to be in a hurry, I decided to do them a favor by removing much of the variations and related materials from the page and keep the other article focused on the disk clone case only. Here, a few variations which are related to the /CLONE switch are discussed. 1. Partial Disk cloning (bootable): This is a variation of the first one (Full Disk Cloning). It copies the minimum set of files into the new disk so that the new disk will become a bootable disk. You may selectively add more directories and files if you want. Here, the windows directory is assumed to be named C:\Windows (this is the default; but some people may call the windows directory C:\Win95, C:\Win98 or whatever...) Batch file contents ---------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /h/r/y/ks/zy XXCOPY C:\Windows D:\Windows /h/r/y/ks/zy/e/i/xtemp*\ ---------------------------------------------------------- Explanation: /i // initializes (creates if absent) the new directory /x // excludes (in this case, directories starting "temp") This batch file works even when the destination volume is not empty. It handles only the root directory (the top layer only without including all the subdirectories) in the first statement. The second one will handle the entire windows directory. The /xtemp*\ switch excludes all directories whose name starts "temp" in \Windows. This eliminates the official windows temporary directory (C:\windows\temp\) and the hidden internet-related temporary directory used by Internet Explorer (C"\windows\Temporary Internet Files\). You may add more exclusion items. Caution: The /CLONE, /Z, and /ZY switch performs deletion of extra directories and files in the destination. If you inadvertently specify a wrong destination, the consequence will be very severe. Some careless users have lost many files by this!!! Note that this script does not give you the absolute minimum set of files in the destination for Win9x. It will contain many files that are not essential to the minimum Win9x. Also note that an international (non-US) version of Windows may require additional language-specific files. 2. Partial Disk cloning (bootable, even smaller): This is another variation of the second one with more strict selection of files (but not the absolute bare minimum). Batch file contents ---------------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /h/r/y/ks/zy XXCOPY C:\Windows D:\Windows /h/r/y/ks/zy/i XXCOPY C:\Windows\system D:\Windows\system /h/r/y/ks/zy/i XXCOPY C:\Windows\fonts D:\Windows\fonts /h/r/y/ks/zy/i XXCOPY C:\Windows\inf D:\Windows\inf /h/r/y/ks/zy/i XXCOPY C:\Windows\command D:\Windows\command /h/r/y/ks/zy/i ---------------------------------------------------------------- Note that this script does not give you the absolute minimum set of files in the destination for Win9x. It will contain many files that are not essential to the minimum Win9x. Also note that an international (non-US) version of Windows may require additional language-specific files. 3. Backup to multiple removable media (floppy, CD-R, zip drive, tape) A very common headache in backup today is that none of our removable storage device such as the CD-R and Zip drive gives us a sufficient capacity for a full backup in one volume. Since most device drivers do not provide a volume-spanning capability, we are left without a decent solution. Here's one way to do it using XXCOPY. This technique is nothing new. It is as old as XCOPY and the Archive attribute bit. The basic principle is described in our earlier article, XXTB #06. Here, in the following example the A: (floppy disk) drive is used the destination --- but let's not kid ourselves... Batch file contents ---------------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY C:\ /aa/h/s/q :looptop @echo. @echo Insert a blank media and hit a key to continue @echo. @pause XXCOPY C:\ A:\ /m/h/r/y/ks/zy/s/q goto looptop ---------------------------------------------------------------- Explanation: /aa // sets the archive attribute bit (no copy takes place) /q // quiet (reduces screen output on superfluous info) /m // copies files with archive bit and clears the bit The first statement simply sets the archive bit on every file in the source directory. Then, the batch file enters an infinite loop (from which you can exit only by typing Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Break) where you are asked to insert a new diskette (or whatever), and exactly the same XXCOPY command copies a diskette-full chunk at a time. The trick here is the good old /M switch which clears the archive bit of as soon as a file is successfully copied to the destination. It's not really a fancy technique but it works. This technique is not limited to a full backup. You may choose a subdirectory and apply the same method (add the /i switch then). In a real life backup situation, I strongly suggest that you learn and use XXCOPY's /X and /EX switches in order to avoid files that do not need a backup. Otherwise, you will end up creating a massive amount of backup data where most of the files are available on your CD-ROMs somewhere. As Microsoft's programmers bloat the Windows software and force us to buy ever increasing amount of hard disk space, the percentage of user-generated data is declining in most computer systems. Therefore, we need to be clever and more selective in setting up the backup script. If you have a nifty batch file using XXCOPY and want to share with other XXCOPY users, please let us know. We may publish good ones. Please send E-Mail to <tech@xxcopy.com>.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #21 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY in a network environment Date: 2000-11-14 =============================================================================== While XXCOPY is useful in a stand-alone PC, it is widely used in network environments. Since the default settings of various XXCOPY operations are designed primarily for copying local drives, you need to pay special attentions when you operate XXCOPY in a network environment. In this article, the following XXCOPY command switches are examined specifically with networked environments in mind. /NX0 Disables the shortname preservation feature /FF Tolerates up to 2-second difference in time comparison /CK0 Disables pre-checking of the remaining space /FU Selects universal time (UNC) for file time 1. The Shortname preservation. One of the reasons XXCOPY enjoys its popularity among freeware users is the shortname preservation feature. While this feature is essential to ensure a proper duplication of the system drive, the feature may not work (and even becomes a detriment) in some networked environment with mixed Operating Systems (or file systems) where the source and the destination volumes are of different type in file system. It is best if you test whether the shortname-preserving feature is working for you on your particular environment. Since shortname preservation feature requires XXCOPY to issue a sequence of system calls for renaming, it is a time consuming operation especially when it fails. If your XXCOPY exhibits an inordinately low performance, you should suspect this feature as the likely cause of the trouble. In that case, just add /NX0 to disable the feature (giving up the idea of preserving the shortname). For example, it would be futile for XXCOPY to save the shortname while the underlying OS (e.g, Linux) does not even support it. XXCOPY sets the /NX switch on a local drive copy. And, if either the source or the destination is specified by an UNC (starting with two backslashes. E.g, \\myserver\cdrive\), the /NX0 is used as the default setting. If you assert your desire by an explicit /NX switch, the switch will be honored. Unfortunately, it is not always easy for XXCOPY to determine whether the combination of the source and the destination is suitable for the /NX operation, an explicit command switch of /NX and /NX0 should work the best. ----------------------------------------------------------- Starting with v2.43.x, the shortname preservation feature is disabled by an UNC specifier either on src or dst. Due to Microsoft' XCOPY added their /N switch in recent Windows 9x release, XXCOPY's shortname preservation feature is no longer assigned to /N. Starting with v2.42.0, it is controlled by /NX and /NX0. We regret that this change forced us to broke existing batch files. ----------------------------------------------------------- See article: XXTB #03, for related topics. 2. Time stamp granularity. Different file systems use different ways to keep track of the date and time information associated with a file. When you use XXCOPY to transfer files from one file system to another, you should be aware of the characteristics of the file system. The granularity of the file time maintained by the OS is the first one to note: File System File time granularity ----------------------------------------------- FAT12/FAT16/FAT32 2 sec NTFS 100 nsec Unix/Linux 1 sec If your XXCOPY operation does not check the file time as the criteria for file selection, the granularity is not an issue. However, when you use an operation which involves the file time, you should know more. The following list shows the switches which depend on the time stamp of the file. /BI Backup Incremental /BN Backup Newer files /Bo Backup Older files /BS Backup Same-time/size files /BX Backup Different-time/size files /BU Backup (combination using /BI) /DA Copies Newer files /DB Copies Older files /DS Copies Same-time files /DX Copies Different-time files /CLONE Backup (combination using /BI) The best way to handle such a case with mixed file systems is to use the /FF (Fuzzy Filetime) switch. With the switch, XXCOPY will ignore the difference in filetime values for up to 2 seconds to accommodate the granularity difference in file time among various file systems. 3. Remaining space check. Ideally speaking, a file copy utility should know the remaining space on the destination before a copy operation is started. That is exactly what XXCOPY does. However, when the destination directory is on a remote machine, the value XXCOPY receives as the remaining space from the Operating system is sometimes not accurate. When this happens, XXCOPY terminates the current session and returns the "Disk Full" error condition. Many users have reported that XXCOPY prematurely terminates a session due to a false reading on the remaining space. That is, XXCOPY's idealistic design backfires --- and the more primitive design (e.g., the COPY command) works better by not checking the remaining space. So, you can override XXCOPY's pre-check feature by /CK0 (default is /CK). 4. Time stamp type, and locality . The original FAT12 and FAT16 file systems used by DOS had only one type of file time which represents the last-modified time. The FAT32 and NTFS maintain three types of time stamps for each file. Time when the file was Last-modified (/FW default) Time when the file was First-created (/FC) Time when the file was Last-accessed (/FA) By default, XXCOPY uses the Last-modified value as the file time (/FW). The file time is referenced either by the local time or by the universal time (UTC, also known as GMT). The default setting uses the local time since most of us eat lunch at Noon(?). The setting is either /FL (Local, default) and /FU (UTC). Since we do not hear much problems associated with the time-representation aspects, we assume this is not a serious issue with XXCOPY. But, XXCOPY is prepared to deal with it. See article: XXTB #15, for related topics. 5. Conclusion In this article, a few solutions are provided to alleviate common problems dealing with XXCOPY operation across networked drives. The solutions listed here generally works. However, they are only a guideline and your case may involve other factors which are overlooked in this article. Please note that this article does not cover all common pitfalls. We welcome your feedback when you encounter similar problems which we have not yet addressed. Please send E-Mail to <tech@xxcopy.com>..  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #22 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The leading backslash in a filespec Date: 2002-01-03 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: As we see more and more IT professionals who are born after the WYSIWYG/GUI scheme was invented, certain key concepts which we took for granted are no longer a commonsense... xxcopy c:\ d:\ /clone xxcopy c: d: /clone If you know the difference of the two lines, just forget this. But, if you consider the two are about the same, this article is for you. The difference is subtle and in many cases, the two lines are the same, indeed. Howerver, in the second line, the context determines what will be copied and where will be the destination directory (and what will be deleted from the destination). Absolute pathspec and Relative pathspec. The first line of the above example explicitly specifies that both the source and the destination are the root directory of respective drives. The second line does not specify which directory in the source and which directory of the destination within the respective drives. That is, the second example above relies the exact location of both the source and the destination directories on the default behavior of the OS. Microsoft's OSes keep track of the current (default) directory on each volume. If it has not been defined yet, it will go to the root directory (which is what most users want). Depending on the setting, when you open up a DOS box, the current (default) directory may or may not be at the root directory. Also, the current directory of C: may be at c:\windows whereas on D:, it may be D:\. You just cannot easily predict what it may be. Therefore, the common assumption that an unspecified path is equivalent to the root directory is extremely dangerous with a tool like XXCOPY. The consequence of the /ZY switch (which is part of the /CLONE switch) on a wrong source or destination could be quite FATAL (wipes out all mismatched directories along with their entire contents). Actual examples: Let me give you one concrete example. If you run the following command, cd d:\mydir The current directory of Volume D: will be set to d:\mydir. So, unless you change the current (default) directory of Volume D: back to its root, when you say xxcopy c:\ d: /clone Then, the line is equivalent to xxcopy c:\ d:\mydir /clone Similarly, when volume C:'s current directory is not at the root directory (it could be at c:\windows) and you try to copy xxcopy c: d:\ /clone In this case, it is equivalent to xxcopy c:\Windows d:\ /clone Again, it would give you quite a surprise. More than one "current" directory: With the most popular setting of the DOS prompt which usually shows you the "current directory of the current drive" such as the following, C:\Windows> _ You don't get any feedback on what is the setting of another drive. For example, the same example shown above, the console (the DOS box window) C:\Windows> cd d:\mydir C:\Windows> _ When the cd (chdir) command succeeds, there will be no confirming message. The command is quietly accepted and executed. Why XXCOPY does not supply the leading backslash for you? Believe it or not, the way the Absolute pathspec and relative pathspec are handled throughout the command line environment, be it DOS, Win32, or even Unix, the convention for the absolute pathspec and the relative pathspec are so fundamental and ubiquitous, if we were to implement XXCOPY's own convention and let XXCOPY implicitly supply the missing leading backslash, it would create an unbelievable chaos. Therefore, XXCOPY cannot help you on this, except it prompts you with an additional warning prompt. Similar cases everywhere: The distinction of the absolute and relative path is not limited to the source and the destination pathspecs. It applies to any filename you specify in the XXCOPY command line (and also for most other programs in Windows). For example, we often hear users complaining about XXCOPY not creating the log file. You may have a habit of being casual about creating a log file, XXCOPY c:\src\ d:\dst\ /onmyerror.log and find no problem. Yet, when you make a batch file using the same line, you may not find the log file as easily. If you don't control the "current directory" of the batch file invocation, you may have a hard time locating the log file. -------------------------------------------------- In Windows (for all the 9x and NT families), every shortcut object comes with a setting of the "current directory" (Right-click on the icon and look for the "Start in" setting). In a case of a program file or a batch file, the directory specified in the "Start in" setting becomes the current directory when the program is executed. -------------------------------------------------- My advice is to spell out the full filespec always: XXCOPY c:\src\ d:\dst\ /on"C:\My Document\myerror.log" Conclusion: So, if you are in a position to advise others on how to use XXCOPY with a concrete example, please do not abbreviate the leading backslash for cloning a directory. This one-character difference could be just too great to ignore. Let me repeat, PLEASE NEVER USE A SLOPPY COMMAND LINE LIKE THIS xxcopy c: d: /clone // BAD BAD BAD EXAMPLE!!! The /CLONE switch is too dangerous to let the system default setting determine the fate. Instead always specify the directory using the full (absolute) directory path xxcopy c:\ d:\ /clone  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #23 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The enhanced features of XXCOPY at a glance Date: 2000-12-06 =============================================================================== Here are some of XXCOPY's enhanced features over Microsoft's XCOPY. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. "Wild-Wildcard" Source Specifier XXCOPY c:\windows\*\*cache*\*\*.jpg c:\myimages\ Note the number and the positions of asterisks in the source. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Exclusion switch (file template) XXCOPY c:\*\*cache*\* \dst\ /X*.gif /X*.bmp /X allows you to exclude files that match the template. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. Exclusion switch (directory template) XXCOPY c:\ \dst\ /S /Xtemp*\*\*.gif /X*\internet\*\*.mp3 /X allows you to specify a group of directories and/or files that match quite a variety of directory/file patterns. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. Inclusion switch (file template only) XXCOPY c:\*.img \dst /S /IN*.bmp /IN*.gif /IN*.bmp /IN allows you to specify an "include" filespec (alternate filename pattern). -------------------------------------------------------------------- 5. Limit by file size XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\ /S /SZ:-10000000 This example copyies files whose size is 10MB or less. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 6. Select files by age XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\ /S /DA#5 This command copies files that were made within 5 days -------------------------------------------------------------------- 7. Select files by year/month/date XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\ /S /DA:2000-10 This command copies files that were made in October, 2000 or later. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 8. Select the range of file date XXCOPY c:\ d:\backup\ /S /DA:1999-1-1 /DB:1999-6-30 The file range of Date betwen Jan 1 and Jun 30 of 1999. /DA (On-or-After) and /DB (On-or-Before) bracket the date range. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9. Alternative to DELTREE XXCOPY "c:\My Documents\*\*.mp3" /RMDIR /DB:1999-12-31 XXCOPY is not just for file copy. The rich set of file selection switches can be applied to file deletion as well. -------------------------------------------------------------------- 10. Complex file search for a listing of custom output format. XXCOPY c:\windows\*\*cache*\*\my*\*\*.jpg /LZDTL The /L switch offers a search and list capability with format control. This example lists Z(file size), D(ate), T(ime), and L(ongname). -------------------------------------------------------------------- This list gives you only ten relatively straightforward switches to illustrate the power of XXCOPY. The over 200 enhanced switches in XXCOPY can be combined for millions of combinations to fit your needs. For a complete list of switches, see XXTB #01.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #24 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY's Macro processing feature Date: 2010-01-01 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: When you create a batch file which performs a daily backup, you may want to name the destination directory after the current date and/or time. Using the standard batch file this is rather difficult without a help of some fancy batch enhancer. For example, you may want to name today's backup destination directory using the current time XXCOPY C:\ D:\BACKUP\DEC-20\ /S XXCOPY C:\ D:\BU001225\ /S XXCOPY C:\ D:\BACKUP\2000-12-25\ /S XXCOPY C:\ D:\BACKUP\DAILY\FEB.04.2000.BUP\ /S XXCOPY C:\ D:\BACKUP\WEEK\BKUP_WED.BUP\ /S What is needed is to synthesize certain names based on the current system time. The XXCOPY macro processing feature. XXCOPY provides a set of predefined variables which can be entered in your command line (or the current value in the string of environment variable, XXCOPY). The technique used here is sometimes called "Macro processing" albeit this is a very small implementation which allows you to reference (you cannot add new macro definitions) a predefined value through a simple rule of substitution. Macro reference may be used anywhere in your command line (or the XXCOPY environment variable (XXCOPY and XXCOPYX), or even in the exclusion item parameters. That is, anywhere you normally supply a string of characters, you can place a macro reference. The trouble is, people's tastes are so different, providing just one way would always make someone unhappy. Take the date for example, despite our crusade in advocating the ISO 8601 standard (yyyy-mm-dd), few would listen. So, XXCOPY provides just a few building blocks and lets you combine them whichever way you want. The macro reference examples Before showing the gory details, let me show you examples which give you a good start. Just observe what is going on. You will get a pretty good idea how XXCOPY processes the macros. Let's assume it is Friday, July 4, 2003 01:05:30 pm. /$DATE$---> 0704 // common 4-digit month/day /$TIME$---> 1305 // common 4-digit hour/minute /$YYYY-MM-DD$---> 2003-07-04 // hyphens may be added /$M-D-YY$---> 7-4-03 // no leading zeros for mn dy /$DD.MM.YY$---> 04.07.03 // Europeans may like this /$MON-DD$---> JUL-04 // 3-letter month may be used /$WWW$---> FRI // 3-letter day of week /$IIII-IWK-K$---> 2003-W17-5 // ISO-8601, Year, week no, day-of-week What is a valid macro reference? /$xxxxxx$XXCOPY's macro reference always starts with a slash (/) which is immediately followed by a macro reference string which starts with a dollar sign ($) followed by zero or more macro keywords and ends
by a dollar sign.

Within the two dollar signs of a macro reference (xxxxxx shown above),
zero or more of predefined macro keywords may be specified (multiple
keywords are combined without any separating character).

The following keywords are currently supported (we may add more
later).

Keyword     Value       comment
-----------------------------------------------------------
HOST        MYWINPC     up to 15 character machine name
YYYY        2003        4-digit year (good for 10000 years)
YY          03          2-digit year (good for a century)
Y           3           1-digit year (good for a decade)
MON         DEC         3-letter month name
MM          07          2-digit month
M           7           1 or 2 digit month (without leading 0)
DD          04          2-digit day
D           4           1 or 2 digit day (without leading 0)
HH          13          2-digit hour (00-23)
H           13          1 or 2 digit hour (0-23) (without leading 0)
NN          05          2-digit minute
N           5           1 or 2 digit minute  (without leading 0)
SS          30          2-digit second
S           30          1 or 2 digit second  (without leading 0)
DATE        0704        same as MMDD
TIME        1305        same as HHNN
WWW         FRI         3-letter day of week name
W           5           1-digit day of week (Sun:0 - Sat:6)
IIII        2003        4-digit year (ISO week number notation)
II          03          2-digit year (ISO, 2-digit-year value)
IWK         W17         2-digit week number (always prefixed by W)
K           5           1-digit day of week (ISO, Mon:1 - Sun:7)

Single-key macro reference

The simplest macro reference is made of one keyword inside.

/$DATE$    --->   0704

You may combine as many single-key macros

/$YYYY$/$MM$/$DD$   --->    20030704

Multiple-key macro reference

You may chain two or more keywords within a macro reference
without any other character.  A macro reference is parsed
from left to right and the longest string which matches the
pattern will be used first.

/$YYYYMMDD$  --->   20030704     // same as /$YYYY$/$MM$/$DD$
/$YDATE$     --->   30704

For readability and punctuation, the following characters are
also supported.

T ! # % & ' ( ) , - . @ _ { } ~ 

These characters function as a keyword and represent the character
literally (after expansion, they appear as typed in the reference).

/$YYYY-MM-DD$  --->   2003-07-04

Miscellaneous rules.

1.  You may use a keyword within a macro reference more than once.
(In nearly all cases, this makes little sense, but it's allowed).

/$YYYYYYYY$  --->   20032003  ( YYYY  and YYYY )
/$YYYYYYY$   --->   2003033   ( YYYY and YY and Y )
/$WWWW$      --->   FRI5      ( WWW and W )

2.  Macro reference is case-insensitive

/$DATE$      --->   0704
/$date$      --->   0704
/$DaTe$      --->   0704

3.  Macro reference is case-preserving

/$MON$       --->   JUL
/$mon$       --->   jul
/$Www$       --->   Fri
/$wWw$       --->   fRi

4.  A dollar sign ($) cannot be inside a macro reference. If you need a dollar sign, you should do it outside. /$MM/$DD$  --->   07$04 // a macro,$, and another macro

5.  Year, followed by week-number should be denoted by

/$IIII-IWK$  --->   2003-W27 // See below for details

Where can a macro reference be placed?

You may use a macro reference string ( /$xxxx$ )  anywhere in your
command line as well as in the environment variables, XXCOPY and
XXCOPYX (yes, even inside an exclusion specifier).  That means, you
may place it in the external exclusion list file (specified by
the /EX switch).  It is also permitted in alternate filename template
(/IN) specifiers.  In short, practically anywhere you enter a string
of text, XXCOPY will accept a macro reference and expand it
accordingly.

Recommendation of macro usage.

For DOS-compatibility, you should keep the directory names to
the 8.3 format.  It will be much easier to access directories
from a real mode (DOS) environment.

For routine backup, a five- or six-digit date code is probably
a good choice for most occasions.

d:\bu\bu/$yymmdd$.c\    --->   d:\bu\bu030704.c\
d:\bu\b/$ymmdd$_c\      --->   d:\bu\b30704_c\
d:\bu\bu_/$MONYY$\c\    --->   d:\bu\bu_JUL03\c\

Using two-digit year value as opposed to one-digit year value
is all up to you.  In general, just 1-digit year format gives
you values that are unique for ten years.  That's quite adequate
for most backup operations.  In this context, using a four-digit
year value (/$YYYY/) in the directory name is overkill especially if the directory name exceeds the 8.3 format. Environment variable (/%xxxx%). Aside from the pre-defined macro references, environment variables (E-var for short) can be referenced with a similar syntactic rule. Instead of the use of a pair of dollar signs for macro reference (e.g., /$DATE$), an E-var is referenced by a slash followed by a pair of percent signs (%) (e.g., /%USERNAME%). Note that the use of an E-var on command line (in the XXCOPY invocation line) is already supported by Windows system command processor (CMD.EXE) without XXCOPY's intervention. In such a case, the syntax is a pair of percent sign surrounding the name of E-var (without the leading slash character). E.g., (on command line) xxcopy c:\ d:\save\%USERNAME%\ /backup The usefulness of referencing an E-var is inside a command file (or an exclusion file) text which is beyond the reach of CMD.EXE. Here is an example of E-var used inside an XXCOPY command file: /x:c:\users\/%USERNAME%\favorites\ If the E-var for USERNAME is assigned to the word "john", then, the line above will be substituted to /x:c:\users\john\favorites\. XXCOPY processes a reference to E-var not only inside its command file (via /CF or /EX), but also in the command line. However, in a typical invocation of XXCOPY that is handled by Windows system command processor (CMD.EXE), the command line that is passed to the XXCOPY program is already processed by CMD.EXE that handles the use of E-vars. Therefore, XXCOPY's ability to process E-vars in the command line is usually moot. (Note that the leading slash character is needed by XXCOPY's case). ----------------------------------------------------------------- For advanced users with academic curiosity, the following two lines will produce the same result. xxcopy c:\ d:\save\%USERNAME%\ /backup xxcopy c:\ d:\save\/%%USERNAME%%\ /backup Hint: the %% sequence is an escape sequence that nullifies the built-in E-var substitution by Windows command processor. /%USERNAME% will be the character sequence XXCOPY actually sees. ----------------------------------------------------------------- The ISO 8601 standard. We take a very strong position in endorsing the ISO 8601 standard which provides logical and convenient guidelines in describing date and time values. Visit http://www.iso.ch. The most prominent aspect of the ISO 8601 standard is of course, its date order in the YYYY-MM-DD format and the 24-hour notation, hh:nn:ss. XXCOPY also supports ISO's lesser-known week date representation. According to the ISO definition, the week begins on Monday and ends on Sunday. XXCOPY denotes the ISO's day-of-the-week value using /$K$. The only difference between ISO's day-of-the- week value (/$K$) and the traditional day-of-the-week radix (/$W$) counterpart is the value for Sunday (/$K$= 7 and /$W$= 0); other days (Monday through Saturday) will have the same values. ISO 8601 also defines the "Week date" which assigns a number to each week of the year (More examples can be found here). Unfortunately, when the first day of the year does not coincide with the beginning of the week (Monday in ISO's specification), the week will straddle over two years for which special rules are made. A week belongs to the year which is more dominant (has four or more days in the week). So, the first week of the year (W01) is defined as the week which contains the 4th day of January. With this rule, up to three days at the beginning of the year and also up to three days at the end of the year the date may become a part of the previous calendar year or the next calendar year, respectively. This may be a bit confusing, but that's the rule and we understand why it is necessary. The Week-of-the-year value is always described with the prefix, W followed by a two-digit decimal value (starting 01) which is referenced by the /$IWK$keyword. E.g. Fri, 2003-07-04 ---> 2003-W27-5 Sun, 2003-12-28 ---> 2003-W52-7 Mon, 2003-12-29 ---> 2004-W01-1 == next year value Thu, 2004-01-01 ---> 2004-W01-4 Sat, 2005-01-01 ---> 2004-W53-6 == prev year value For this irregularity in the year values, XXCOPY assignes the /$IIII$(and /$II$for the two-digit notation) to be used in the week-of-the-year context to differentiate it from the calendar year value (/$YYYY$and /$YY$, respectively). Q and A: Q: Why T is in the list of punctuation characters? A: T is a special punctuation character as an exception since our favorite standard, the ISO 8601 stipulates the use of T to connect the date part and the time part. /$YYYY-MM-DDTHH.NN.SS$---> 2003-07-04T13.05.30 (Alas, the colon (:) character is not a legal character for a filename and the dots are used instead.) You may use @ as an alternative separator: /$YYYY-MM-DD@HH.NN.SS$---> 2003-07-04@13.05.30 Q: Is there any way to test exactly how my macro usage is working? A: If you are not sure of the effect of a macro, add the /EC (echo) switch that displays the full command line after the macro references are expanded. Example: XXCOPY \src \dst\/$DATE$\/$YYMMDD$\ /EC /W Here, the /EC gives you the line after the macro expansion, and /W will pause and let you terminate the command if you don't like the effect of the macro. Q: Why the slash (/) is used in the macro prefix? A: We wish we have more characters in the keyboard. Seriously, the design goal of the XXCOPY Macro feature was to allow you to use it in as many places as possible (within the source and destination specifiers, as well as in other switch parameters). Since the macro reference should be anywhere (including a partial word), the macro syntax has to use a terminator (hence, the$xxxx$sandwich). Because the dollar sign ($) is a valid
character for filename, we need a prefix character which is
not permitted in filename.  Actually, there are only nine
such characters in English alphabet ( " * ? : < > | \ / ) that
are not permitted in Windows' filename.

Every one of these character has some form of conflict with
other usages.

"  *  ?  \ are out of the question.
<  >  |  are reserved by the command shell (COMMAND.COM).

:  used only at the drive letter designator.
/  used as the prefix for the command switch.

So the choice was between the two (: and /).  We chose the
two-character sequence, "/$" of the macro reference as a distinguishing feature from other switches. Fortunately, XXCOPY's command syntax stipulates that the source and destination specifiers to be always separated from other switch arguments by a space, therefore, a macro reference embedded inside source or destination specifier can unambiguously parsed. It's not pretty. It took us several months to settle on this syntax. Now the journey is over. Enjoy the macro.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #25 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY Command Line Syntax Date: 2002-05-07 (revised) =============================================================================== Basic Command Parameter Syntax: XXCOPY source destination (simplified syntax) In its simplest form, XXCOPY takes two parameters, from WHERE to WHERE This very intuitive command syntax has its root in the COPY command introduced in 1981 as a PC-DOS (MS-DOS) built-in command. The first parameter is the source specifier and the second one is the destination specifier. These two parameters must be in this order. As common to the COPY and XCOPY command syntax, the destination specifier can be omitted. Then, by default, the current directory in the current drive becomes the destination. XXCOPY source [ destination ] By convention, an optional parameter is denoted in the syntax definition with a pair of square-brackets surrounding it. In addition, you may add command switches that starts with a slash (see below). The Command Line Delimiter: XXCOPY source [ destination ] [ switches... ] These up to three (or more) parts must be separated by at least one blank (usually the space character but a tab may be used). The role of the blank character as a separator (which is called "delimiter") in the command line is very important. XXCOPY relies on the separating blank characters to know where the end of the source specifier and where is the beginning of the destination specifier. For this reason, if you have a source specifier (such as "My Documents") which has a space inside, you must enclose the whole source specifier by double quotes. Example: XXCOPY "C:\My Documents\" If you omit the double quotes, like the following line, XXCOPY C:\My Documents XXCOPY would interpret "C:\My" as the source specifier and "Documents" as the destination (If you have another item which you really meant as your destination, it would be ignored as a third and useless item). It does not hurt to surround the source (or destination) specifier by double quotes. Full Command Parameter Syntax: XXCOPY source [ destination ] [ switches... ] All switches start with a slash (/) character whereas the source and the destination specifiers do not have the slash(/) prefix. The source and the destination specifiers must be separated from other items in the command line by at least one blank (space or tab) character. On the other hand, you may omit blank characters between switches in order to minimize the total length of the command line. Example: XXCOPY C:\mydir\ D:\yourdir\ /S/H Here, "C:\mydir\" is the source specifier and "D:\yourdir\" is the destination specifier. They do not start with a slash (/). It has two (/S and /H) switches. Note that the positions of the switches need not be at the end of the command line. Switches may begin even before the source specifier. The following command line is equivalent to the one shown above. XXCOPY /S C:\mydir\ /H D:\yourdir\ The order of the switches is not generally important except when a conflicting switches are specified, the rightmost switch will prevail. More rules for special cases are discussed at the end of this article. For a complete syntax and semantics for the source specifier, see XXTB #04. Once you learn this simple rule, it is quite easy to understand a long XXCOPY command line. XXCOPY switches: A command switch (we call it just switch most often) is any command paremeter that is neither the source specifier (referred to as "source" above) nor the destination specifier (referred to as "destination" above). A switch instructs XXCOPY the details of the operation which deviates the default behavior. As a matter of fact, without the switches, XXCOPY is only as boring as the standard COPY command. For example, XXCOPY c:\mydir\ d:\yourdir\ This line copies the files from one directory to another. Since the default behavior is not to include hidden or system files, and not to include subdirectories, this operation will copy just a handful of regular files. If the destination already has some of the files you will be greeted by a prompt asking whether you want to overwrite the file or not. Moreover, if the existing file has the read-only attribute (i.e., write-protected), you are out of luck. The rich set of command switches set XXCOPY apart from other file management tools. Being a command line program, XXCOPY is not easy to use. You have no choice but to become familiar with the very large collection of switches (over 175 switches and growing), if you want to harness the power of XXCOPY. The good news is that you need not learn all. Syntactically, all of XXCOPY's command switches starts with a slash ( / some people call it forward-slash). To keep the command line somewhat more manageable, XXCOPY allows you to connect one command switch with the next without any delimiting character (typically a space). With just one exception (XXTB #24), an item that starts with a slash is a command switch. For more discussion of XXCOPY command switches and the detailed discussion of the source specifier, see the following for Command Parameter Reference XXTB #01 for Command Reference Alphabetic Listing XXTB #26 for Command Reference Functional Classification XXTB #27 for The Wild-Wildcard Source Specifier XXTB #28 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Source Specifier (XCOPY-compatible standard): XXCOPY's first argument (without regard to command switches) is the source specifier. The source specifier is usually a path specifier for the source. But, for Microsoft's XCOPY (and also for our XXCOPY), the source specifier may contain the directory and an optional file pattern specification whose subtleties are not fully appreciated by many XXCOPY users. The XCOPY-compatible source specifier has three parts: [ volume_spec ] [ directory ] [ file_pattern ] Example (the destination specifier is omitted here): XXCOPY c:\mydir\*.doc XXCOPY \\myserver\drivec\config.sys Here, the three parts in the XCOPY-compatible source specifier are quite obvious. The second example is with the UNC which is how you specify a remote drive (via a network). volume_spec In most cases, the volume spec is a drive letter followed by a colon (e.g., C: ). But, it can be a universal naming convention (UNC) string for a volume in a network (e.g., \\myserver\drivec ). If you omit volume_spec, the current drive is assumed. directory The name of the source directory. When the XXCOPY command contains the subdirectory switch (/S and/or /E), the directory specifier denotes the starting directory where the source files and subdirectories are located. The XCOPY-comatible directory part does not contain a wildcard character. The more advanced "Wild-wild-source" feature in XXCOPY accepts wildcards. For example, XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\?cache*\*\*.jpg \dst\ A separate article, XXTB #28 gives you the full detail. pattern The last part within the source specifier denotes the pattern matching string which may contain wildcard characters (* or ?). It matches only the last components within a full filename. Destination Specifier: Just to make the discussion of XXCOPY's command parameter syntax complete, let us go over the subject of the remajing item, the destination specifier. Fortunately the rules for this are not complicated. The destination specifier has two parts: [ volume_spec ] [ dest_dir ] volume_spec As for the source specifier case, the destination may contain a volume specifier (e.g., C: ). If it is omitted, the volume of the current directory will be used. dest_dir The name of the destination directory. Here, the destination must be a directory name (which may or may not yet exist in the destination volume). Unlike the original COPY command, you are not allowed to specify wildcard characters in the destination specifier which would be conveniently used to perform renaming action while copying the files. XXCOPY does not rename files while they are copied. therefore, no wildcard characters have no place in dest_dir. Unlike the source specifier counterpart, the destination specifier consists of only two parts both of which are optional. When you omit both of them, then the command line would have no explicit argument as the destination specifier. Don't worry, the current directory will be used as the default destination directory. Or, you may just type "." which denotes the current directory explicitly. The Base Directory: When a directory (and the subdirectories) is copied from the source to the destination, the first level of the source directory will correspond to the first level of the destination directory that is specified as the destination. We call the first level in the source directory the "Base Directory". Since the destination's first level directory is named by the destination specifier that you provide in the command line, the directory name in the destination is not always the same. For example, when you run the following command, XXCOPY c:\mypath\mysrcdir\ d:\your\dstdir\ /S Any part of the Base Directory is not necessarily become a part of the destination directory. This is true even the last name (mysrcdir) does not automatically appear in the destination side. The end result will be like this. c:\mypath\mysrcdir\file1.doc --> d:\your\dstdir\file1.doc c:\mypath\mysrcdir\sub1\a.doc --> d:\your\dstdir\sub1\a.doc Here, the Base Directory is c:\mypath\mysrcdir\. The concept of the Base Directory is even more important in the treatment of the exclusion parameter. When an exclusion item is given as a relative path, the directory path specified is relative to the Base Directory. For example, with the same directory XXCOPY c:\mypath\mysrcdir\ d:\your\dstdir\ /S /Xtemp*\ The exclusion switch's parameter (temp*\) is understood to be relative to the Base Directory which is in this case: c:\mypath\mysrcdir\temp*\ Of course, you may always use an absolute path for the /X parameter: XXCOPY c:\mypath\mysrcdir\ \dst\ /S /Xc:\mypath\mysrcdir\temp*\ A more rigorous definition of Base Directory will be given in the discussion of the source directory which contain wildcards (Wild-Wildcard Source) XXTB #28.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #26 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY Command Reference Alphabetic Listing Date: 2010-01-01 Revised for ver 3.00.0 =============================================================================== This article lists XXCOPY's command switches in alphabetic order. For a functional classification of the command switch, see XXTB #27. /? Shows a summary of the switches on one page. ... /? Shows related switches when entered with other switches. /A Same as /ATA. Copies files with the archive attribute set. Doesn't change the attribute. /A0 Ignores the archive attribute bit and does not change it. /AA Sets the src file archive bit (without actually copying). /AC Copies specified files irrespective of the archive attribute. Turns off the archive attribute after XXCOPY is done. /ADDHOST:<id> Add a new computer name in the host list. /AN<mask> Sets a new value to file attribute bits (replace the value). The <mask> value is a combination of letters, AHSRo. /AR<mask> Resets file attribute bits (clears specified bits). The <mask> value is a combination of letters, ACHSRo. /ARD<mask> Resets directory attribute bits (clears specified bits). The <mask> value is a combination of letters, ACHSRo. /AS<mask> Sets file attribute bits (sets specified bits). The <mask> value is a combination of letters, ACHSRo. /ASD<mask> Sets directory attribute bits (sets specified bits). The <mask> value is a combination of letters, ACHSRo. Note: /ARD and /ASD work on directories analogous to /AR and /RS. Note: The <mask> value for /AR and /AS specifies attributes (ACHSRo) whose bits are either reset or set respectively to the existing file attributes. Unspecified attributes bits are kept unchanged. The letters that denote file attributes are as follows A Archive C Compression H Hidden S System R Read Only o Off-Line /AT<mask> Selects files by the attribute bits (ACHSR). You may use two or more /AT<mask> switches to specify multiple attributes required. E.g., /ATA/ATH qualifies files with both the A(rchive) bit and the H(idden) bits. Or, you may use one /AT<mask> switch with multiple letters to select alternative attribute bits to select files. E.g., /ATAH qualifies a file which has either A-bit, H-bit or both. /AX<mask> Excludes files with the specified attribute bits (ACHSR). You may use two or more /AX<mask> switches to specify attribute bits to exclude files for file operations. E.g., /AXA/AXH excludes files with A-bit, H-bit, or both. Or, you may use one /AX<mask> switch with multiple letters to exclude files with only the specified combination of attribute bits. E.g., /AXAH excludes files with both A-bit and H-bit. Note: The /AT<mask> and /AX<mask> switches have opposite conjugation rules (the effects of combining attribute bits --- AND and OR). /AZ Clears the src file archive bit (without actually copying). Note: The /AA, /AN, /AR, /AS, /ARD, /ASD and /AZ switches modify the file attributes without copying the files to the destination, whereas the /A, /AT and /AX switches select files by the file attributes for various operations (copy, list, remove, etc.). /B0 Cancels any of /BI, /BA, /BB, /BN, /Bo, /BX, or /BZ switches. /BA Backs up incrementally, different (by time/size/attrib) files only. /BB Backs up brand new files only (does not overwrite existing ones). /BE Backs up exactly the same files(includes brand new files). /BI Backs up incrementally, different (by time/size) files only. /BN Backs up newer files only (includes brand new files). /Bo Backs up older files only (includes brand new files). /BS Selects exactly the same files (this is useful with /RS). /BU Standard Backup switch (same as /r/i/bi/q/c/h/e/v/y). /BX Backs up different-date files (includes brand new files). /BZ Same as /BZX. /BZE Backs up equal-size files (includes brand new files). /BZL Backs up larger-size files (includes brand new files). /BZS Backs up smaller-size files (includes brand new files). /BZX Backs up different-size files (includes brand new files). /BACKUP Standard Backup without deleting any file (/CLONE without /ZY). A shortcut for the following combination: /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZE/oD0. /C Continues copying even if errors occur (default). /C0 Disables the /C switch (terminates upon error). /CA Enables all cache. Same as /CA7 (default). /CA0 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = OFF /CA1 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = ON /CA2 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = ON dst-rd = OFF /CA3 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = ON dst-rd = ON /CA4 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = OFF /CA5 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = ON /CA6 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = ON dst-rd = OFF /CA7 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = ON dst-rd = ON /CB Continues batch file if XXCOPY ended OK last time. /CB0 Cancels the /CB and /CBQ switches. /CBQ Same as /CB except suppresses console output to end immediately. /CC Warns a cyclic copy with a Y/N prompt. /CC0 Disallows cyclic copy (src includes the dst directory) (default). /CCY Allows a cyclic copy by excluding the destination from the src. /CD0 Does not compare file data byte-by-byte (default). /CDM Selects files whose data match in byte-by-byte comparison. /CDU Selects files whose data unmatch and brand new files. /CDX selects files whose data match byte-by-byte and brand new files. /CE Same as /CBQ/EC (most useful in batch file with @echo off). /CF<fname> Specifies a Command File which provides text as if it were typed at the position where the switch appeared in the command line. The Command File is a text file which may have multple lines. /CK Checks remaining space before copy (default). /CK0 Disables the pre-check of remaining space before copy. /CoPY Selects the file copy action (default). /CLONE Duplicates a directory (volume). This switch is a shortcut for the following combination: /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY/ZE/oD0. /CR<n> Sets the retry period (n seconds, default = 3) on failed copy. /D Same as /DA. /D0 Cancels all file-date related (/D...) switches. /D:<date> Same as /DA:<date>. /DA Copies newer files and brand new files. /DA#<n> Copies files that were changed on or after <n> days ago. /DA:. Copies files that were changed today or later (same as /DA#0). /DA:<date> Copies files that were changed on or after the specified date. /DB Copies older files and brand new files. /DB#<n> Copies files that were changed on or before <n> days ago. /DB:. Copies files that were changed yesterday or earlier. /DB:<date> Copies files that were changed on or before the specified date. /DA:<time> Same as /DA:<date> except an additional time value may be added. /DB:<time> Same as /DB:<date> except an additional time value may be added. The <time> parameter starts with the <date> (as shown above) followed by 'T' or '@' and hh:mm:ss, hh:mm, or hh. e.g., 2002-10-25T15:25:30 (recommended as ISO 8601 std) 31-10-2002@13:00 10-31-2002@13 (min and sec may be omitted) (/D0:<date> cannot be specified with the <time> value). /Do#<n> Copies files that were changed on the day <n> days ago. /Do:. Copies files that were changed today only. /Do:<date> Copies files that were changed on the specified date. Note: A "brand new" file refers to a file which exists in the source directory but not in the destination directory (Micrososoft's Robocopy call it a "lonely file"). Note: With /DA#<val>, /DB#<val> and /DO#<val>, the parameter <val> will be treated as the number of Days unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds, respectively). When <val> is given in the number of days, the exact time is midnight of the day. e.g., /DA#0 denotes files made some time today after midnight. /DO#2 means all day the day before yesterday. /DA#30m selects files made within the last 30 minutes. /DS Copies only the files whose filetime is exactly the same. /DX Copies only the files whose filetime is different in any way. Note: All filetime comparisons are affected by the fuzzy range (/FF). /DA:<val> and /DB:<val> work as a pair if both are specified. e.g., /DA:1997-01-01 /DB:1997-12-31 files made in 1997 /DA:1997-04-01 /DB:1997-04-30 files made in April 1997 /DB:1997-03-31 /DA:1997-05-01 exclude files made in April /DA:1997-01-01 /DB:1997-01-01 try the shorter /Do:1997-01-01 Since the US and European conventions are not reconcilable, we recommend the ISO 8601 standard (YYYY-MM-DD) with a 4-digit year value followed by month and day. If all values have two digits only, it is interpreted according to the system setting. A file date must be between 1970-01-01 and 2069-12-31. A partial date specifier is accepted for /DA:, /DB: and /DO: where yyyy-mm and yyyy denote the month and year respectively. E.g., /DO:2000-2 is equivalent to /DA:2000-2-1 /DB:2000-2-29, and /DB:1999 to /DB:1999-12-31, and /DA:2000 to /DA:2000-1-1. Note: /DA, /DB, /DX, /DS, /Do, /DA:<date> and /DB:<date> are mutually exclusive (except /DA:<date> and /DB:<date> work as a pair). Note: /DA /DB and /DD, if date is omitted, are the same as /BN and /Bo except they can be combined with another /B switch (e.g., /BI). Note: /DA, /DB, /DX and /DS compare source and destination files using both date and time whereas /DA:<date> and /DA#<n> use date only. /DEBUG Shows the command parameters and prompts you to start. /DEBUGX Shows the command parameters and exits. /DL<n> Limits processing of directory nesting to n levels. /DL0 removes the limit. /DL works only when /S or /E is set. /E Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty ones. Same as /S /E. /EC Echoes the entire command line (after macro processing). /ED Preserves the directory even if it becomes empty. /ED0 Deletes empty directories (default). /ED<n> Preserves n levels of empty directories. Note: The /EDxx switches are in effect only with file/directory removal operations (/Z, /RC, /RS, /RD, /RX, and /CLONE cases). /ER Emulates XCOPY's exit code (for ERRORLEVEL check in batch files). /EX<xlist> Specifies a text file which contains a list of xspecs (see below). /F Displays full source and destination file names while copying. /Fo<fname> Displays full source and file names and also saves into a file. /FA Uses the Last-Access timestamp for Filetime comparison. /FC Uses the Creation timestamp for Filetime comparison. /FF Fuzzy Filetime (same as /FF2S --- matches within 2 sec). /FF0 Fuzzy Filetime cancelled (adjustment value set to +/- 0). /FF<val> Fuzzy Filetime, adjust ref time +/- <val> seconds. /FF+<val> Fuzzy Filetime, adjust ref time by adding <val> seconds. /FF-<val> Fuzzy Filetime, adjust ref time by subtracting <val> seconds. Note: With /FF<val>, /FF+<val> and /FF-<val>, the parameter <val> will be treated as the number of seconds unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds, respectively). e.g., /FF treats file times within +/- 2 sec as the same. /FF-1H treats files older by up to 1 hour as the same. /FF+2/FF-4 (you may choose asymmetric slack values). Note: The /FF switch affects all filetime comparisons such as /CLONE, /BI, /BU, /BS, /BX, /BO, /BN, /DA, /DB, /DS, /DX, /TS, and /TD. Note: The FAT (DOS/Win9x) file system has a 2-second granularity in file time whereas NTFS, Unix and other file systems use finer time stamps. The /FF switch is useful for incremental backup between volumes of different file systems. /FM0 Cancels the /FM<items> parameter previously set. /FM<items> Specifies the output line format for /L and or /Fo output. <items> is a string of one or more of the following letters which selects the combination and the output order. D file date T file time H history (creation, last-write, last-access timestamps) Z file size in bytes (or J-thingy type) A file attributes: A(rchive),H(idden),S(system),R(eadonly) S short name (8.3) N long name (lastname) without path L long name with full directory path P parent path name without the lastname R long relative (below base directory) name J J-thingy object type , comma as a separator (for a CSV format output) Note: When S and L are both missing, L is used by default. Note: /L/FM<items> can be combined into a /L<items> switch. Note: For CSV output, use commas liberally and add /oQ. /FL Filetime in Local time (default) /FU Filetime in UTC (Universal Coordinated Time - same as GMT). /FW Uses the Last-Write timestamp for Filetime comparison (default). Note: /FW, /FA and /FC are mutually exclusive choices. Note: /FL and /FU are mutually exclusive choices. /GX Accepts the (...\?\*) ending in special (now-obsolete) way. /GX0 Disables the obsolete syntax (...\?\* treated in regular way). /H Copies hidden and/or system files also. /H0 Excludes hidden and/or system files (default). /Ho Copies hidden and/or system files only. /HELP Shows the switches in detailed (print this output). /HELP /X Shows Partial Help (switches starting with letter X). /HELPA Shows the /HELP listing in alphabetical order. /HELPE Lists the Exit codes (ERRORLEVEL values) returned by XXCOPY. /HOSTS Displays the names of remote hosts accessed by XXCOPY. /I If destination does not exist and copying more than one file, assumes that destination must be a directory (no prompting). Note: when the destination specifier ends with a backslash, it declares as a directory which implicitly sets the /I switch. /IA Continues if destination is absent (terminates if exists). /IA<item> Continues if the specified item (file/directory) is absent. /IP Continues if destination is present (terminates if absent). /IP<item> Continues if the specified item (file/directory) is present. /ILD<label> Continues if the destination volume label matches as specified. /ILS<label> Continues if the source volume label matches as specified. /IN<tmpl> Includes an alternate filename template (tmpl). You may specify as many alternate filename patterns as you want. The template must be for the "Lastname" of the source specifier (no backslash in the template, but wildcard characters are OK). /INSTALL Installs the XXCOPY software package on your computer. /INSTALL:<dir> Installs XXCOPY in a user-specified directory. /JH Treats file hard links as hard links (default). /JH0 Treats file hard links as regular files. /JI<mask> Includes the specified J-thingies (inverse switch of /JX). Note: The <mask> specifies one or more J-thingies (FSHLMP). E.g., /JIM is equivalent to /JXFHLPS (D is not excluded). /JIJ Same as /JXF (selects <LNK>,<JCT>,<MNT>,[SYM] and [HLK]). /JIR Same as /JXFH (selects <LNK>,<JCT>,<MNT> and [SYM]). /JJ Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS/JH (default). /JJ0 Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0/JH0. /JL Treats directory symbolic links as symblic links (default). /JL0 Treats directory symbolic links as regular directories. /JM Treats volume mount points as volume mount points(default). /JM0 Treats volume mount points as regular directories. /JP Treats junction (non-mount) points as junction pts (default). /JP0 Treats junction (non-mount) points as regular directories. /JR Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS. /JR0 Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0. /JS Treats file symbolic links as symblic links (default). /JS0 Treats file symbolic links as regular files. /JV Archives existing dst file with a versioning number (9999). /JV<n> Archives existing dst file up to up to n versions. /JV0 Disables versioning by simply overwriting the existing file /JX<mask> Excludes the specified J-thingies from normal processing. Note: The <mask> specifies one or more J-thingies (FSHDLMP). /JX0 Processes all J-thingies without being excluded (default). /JXJ Same as /JXLMPSH (excludes all J-thingies including HLNK). /JXR Same as /JXLMPS (excludes all reparse points (not HLNK)). /JCYCLIC Scans the src and lists all cyclic links (<LNK><JCN><MNT>). /K Keeps the source attributes including read-only (same as /KS). /K0 Keeps H-bit and S-bit, sets A-bit, clears R-bit (default). /KD Keeps the attributes of destination (overwritten) file. /KN Sets the destination attributes to normal (only /A). /KS Keeps the source attributes including the read-only bit. /KCDP Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of its parent dir (default). /KCDD Keeps dst dir's C-bit, a new dir gets its parent's C-bit. /KCDS Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of src dir's C-bit. /KCDC Always sets the C-bit of dst directory (compress). /KCDU Always resets the C-bit of dst directory (uncompress). /KCFP Sets dst file's C-bit with that of its parent dir (default). /KCFD Keeps dst file's C-bit, a new file gets its parent's C-bit. /KCFS Sets dst file's C-bit with that of src file's C-bit. /KCFC Always sets the C-bit of dst file (compress). /KCFU Always resets the C-bit of dst file (uncompress). /L Same as /LLZ which performs the list operation (no file copy). /L<items> Customizes the format for List operation (no file copy). <items> is a string of one or more of the following letters which selects the combination and the output order. D file date T file time H history (creation, last-write, last-access timestamps) Z file size in bytes A file attributes: A(rchive),H(idden),S(system),R(eadonly). S short name (8.3) N long name without path L long name with full directory path P parent path R relative path J J-thingy object type , comma as a separator (for a CSV format output) Note: When S, L, N, and R are all missing, L is used by default. Note: For CSV output, use commas liberally and add /oQ. /LICENSE Displays the XXCOPY license status on your computer. /LTREE Lists directory tree (without copy or making directories). Note: with /LTREE, the /DA/DB/DO parameters apply to dir time. /M Copies only files with the archive attribute set. Turns off the archive attribute. /MD<dir> Makes directory before other actions (even with /L) Tip: make a date-encoded directory with a macro reference. e.g., /MDc:\Bkup/$DATE$(even good for log files). /MLH Makes a hard link file in dst for each file in the src. /MVD Moves directories (the src and dst must be in the same volume). /MVF Moves files (the src and dst must be in the same volume). /MVX Moves files, if fails then tries /RC (remove-after-copy). /N Uses the short (8.3) name for name matching, and creation. /NP Uses precise name matching (ignores match in alias). /N0 Disables /N and /NP (default, uses longname when applicable). /NC0 Disables /NCL, /NCU, or /NCX (accepts letters of both cases). /NCL Uses Lowercase-only name when a new file is created. /NCU Uses Uppercase-only name when a new file is created. /NCX Uses Uppercase-only name when a new short-name file is created. /ND Uses the old (DOS) Wildcard treatments for filename matching. /NW Uses the new (Win32) Wildcard treatments for filename matching. /NI Becomes nice to other tasks by idling (1000 msec) between actions. /NI<n> Same as /NI. Specifies n msec as the idle time (0 to disable it). /NL Renames longname to match the source (No copy operations). /NS Renames shortname to match the source (No copy operations). /NoP Performs no regular file operations (good for /MD, /WS, etc.). /NX Preserves the shortname when the file is copied. /NX0 Disables the /NX (shortname preservation) feature. Note: If src and dst are both local drive, the shortname will be preserved (/NX) by default, but if either src or dst is specified by a UNC (starts with \\), /NX0 is default. /o0 Cancels the /oN or /oA switch specified earlier. /oA<fname> Appends to a logfile, reporting errors. (does not overwrite log). /oN<fname> Outputs a new logfile, reporting errors (make a new log) file. /oQ Surrounds pathname output with quotation marks /oQ0 Disable quotation marks that surround pathname. /oR Displays the target path of reparse point. /oR0 No display of the target path of reparse point. /oB<n> Brief switch (both specified and default) list. /oC<n> Displays links (<LNK><JCT><MNT>) that are cyclically referenced. /oD<n> Deleted file list (by a /Z or /ZY switch). /oE<n> Error summary with the system error code /oF<n> File list (files which were successfully operated on). /oH<n> Displays the list of hard link(s) to the selected file if linked. /oI<n> Include-item (alternate file template) list. /oP<n> Parameter (command switch detailed) list. /oS<n> Skipped-file list (with the reason why skipped). /oX<n> Exclude-item list. The sufix value <n> for /oB/oD/oE/oF/oH/oI/oP/oS/oX works as follows: 0: No output 1: Screen only 2: Log file only 3: Screen and Log file both Note: It is advised that the log file created by /oA or /oN to be free from the names of successfully copied files that would overshadow relatively infrequent lines of error and warning. Instead, use the /Fo switch to create a separate file for a list of successfully copied files. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file. /PB Shows Progress bar for the job (default file progress >= 1M). /PB<n> Shows Progress bar for the job and another Progress bar for a single-file progress with file length greater than <n>, which is specified in bytes (or with a suffix, K, M or G) (default: 1M). /PBH Enables Progress bar Halt/Abort button (default). /PBH0 Disables Progress bar Halt/Abort button. /PC Prompts you before creating new files. /PC0 Suppresses warning on file-creation. /PD Prompts you before processing each directory /PD0 Suppresses the prompt before a processing of directory. /PJ Prompts before a different type dst is overwritten (default). /PJ0 Suppresses the warning for trans-overwrite (different type). /PM Prompts before deleting existing file at the move destination. /PM0 Suppresses prompts on deleting existing file at move destination. /PN Prompts when on excessive failures on /NX operations. /PN0 Suppresses prompts on excessive failures of /NX operatoins. /Po Prompts you before overwriting existing files (default). /Po0 Suppresses warning on file-overwrite (Legacy /Y). /PP Enables the space bar press-for-pause feature (default). /PP0 Disables the space bar press-for-pause feature. /PR Prompts on removing a file whose path contains reparse pt (default). /PR0 Does not prompt before removing a filw with reparse point path. /PW Enables Prompt with Dialog Window. /PW0 Disables Prompt with Dialog Window (default). /PZ Prompts you for confirmation of the dst (for /CLONE /Z /ZY). /PZ0 Suppresses prompts for directory confirmation on /CLONE /Z /ZY. /Q Same as /Q1. Does not display files which are skipped. /Q0 Displays all filenames. /Q1 Does not display files which are skipped. /Q2 Does not display directories which are excluded. /Q3 Does not display file and directory names while copying. /QF Quits when the quota for the file count has been reached. /QBL Quits before the byte count exceeds the limit (same as /QB). /QBT Quits when the total byte count reaches the trigger point. /QSL Quits before the space dips below the limit (same as /QS). /QST Quits when the remaining space reaches the trigger point. /R Allows overwrite/delete of read-only files. /R0 Cancels overwrite/delete of read-only files. /RC Removes files in src after a successful copy (equivalent to move). /RCP Prompts on source-file-remove after successful copy (default). /RCY Suppresses prompts after a successful source-file-remove. /RD Removes files in dst which qualify to be overwritten (no copying). /RMDIR Removes a directory. Same as /RS/S/H/R/PD0/ED0. /RS Removes files in src which qualify (no copying). /RX Removes files in dst which are absent in src (no copying). Note: Whereas /Y and /-Y modify prompting for the copy action of /RC (Remove after Copy) switch, the suffix 'P' or 'Y' controls the prompt for the file remove action after copy. Note: The suffix 'P' or 'Y' can also be added to any of /RS, /RD, or /RX switches which will insert or suppress respective prompt. For these remove-without-copy switches, the /Y and /-Y switches also control the prompt for the remove action. Note: /RX can be thought of a /Z operation without copying files."; In general, the /RS/BB combination (by swapping src and dst)"; provides more file-selection controls than the /RX switch."; Note: /PD and /PD0 control additional prompt on each directory. /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. /SC Same as /SC3 (copies security info). /SC0 Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (no security info copied). /SC1 Copies security info (Permissions only) when a file is copied. /SC2 Copies security info (Auditing only) when a file is copied. /SC3 Copies security info (both Perm, Audit) when a file is copied. /SF Same as /SF3 (fixes up security info) /SF0 Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (equivalent to /SC0). /SF1 Fixes up security info (Permissions only) (no file copy). /SF2 Fixes up security info (Auditing only) (no file copy). /SF3 Fixes up security info (both Perm, Audit) (no file copy). Note: /SC and /SF work only when src and dst are both NTFS. /SG Same as /SGN (see variations in handling duplicates below). /SGF Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted First file 1st). /SGL Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted Last file 1st). /SGN Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Newest file 1st). /SGo Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Oldest file 1st). /SGFo Gathers files into one-level directory (First only). /SGLo Gathers files into one-level directory (Last only). /SGNo Gathers files into one-level directory (Newest only). /SGoo Gathers files into one-level directory (Oldest only). /SG0 Cancels file-gather switches (/SG...). Note: /SGL and /SGLo is works well with other file-selection switches. E.g., /SGLo /BZL to gather the largest file of its kind. /SHR Enables file-sharing for read-only with other programs (default). /SHW Enables file-sharing for write-only with other programs. /SHRW Enables file-sharing for rd/wr with other programs (same as /SH). /SH0 Disables any sharing (Exclusive file access only). /SKIPIC Skips the creation of XXCOPY Desktop Icon (used with /INSTALL). /SKIPXC Skips the installation of XXConsole (used with /INSTALL). /So Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (Same as /So1). /So0 Disables Safe File Overwrite. /So1 Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (default). /So2 Enables Very Safe File Overwrite (always via temporary file). /SL Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Left (see below). /SR Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Right (see below). /SX Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Middle (see below). /SLR Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the left). /SRR Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the right). /SXR Rebuilds flattened directory (path in the middle). /S<d> Sets the directory delimiter character for /SL, /SX and /SR, where <d> is any legal non-alphabetic, non-blank character. The default delimiter is back-apostrophe (). /SL, /SX, and /SR are the same as /S except the output files will be saved as a flat directory without adding levels of subdirectories. The source subdirectory name will become a part of the target filename. /SL and /SR add the subdir name to the left or right of the name respectively. /SX inserts the subdirectory name in the middle. /SP Spans the copy job over multiple destination (new volume). /SZ:<n>-<m> Copies a file whose size is between n bytes and m bytes /SZ:<n>- Copies a file whose size is equal to or greater than n bytes /SZ:-<m> Copies a file whose size is equal to or less than m bytes /SZ:<n> Copies a file whose size is exactly n bytes /SZ!<n>-<m> Copies a file whose size is NOT between n bytes and m bytes /SZ!<n>- Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or greater than n bytes /SZ!-<m> Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or less than m bytes /SZ!<n> Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to n bytes /SZ:- Disables size-based selection (/SZ!- also works). Note: The size values <n> and <m> are entered in bytes unless appended with a suffix letter (K, M, or G which stand for metric kilo (x1000), mega (x1000000), or giga (x1000000000), respectively). /T Creates directory structure, but does not copy files. It copies all directories including empty ones (implicitly sets /E). /TTA Touches (modifies) timestamp of Last Access of src. /TTA0 Preserves timestamp of Last Access of src (default). /TC Shortcut for /TCA/TCC/TCW (copies all three types of timestamps). /TC0 Shortcut for /TCA0/TCC0/TCW0. /TCA Copies the timestamp of Last Access fm src to dst. /TCA0 Uses current time for dst Last Access (default). /TCC Copies the timestamp of Create Time fm src to dst. /TCC0 Uses current time for dst Create time (default). /TCW Copies the Last Write time fm src to dst (default). /TCW0 Uses current time for dst Last Write time. /TD+<n> Adds an offset to the time of the destination file. /TD-<n> Subtracts an offset time from the dst file for comparison. /TS+<n> Adds an offset to the time of source (and the copied ) file. /TS-<n> Subtracts an offset time from source (and the copied) file. The offset value <n> is treated as the number of Hours unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds respectively). /TM0 Cancels the time offset in days set by /TM+ or /TM-. /TM+<n> Adds an offset (Dy) to the current time of macro reference. /TM-<n> Subtracts an offset (Dy) to the current time of macro reference. Note: The offset value <n> for /TM+ and /TM- is specified in days unless it is appended with a one-letter suffix (D, H, M, or S which stand for Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds respectively). /TR<n> Truncates the new file to (copies the first) n bytes. /U Updates the files that already exist in destination. /ULH Unlinks hard link files into regular (non hard link) files. /UNINSTALL Uninstalls XXCOPY from your computer. /UT Encodes output file(s) in UTF-8 text. /UT0 Encodes output file(s) in ANSI text (default). /V Verifies after copy; default (same as /V1). /V0 Disables verify switch (canceling /V, /V1, or /V2). /V1 Verifies after copy (quick test --- file size match). /V2 Verifies after copy byte-by-byte check. /VL Enables the Very Long Path (same as /VL32767). /VL<n> Sets the maximum path length to n chars (up to 32767). /VL0 Disables the Very Long Path (default with 259 chars). /W Same as /WS. /WD Prompts with a warning for copying a non-directory src (default). /WD0 Suppresses warning for copying a non-directory source. /WE Prompts you to press a key at the end of copying. /WE<n> Waits at the end of the operation for a specified period (n sec). /WS Prompts you to press a key at the start of copying. /WS<n> Waits at the start of operation for a specified period (n sec). /WHICHX Identifies which XXCOPY.EXE file is launced (no action). /WI<n> Sets the output line width to n columns (default:auto). /WL Issues a warning when a path length exceeds the limit (default). /WL0 Suppresses warning for a path length that exceeds the limit. /WN Displays a warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy. /WN0 Suppresses warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy. /WR Warns if src or dst specifier contains a reparse point (default). /WR0 Suppresses warning for src or dst specifier with a reparse point. /WU<n> Prompts with a warning for unnecessary destination (default). /WU0<n> Suppresses warning for unnecessary destination specifier. /X<xspec> Adds an exclusion specifier (xspec) (see below for exclusion). <xspec> Exclusion item for /X and the file contents specified by /EX. . The text file may contain an arbitrary number of xspecs which are separated by space, tab, or newline characters. . An xspec with embedded spaces must be surrounded by a pair of double-quote characters("). . An xspec cannot span from one line to another. . Two consecutive colons (::) or slashes (//) start a comment field which ends at the end of the line. . You may specify more than 1 exclusion file. In such a case all of the exclusion files will be processed. Exclusion specifier (xspec) syntax (consists of up to 3 parts): syntax to exclude files: [ dir_spec\ ] [ *\ ] [ ftemplate ] syntax to exclue directires: [ dir_spec\ ] [ *\ ] [ dtemplate ] dir_spec is always followed by a backslash (\). It specifies a directory (or directories with wildcard) which are relative to the source directory unless it starts with a \. A wildcard specifier is allowed only in the last element of dir_spec. *\ This part, if present, specifies that the exclusion applies to all subdirectories under dir_spec. ftemplate File_template, must not contain backslash (\). It may contain wildcard characters (* and/or ?). dtemplate Directory_template, the template must be terminated by one of the following four endings (three types) dirname\*\* full directory dirname\ full directory (same as dirname\*\*) dirname\* partial directory, files only dirname\?\* partial directory, subdirs only The dirname part may have wildcards (* and/or ?). Any of the three parts can be omitted. There are 11 classes in xspecs as follows. D dir_spec\ftmpl H dir_spec\*\ftmpl A dir_spec\* E dir_spec\dtmpl\* I dir_spec\*\dtmpl\* B dir_spec\?\* F dir_spec\dtmpl\?\* J dir_spec\*\dtmpl\?\* C dir_spec\*\* G dir_spec\dtmpl\*\* K dir_spec\*\dtmpl\*\* If dir_spec is omitted, the file_template applies to all subdirs. XXCOPY optimizes the exclusion parameter by eliminating some redundant specifiers. Use "/W/oX" with xspec to test the syntax. /Y Overwrites existing files without prompt (same as /Po0) (see /BB). /-Y Prompts you before overwriting existing files (same as /Po). /Y0 Same as above (also /Po or /-Y). /YY Suppresses ALL prompts unconditionally (good in a batch script). /Z Deletes extra files or subdirectories in destination. /ZY Same as /Z except there is no confirmation prompt. /ZB<n> Sets the size of the file copy buffer (in bytes). /ZB0 Cancels the buffer size setting (uses the default size). /ZE Disables the use of all Environment Variables for XXCOPY. /ZLX Enables exclusion test (displays only excluded objects). Note: /ZLX performs a 'dry-run' (like /L) without copying files. /ZLX0 Disables exclusion testing (default). /ZS Disables the sign-on message and statistics output. /ZX Disables the use of the Environment Variable XXCOPYX. /ZX0 Enables the XXCOPYX settings. Good for /CLONE and /RMDIR. The shortcut /CLONE and /RMDIR contain /ZE as a component. e.g., /CLONE/ZX0 allows the use of XXCOPYX settings. /$xxxx$Predefined macros for current date and time which may appear anywhere in the command argument and other XXCOPY parameters. Examples below are for the current time, Dec 25, 2002 13:15:30. /$DATE$Expands to month and date (equivalent to /$MMDD$) --> "1225". /$TIME$Expands to hour and minutes (equiv. /$HHNN$) --> "1315". /$YYMMDD$Expands to 2-digit year month day --> "021225". /$YYYY-MM$Expands to 4-digit year month --> "2002-12". /$YY-M-D$Expands to 2-digityear-mo-dy (mo and dy without leading zero). /$HHNNSS$Expands to hour minutes second --> "131530". /$MON-DD$Expands to month day --> "DEC-25". /$WWW$Expands to day of the week --> "WED". /$W$Expands to ordinal number of day of the week --> "3". /$II-IWK-K$Expands to the ISO 8601 year-week --> "02-W52-3". /$HOST$Expands to the name of the host (current) computer Punctuation with ( . , - _ ' ! # % & @ ~ { }  T ) may be used. /%xxxx% Environment variable (E-Var) reference in command files (/CF and /EX). Like the macro reference counterpart, the string value which correspoinds to an E-Var can be brought in the command line text using the /%xxxx% syntax. Note that this syntax should be used only inside the external file text for XXCOPY (/CF and /EX) which cannot be processed by the OS's command processor. That is, in the regular command line, the E-Var reference is already supported (without a leading slash as the prefix). =============================================================================== Summary XXCOPY switches that check two directories: ------- / src \ Files are classified into four groups; | ---+--- --------------------------------------------- | A / B | \ A files in src which do not exist in dst | | | | B files in src which also exist in dst \ | C / D | C files in dst which also exist in src ---+--- | D files in dst which do not exist in src \ dst / ------- /BB all files in A (none in B) /BI all files in A plus files in B that are different in filetime or size /BA all files in A plus files in B that are diff. in filetime, size or attr /BX all files in A plus files in B that are different in filetime /BZE all files in A plus files in B that are the same size /BZL all files in A plus files in B that are larger /BZS all files in A plus files in B that are smaller /BZX all files in A plus files in B that are different in size /BN all files in A plus files in B that have newer filetime /Bo all files in A plus files in B that have older filetime /BE all files in A plus files in B that have exactly the same time and size /BS (none in A) files in B that have exactly the same time and size /U (none in A) all files in B (subject to other switches) /U/BI (none in A) files in B that are different in filetime or size Note: all the variations in the backup switches (/Bx) include the files in A with the exception of /BS to be consistent with the spirit of BACKUP. As shown in the example (/U/BI), adding /U eliminates the files in A. /RS files in A and/or B that satisfy other specified switches (for remove). /RC same as /RS (for remove-after-copy). /RD (none in D) files in C that would be overwritten (for remove). /RX all files in D (for remove). Note: /BS for copy usually accomplishes nothing but is useful as /RS/BS.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #27 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY Command Reference Functional Classification Date: 2010-01-01 Revised for ver 3.00.0 =============================================================================== Introduction: This is the third technical bulletin featuring XXCOPY's switches. With nearly 200 distinct command switches (and growing), a mere alphabetical listing hardly helps new users who are looking for a particular functionality in XXCOPY. The more power that is added with each new switch seems to be offset by the extra burden in locating the needed feature, thus possibly making the program harder to use. It is this irony that prompted me to try it again. The emphasis in this article is not the details, but the relationships of one another. The bigger picture in this article hopefully helps you retain what you read in here. Therefore, the description of each switch is limited to a terse single-line format. For a more complete description, you should look up the alphabetic listing XXTB #26. Taxonomy of XXCOPY command line components The XXCOPY command switches can be grouped into several large groups. They are further divided into sub-categories by the nature of the action they perform. The following table should serve you as a quick reference card. Group Examples ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. Action selectors 1.1 Copy (default) /CoPY 1.2 Move (copy-and-delete) /MVD /MVF /MVX /RC 1.3 Remove /RS /RD /RX /RMDIR 1.4 Modify-Attributes /AA /AZ /AC /ANxx /ARxx /ASxx /ARDxx /ASDxx 1.5 SFN/LFN adjustment /NL /NS 1.6 Installation and license /INSTALL /UNINSTALL /LICENSE /HOSTS /ADDHOST 1.7 List/Find /L /LTREE /ZLX see 3.1 1.8 Hard Link and unlink /MLH /ULH 1.9 Miscellaneous commands /NoP /WHICHX 2. File Selectors 2.1 Source Specifier (not a switch) 2.1.1 Volume 2.1.2 Base Directory 2.1.3 Directory template with wildcards 2.1.4 Filename template with wildcards 2.2 By the characteristics of the source file 2.2.1 by Alternate Filename /IN (name pattern) 2.2.2 by Exclusion /X (dir/name patterns) /EX /GX 2.2.3 by File Date /DA: /DA# /DB: /DB# /Do: 2.2.4 by File Size /SZ: /SZ! 2.2.5 by File Attributes /H /Ho /A /M /AT /AX 2.2.6 by J-thingy Type /JX /JI 2.3 By comparison with the file in destination 2.3.1 by Presence/Absence /BB /U 2.3.2 by File Date /BN /Bo /BX /DA /DB /Do /DS /DX 2.3.3 by File Size /BZE /BZS /BZL /BZX 2.3.4 by Combination /BI /BA /BE /BS /BU /CLONE 2.3.5 by File Data /CDM /CDU /CDX 3. Action Modifiers 3.01 Console Output /EC /ZS /Q /F /L 3.02 Screen and Log output control /oBx/oCx/oDx/oEx/oFx/oHx//oIx/oPx/oSx/oXx 3.03 Screen and Log output format /oQ /oR /WI 3.04 Log File and List File /oA /oN /Fo /FM 3.05 Subdirectories /S /E /T /ED /DL 3.06 File Gathering /SG /SGF/SGN/SGo/SGL/SGFo/SGNo/SGoo/SGLo 3.07 Directory Flattening /SL /SR /SX /SLR /SRR /SXR /S<d> 3.08 J-thingy Handling /JJ /JR /JH /JL /JP /JM /JS 3.09 File Name Treatments /NX /NX0/N /NP /ND /NW 3.10 File Name Case Control /NC0 /NCL /NCU /NCX 3.11 File Time Treatments /FA /FC /FL /FU /FW /FF 3.12 Timestamp Control /TTA /TC /TCA /TCC /TCW 3.13 Time Zone Adjustments /TD /TS 3.14 File Attributes /AC /R /K /KD /KN /KS 3.15 Compression Control /KCFx /KCDx 3.16 Limiting the Size in Copying /TR 3.17 File Removal /Z /ZY /RC /RS /RD /RX 3.18 Quota on File Operation /QF /QBL /QBT /QSL /QST 3.19 Verify After Copy /V /V0 /V1 /V2 3.20 Cyclic Copy Handling /CC /CC0 /CCY /JCYCLIC 3.21 Security Information /SC /SF 3.22 Checking Remaining Space /CK /CK0 3.23 Prompt Control /YY/I/W/WS/WE/P/PC/PN/Po/Y/PD/PJ/PM/PP/PR/PW/PZ/ZY/RxY/CCY 3.24 Warning Control /WD /WL /WN /WR /WU 3.25 Pathname Length Control /VL 3.26 Safe File Overwrite /So 3.27 Copy Buffer Size /ZB 3.28 Versioning Control /JV 3.29 File Share Control /SH 3.30 Progress Bar /PB /PBH /PBH0 3.31 List Tree /LTREE 3.32 Error Handling /C /CB /CBQ /CR /CE 3.33 Check Condition /IA /IP /ILS /ILD 3.34 Debug and Test /DEBUG /DEBUGX 3.35 Cache Control /CA 3.36 Miscellaneous /ER /NI /SP /MD 3.37 Help /? /HELP /HELPA /HELPE 3.38 Installation /SKIPIC /SKIPXC 4 Command Entries 4.1 Environment Variables XXCOPY XXCOPYX COPYCMD 4.2 Environment Variable Control /ZE /ZX /ZX0 4.3 Command File /CF 4.4 Macro Reference /$xxxx$4.5 Environment Variable /%xxxx% 4.6 Offset for Macro Time Values /TM0/TM+/TM- ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Notation: In this article, minor variations which are designated by additional suffix letters are collectively denoted by one or more lowercase x (such as Lxxx). Literal character X in the command switch is shown in uppercase X. With only a few rare exceptions, XXCOPY's command switches are case-insensitive. In order to help you distinguish the letter O (Old) from the digit 0 (zero), the lowercase o is used in this article for the switch alphabet which is more distinct than the uppercase counterpart in most fonts. ================================================================= 1. Action Selector Group: Once upon a time, XXCOPY was just a file copy utility. Now, it is a multi-function file management tool. The switches in this group specify what is the primary goal of the current job. 1.1 Copy (default) /CoPY Copies files/directories (default). This switch exists mostly for a figurative reason. Since it is the default mode of operation, most users do not type this switch. Even our command line examples do not show this. 1.2 Move (copy-and-delete) Windows allows a "true" move to take place only within the same volume (/MVF). To move a file outside the volume requires a copy-then-delete-from-source operation (/RC). /MVX is a hybrid function that performs the "true" move (/MVF) if possible and falls back to the remove-after-copy (/RC) operation as needed. The /MVD function is for directories. /MVF and /MVD can be specified in one command to move both files and directories. /MVD Moves directories. /MVF Moves files (within the same volume). /MVX Moves files (to any destination). /RCx Removes after a successful copy. 1.3 Remove This group has three variations of file remove operation depending on the location of the files. /RSx Removes files/directories from the source. /RDx Removes files which would be overwritten. /RXx Removes files that are not in the source. /RMDIR Similar to the DELTREE utility. Same as /RS/S/H/R/PD0. 1.4 Modify-Attributes /AA Sets the Archive bit. /AZ Clears the Archive bit. /ANxxx Sets the whole file attributes with a new value. /ASxxx Sets the selected file attribute bits. /ARxxx Resets the selected file attribute bits. /ASDxx Sets the selected dir attribute bits. /ARDxx Resets the selected dir attribute bits. 1.5 SFN/LFN adjustment /NL Attaches a long filename to the files in destination. /NS Attaches a short filename to the file in destination. 1.6 Installation and license /INSTALL Installs XXCOPY on a new computer (also for update). /UNINSTALL Uninstalls XXCOPY from a computer. /LICENSE Displays the license status. /HOSTS Displays the list of remote hosts accessed by XXCOPY. 1.7 List/Find The List/Find function is implemented as an Action modifier to any operation in the Action Selector group. When an /L switch is added to the command line, the action will not be carried out except that the result of file selection process will be shown using the customized output format. This function does not really belong here, but to the action modifiers (Section 3.1). See XXTB #26 for detail. /L<items> Lists the file without any file action. /LTREE Lists directory tree (without copy or making directories). /ZLX Lists the files and directories to be excluded (without any file action). 1.8 Make hard links/Unlink hard links The MLH function creates a hard link of the source file in the destination for each source file. The ULK function unlinks hard links by converting each one of them into a regular (non-hard link) file that is associated file data of its own. /MLH Makes hard Links in bulk. /ULH Unlinks hard links (convert to regular fils) 1.9 Miscellaneous Actions /NoP Performs no File Operations. /WHICHX Identifies which XXCOPY program is invoked. 2. File Selector Group: The switches in this group determines what files are to be operated upon by the current action specified by the parameter in the Action Selector Group. The source specifier (2.1) and the /IN switch collectively determine the set of files to be included in the operation. You may specify as many /IN switches for more patterns as you like. The remaining switches in the group all work in the principle of elimination. When you specify more such switches, the more files get eliminated from the set. You can consider each switch in this category as a filter. XXCOPY offers a very wide range of filtering mechanism to narrow down the choice for a particular operation. 2.1 Source Specifier (not a switch) [ volume ] [ base_dir ] [ dir_pattern ] [ file_pattern ] 2.1.1 Volume Usually a drive letter (UNC allowed) 2.1.2 Base Directory The constant part without wildcard 2.1.3 Directory Template Wildcards (* and ?), multiple-level 2.1.4 Filename Template Wildcards (* and ?), filename pattern This parameter in conjunction with the /IN switch determines the entire inclusive scope of the directories and files that will be subject to the file operation. See XXTB #28 for detail. 2.2 By the characteristics of the source file The switches in this group are concerned with the characteristics of the files in the source (as opposed to the switches in Group 2.3 which compare between the files in the source and those in the destination). 2.2.1 by Alternate Filename /IN<tmpl> Includes an alternate filename template (tmpl). This is the only one in the entire XXCOPY command switch whose effect is applied inclusively. That is, if you add another /IN switch, it will add new set of files in addition to the previous set of files for the operation. 2.2.2 by Exclusion /X<xspec> Adds an exclusion specifier (xspec). /EX<list> Specifies a text file with a list of xspecs. See XXTB #05 for detail. 2.2.3 by File Date The various /DAx switches are mutually exclusive one another. The various /DBx switches are also mutually exclusive one another. You may specify a /DAx and a /DBx at the same time which will work together to bracket a range in time line to select files. The /Do switch can be considered as a combination of /DAx and /DBx with the same date specifier which determine a single file date which qualifies the files for operation. /D:<date> Same as /DA:<date>. /DA#<n> Copies files that were changed on or after n days ago. /DA:. Copies files that were changed today or later. /DA:<date> Copies files that were changed on or after the specified date. /DA:<time> Copies files that were changed on or after the date and time. /DB#<n> Copies files that were changed on or before n days ago. /DB:. Copies files that were changed yesterday or earlier. /DB:<date> Copies files that were changed on or before the specified date. /DB:<time> Copies files that were changed on or before the date and time. /Do#<n> Copies files that were changed on the day of n days ago. /Do:. Copies files that were changed today only. /Do:<date> Copies files that were changed on the specified date. 2.2.4 by File Size The file size qualifier switches sets the low limit or high limit or both to select files. Only the last such switch will prevail if multiple switches from this group are specified. /SZ:<n>-<m> Copies a file whose size is between n bytes and m bytes. /SZ:<n>- Copies a file whose size is equal to or greater than n bytes. /SZ:-<m> Copies a file whose size is equal to or less than m bytes. /SZ:<n> Copies a file whose size is exactly n bytes. /SZ!<n>-<m> Copies a file whose size is NOT between n bytes and m bytes. /SZ!<n>- Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or greater than n bytes. /SZ!-<m> Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to or less than m bytes. /SZ!<n> Copies a file whose size is NOT equal to n bytes. /SZ:- Disables size-based selection (/SZ!- also works). 2.2.5 by File Attributes The /ATxxxx and /AXxxxx switches let you specify any combination of file selection using the file attributes as the key. The popular switches, /H and /A are two most common ones. /H Copies hidden and/or system files also. /H0 Excludes hidden and/or system files (default). (same as /AXH/AXS) /Ho Copies hidden and/or system files only. (same as /ATHS) /A Copies only files with the archive attribute set. (same as /ATA) /M Copies only files with the archive attribute set. (similar to /ATA) (The A-bit on the source file will be cleared.) /AT<mask> Selects files by the attribute bits (ACHSR). /AX<mask> Excludes files with the specified attribute bits (ACHSR). /A0 Ignores the archive attribute bit and does not change it. 2.2.6 By J-thingy (Reparse Point and Hard Link) type The "J-thinginess" (i.e., the type of reparse point, etc.) can also be a criterion for selecting the objects to be processed. For example, you may list only J-thingies (non-regular) files (/JXF), or, copy only junction points (/JIP). Although XXCOPY's file-selection mechanism is based on exclusion with the command switches in this section (i.e., all the /JIxxx switches), it is difficult to list all types of J-thingies to exclude when you have only one or two types to include. For this reason, the J-thingy inclusion switches are provided (but XXCOPY still converts /JIM into /JXFHSLP). The /JX switch may accept one or more alphabet /JX<jjj> Excludes J-thingies listed. /JX:F Excludes regular Files (selects J-thingies only). /JX:R Excludes reparse points (selects regular files and hd links only). /JX:J Excludes regular Files (selects regular files only). /JI<jjj> Includes J-thingies listed. /JI:F Includes regular files only (no J-thingies). /JI:R Includes reparse points only (no regular files, hard links). /JI:J Includes J-thingies only (no regular files). 2.3 By comparison with the file in destination The switches in this group select files based on the comparison between the files in the source and those in the destination. They are often used for periodic backup and directory synchronization purposes. These switches were originally created as variations of directory backup. They are also convenient for selecting files for deletion. 2.3.1 by Presence/Absence The /BB and /U switches are the two switches which select files by the pure presence or absence as the criteria. Other switches in the this group (Group 2.3) are also affected by the file in the destination, but for a particular characteristics for comparison's sake. /BB Selects files that are present in source but not in destination. /U Selects files that are present in both source and destination. 2.3.2 by File Date The files in the source and in the destination are compared by their date (the Last-written date by default --- see /FC for more info). /BN Backs up newer files only (includes brand new files). /Bo Backs up older files only (includes brand new files). /BX Backs up different-date files (includes brand new files). /D Same as /DA. /DA Copies newer files and brand new files. /DB Copies older files and brand new files. /DS Copies same date/time files only. /DX Copies different-date files only. /DA and /BN are basically the same. Similarly, /DB and /Bo are basically the same. Why does XXCOPY provide the redundant sets of switches? This is something to do with the mutual exclusivity of switches. The Backup-related switches (/Bxx) are mutually exclusive and cannot have two ways to run a backup operation. For example, if you use /BZ (see below), you may not use the /BN switch at the same time (then you can use /DA). Similarly, when you use a /DA# switch, you cannot use the /DA switch (then, you can use /BN). 2.3.3 by File Size You may use the relative file size as the file selection criteria. The switches listed below are mutually exclusive. /BZ Same as /BZX /BZE Backs up equal-size files (includes brand new files). /BZL Backs up larger-size files (includes brand new files). /BZS Backs up smaller-size files (includes brand new files). /BZX Backs up different-size files (includes brand new files). 2.3.4 by Combination We advocate the use of the combination of file size and file time as the file selection criteria for incremental backup job (/BI). We think this scheme is more reliable than the use of the Archive bit (which may be inadvertently altered by another application). /BI Backs up incrementally, different (by time/size) files only. /BA Backs up incrementally, different (time/size/attr) files only. /BE Selects exactly the same files and brand new files in src. /BS Selects exactly the same files (this is useful with /RS). /BU Standard Backup switch (same as /R/I/BI/Q/C/H/E/V/Y) /CLONE Duplicates a directory (volume). Same as /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY/ZE 2.3.5 by File Data The file contents (byte sequence) can be a selection criterion, albeit it is somewhat more time-consuming operation than the other ones. The /CDM, /CDU and /CDX switches implicitly use the file-size comparison (/BZE or /BZX) function since if a match in file data requires that the two files match their size. /CDM Selects files whose data matches byte-by-byte. /CDU Selects files whose data unmatches and brand new files. /CDX Selects files whose data matches and brand new files. 3. Action Modifier Group: The switches that have been discussed above are very systematically designed. Indeed, many of them are quite inevitable features for a complete file management tool such as XXCOPY. On the other hand, the action modifiers listed in this group are not so systematic. They are a result of evolutionary process where we responded to user requests. The nature of the switches in this broad group is that the presence of the switch alters the behavior of the XXCOPY operation one way or another. Since the backward compatibility is important to long time users, the switch letter assignments are not optimum for mnemonic purposes at times. The main reason why they are listed together in this group is that they are not part of the file-selection mechanism. Fortunately, the switches listed here are mostly optional and you can operate XXCOPY without the full knowledge of them. You may take time to digest the list over a long period of time, or you may simply forget most of these and come back later. Some of the parameters that follow the command switch are not always shown in this listing. The alphabetic listing has full explanation of the parameters XXTB #26. 3.01 Console Output /EC Echoes the entire command line (after macro processing). /ZS Disables the sign-on message and statistics output. /Q Same as /Q1. Does not display files which are skipped. /Q0 Displays all filenames. /Q1 Does not display files which are skipped. /Q2 Does not display directories which are excluded. /Q3 Does not display file and directory names while copying. /F Displays full source and destination filenames while copying. /L<items> Lists the files which would be affected (no other actions). See 3.1x (/FM<items>) for specifications of items. /oFn See the following section (also for /oDn/oEn/oIn/oPn/oSn/oXn). 3.02 Screen and Log File output control /oBx Brief Switch list (as opposed to the long parameter list by /oPx). /oCx Cyclic reparse point list (<LNK><JCT><MNT>). /oDx Deleted-file list (by a /Z or /ZY switch). /oEx Error summary with the system error code. /oFx File list (files that are successfully operated on). /oHx Hard link list (all files that shares the same file data). /oIx Include-item list. /oPx Parameter list (as opposed to the breif switch list by /oBx). /oSx Skipped-file list (with the reason for skip). /oXx Exclude-item list. The suffix (n) will have the following effects: 0: no output 1: Screen only 2: Log file only 3: Screen and Log file both 3.03 Screen and Log File output format /oQ Surround pathname with a pair of quotation marks. /oR Displays the taret path of reparse point. /WI Specifies the width of the console display and log file (/oA/oN). 3.04 Log File and List File /oA<fname> Appends to a logfile, reporting errors. (does not overwrite log). /oN<fname> Outputs a new logfile, reporting errors (make a new log) file. /Fo<fname> Displays full source and filenames and also saves into a file. /FM<items> Specifies the output line format (also applies to /L format). For items, use one or more of the followings. D file date T file time Z file size in bytes A file attributes (A, H, S, R) S short name (8.3) L long name with full directory path N long name without path P parent path R relative path 3.05 Subdirectories /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. /E Copies directories and subdirectories, including empty ones. /T Creates directory structure, but does not copy files. /ED Preserves an empty directory on /Z, /RC, /RS, /RD, /RX cases. /ED0 Deletes empty directories (default). /ED<n> Preserves n levels of empty subdirectories. /DL<n> Limits processing of directories to n levels. 3.06 File Gathering /SG Same as /SGN (see variations in handling duplicates below). /SGF Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted First file 1st). /SGL Gathers files into one-level directory (unsorted Last file 1st). /SGN Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Newest file 1st). /SGo Gathers files into one-level directory (sorted, Oldest file 1st). /SGFo Gathers files into one-level directory (First only). /SGLo Gathers files into one-level directory (Last only). /SGNo Gathers files into one-level directory (Newest only). /SGoo Gathers files into one-level directory (Oldest only). 3.07 Directory Flattening /SL Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Left (see below). /SR Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Right (see below). /SX Flattens subdirectories, add-name-Middle (see below). /SLR Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the left). /SRR Rebuilds flattened directory (path to the right). /SXR Rebuilds flattened directory (path in the middle). /S<d> Sets the directory delimiter char for /SL, /SX and /SR. 3.08 J-thingy Handling /JJ Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS/JH (all J-thingies). /JJ0 Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0/JH0 (no J-thingies). /JR Shortcut for /JL/JM/JP/JS (all reparse points). /JR0 Shortcut for /JL0/JM0/JP0/JS0 (no reparse points). /JH Treats file hard links as hard links. /JH0 Treats file hard links as regular (non-hard link) files. /JL Treats directory symbolic links as symbolic links. /JL0 Treats directory symbolic links as regular directories. /JM Treats volume mount points as volume mount points. /JM0 Treats volume mount points as regular directories. /JP Treats junction (non-mount) points as junction points. /JP0 Treats junction (non-mount) points as regular directories. /JS Treats file symbolic links as symbolic links. /JS0 Treats file symbolic links as regular (non-link) files. 3.09 File Name Treatments /NX Preserves the shortname when the file is copied (default). /NX0 Disables the /NX switch (good for remote volume, DirectCD, etc.). /N Uses the short (8.3) name for name matching, and creation. /N0 Uses the longname for name matching, and creation (default). /NP Uses precise name matching (ignores the match in alias). /NP0 Uses loose name matching (either longname or alias -- default). /ND Uses the old (DOS) wildcard treatment. /NW Uses the new (Win32) wildcard treatment (default in XXCOPY). 3.10 File Name Case Control /NC0 Disables /NCL, /NCU, or /NCX (accepts letters of both cases). /NCL Uses Lowercase-only name when a new file is created. /NCU Uses Uppercase-only name when a new file is created. /NCX Uses Uppercase-only name when a new shortname-file is created. 3.11 File Time Treatments /FA Uses the Last-Access timestamp for Filetime comparison. /FC Uses the Creation timestamp for Filetime comparison. /FL Filetime in Local time (default). /FU Filetime in UTC (Universal Coordinated Time - same as GMT). /FW Uses the Last-Write time for Filetime comparison (default). /FF Fuzzy Filetime, ignores +/- 2 seconds in Filetime difference. /FF<n> Fuzzy Filetime, same as /FF+<n>/FF-<n>. /FF+<n> Allows difference up to plus n seconds for matching filetime. /FF-<n> Allows difference up to minus n seconds for matching filetime. 3.12 Timestamp Control /TTA Touches (modifies) timestamp of Last Access of src. /TTA0 Preserves timestamp of Last Access of src (default). /TC Shortcut for /TCA/TCC/TCW. /TC0 Shortcut for /TCA0/TCC0/TCW0. /TCA Copies the timestamp of Last Access from src to dst. /TCC Copies the timestamp of Create Time from src to dst. /TCW Copies the timestamp of Last Write from src to dst (default). /TCA0 Uses current time for dst Last Access (default). /TCC0 Uses current time for dst Create Time (default). /TCW0 Uses current time for dst Last Write. 3.13 Time Zone Adjustments /TD+<n> Adds an offset to the time of the destination file. /TD-<n> Subtracts an offset time from the dst file for comparison. /TS+<n> Adds an offset to the time of source (and the copied) file. /TS-<n> Subtracts an offset time from source (and the copied) file. 3.14 File Attributes /AC Clears the archive bit of the source after it is copied. /R Allows overwrite or delete of read-only files. /R0 Cancels overwrite/delete of read-only files. /K Keeps the source attributes including read-only (same as /KS). /KD Keeps the attributes of destination (overwritten) file. /KN Sets the destination attributes to normal (only /A). /KS Keeps the src attributes including the read-only bit. 3.15 Compression Control (the C-bit of the File Attributes) /KCDP Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of its parent dir. /KCDD Keeps dst dir's C-bit, a new dir gets its parent's C-bit. /KCDS Sets dst dir's C-bit with that of src dir's C-bit. /KCDC Always sets the C-bit of dst directory (compress). /KCDU Always resets the C-bit of dst directory (uncompress). /KCFP Sets dst file's C-bit with that of its parent dir. /KCFD Keeps dst file's C-bit, a new dir gets its parent's C-bit. /KCFS Sets dst file's C-bit with that of src file's C-bit. /KCFC Always sets the C-bit of dst file (compress). /KCFU Always resets the C-bit of dst file (uncompress). 3.16 Limiting the File Size in Copying. /TR<n> Truncates the newly copied files (first n bytes are copied). 3.17 File Removal /Z Deletes extra files or subdirectories in destination. /ZY Same as /Z except there is no confirmation prompt. /RC Removes files in src after a successful copy (equivalent to move). /RS Removes files in src (see Section 1.2.2 of Action section). /RD Removes files in src (see Section 1.2.3 of Action section). /RX Removes files in src (see Section 1.2.4 of Action section). 3.18 Quota (counting) on File Operation /QF<n> Quits when the quota for the file count has been reached. /QBL<n> Quits before the byte count exceeds the limit. /QBT<n> Quits when the total byte count reaches the trigger point. /QSL<n> Quits before the remaining space dips below the limit. /QST<n> Quits when the remaining space reaches the trigger point. 3.19 Verify After Copy /V Verifies after copy; default (same as /V1). /V0 Disables verify switch (canceling /V, /V1, /V2, or /V3) /V1 Verifies after copy (quick test --- file size match). /V2 Verifies after copy byte-by-byte check. 3.20 Cyclic Copy Handling /CC Prompts you when a cyclic copy is attempted. /CC0 Disallows cyclic copy. /CCY Allows a cyclic copy by excluding destination (default). /JCYCLIC Scans the src dir for cyclic links (<LNK><JCT><MNT>), no copy. 3.21 Security Information (NTFS only) /SC Same as /SC3 (copies security info). /SC0 Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (no security info copied). /SC1 Copies security info (Permissions only) when a file is copied. /SC2 Copies security info (Auditing only) when a file is copied. /SC3 Copies security info (both Perm, Audit) when a file is copied. /SF Same as /SF3 (fixes up security info) /SF0 Cancels the /SC or /SF switch (equivalent to /SC0). /SF1 Fixes up security info (Permissions only) (no file copy). /SF2 Fixes up security info (Auditing only) (no file copy). /SF3 Fixes up security info (both Perm, Audit) (no file copy). 3.22 Checking Remaining Space /CK Checks remaining space before copy (default). /CK0 Disables the pre-check of remaining space before copy. 3.23 Prompt Control /YY Suppresses ALL prompts unconditionally (good in batch file). /Y Overwrites existing files without prompting (same as /Po0). /Y0 Cancels the /Y switch. (same as /Po). /-Y Cancels the /Y switch (XCOPY compatible syntax). /I Suppresses the prompt before creating the destination directory. /I0 Prompts you before creating the destination directory if absent. /W Same as /WE (Prompts you before proceeding). /W0 Cancels the /W, /WS, or /WE switch. /WS Prompts you to press a key at the start of copying. /WE Prompts you to press a key at the end of copying. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file. /P0 Cancels the /P specified earlier. /PC Prompts you before creating a new files. /PC0 Creates a new file without prompting. /PD Prompts you on a directory (default on destructive operations). /PD0 Suppresses the prompt before a processing of directory. /PJ Prompts before a different type dst is overwritten (default). /PJ0 Suppresses the warning for trans-overwrite (different type). /PM Prompts before deleting existing file at the move destination. /PM0 Suppresses prompts on deleting existing file at move destination. /PN Prompts when on excessive failures on /NX operations. /PN0 Suppresses prompts on excessive failures of /NX operatoins. /Po Prompts you before overwriting existing files (default). /Po0 Suppresses warning on file-overwrite (Legacy /Y). /PP Enables the space bar press-for-pause feature (default). /PP0 Disables the space bar press-for-pause feature. /PR Prompts on removing a file whose path contains reparse pt (default). /PR0 Does not prompt before removing a filw with reparse point path. /PW Enables Prompt with Dialog Window. /PW0 Disables Prompt with Dialog Window (default). /PZ Prompts for confirmation of dst directory on /Z /ZY /CLONE. /PZ0 Suppresses prompt for directory confirmation on /CLONE /Z /ZY. /RSY /RS action without the warning on file delete. /RCY /RC action without the warning on file delete. /RDY /RD action without the warning on file delete. /RXY /RX action without the warning on file delete. /CCY /CC action without the warning on cyclic copy. /ZY /Z action without the on deleting extra files. 3.24 Warning Control /WD Warns you when a root-level directory is missing (default). /WD0 Suppresses the warning generated by the /WD setting. /WL Displays a warning when a path length exceeds the limit. /WL0 Suppresses warning for a path length that exceeds the limit. /WN Displays a warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy. /WN0 Suppresses warning on failure on SFN-preservation in file copy. /WR Displays a warning when src or dst specifier contains a reparse point. /WR0 Suppresses warning on src/dst specifier that contains a reparse point. /WU Displays a warning when an unnecessary destination specifier is present. /WU0 Suppresses warning on unnecessary destination specifier. 3.25 Pathname Length Control /VL Sets the maximum path length (for NTFS volumes only). 3.26 Safe File Overwrite /So Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (same aos /So1). /So0 Disables Safe File Overwrite. /So1 Enables Standard Safe File Overwrite (default). /So2 Enables Very Safe File Overwrite (always via temporary file). 3.27 Copy Buffer Size /ZB Sets the size of the file copy buffer (in bytes). 3.28 Versioning Control /JV Archives existing dst file with a versioning number. 3.29 File Share Control /SH Same as /SHRW. /SH0 Disables any sharing (XXCOPY always accesses files exclusively). /SHR Enables file-sharing for read-only with other programs. /SHW Enables file-sharing for write-only with other programs. /SHRW Enables file-sharing for rd/wr with other programs (same as /SH) 3.30 Progress Bar /PB Shows Progress bar for the job (default file progress >= 1M). /PB<n> Shows Progress bar with file progress if size >= n bytes. /PBH Enables Progress bar Halt/Abort button (default). /PBH0 Disables Progress bar Halt/Abort button. 3.31 List Tree /LTREE Lists directory tree (without copy or making directories). Note: with /LTREE, the /DA/DB/DO parameters apply on dir time. 3.32 Error Handling /C Continues copying even if errors occur (default). /C0 Terminates upon the first occurrence of a fatal error. /CB Continues batch file if XXCOPY ended OK last time. /CBQ Same as /CB except suppresses console output to end immediately. /CR<n> Sets the retry period (n seconds, default = 3) on failed copy. /CR0 Disables the retry attempt of a filed copy. /CE Same as /CBQ/EC (most useful in batch file with @echo off). 3.33 Check Condition /IA Continues if destination is absent (terminates if exists). /IA<file> Continues if the specified file or dir is absent (terminates if exists). /IP Continues if destination is present (terminates if absent). /IP<file> Continues if the specified file or dir is present (terminates if absent). 3.34 Debug and Test /DEBUG Shows the command parameters and prompts you to start. /DEBUGX Exits immediately after showing the command parameters. 3.35 Cache Control /CA Enables all cache. Same as /CA7 (default). /CA0 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = OFF /CA1 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = ON /CA2 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = ON dst-rd = OFF /CA3 Cache control: src-rd = OFF dst-wr = ON dst-rd = ON /CA4 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = OFF /CA5 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = OFF dst-rd = ON /CA6 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = ON dst-rd = OFF /CA7 Cache control: src-rd = ON dst-wr = ON dst-rd = ON 3.36 Miscellaneous /ER Emulates XCOPY's exit code (for ERRORLEVEL check in batch files). /NI Becomes nice to other tasks by idling (1000 msec) between actions. /NI<n> Same as /NI. Specifies n msec as the idle time (0 to disable it). /SP Spans the copy job over multiple destination (new volume). /MD<dir> Make Directory (convenient to create a directory for log files). 3.37 Help /? Shows a summary of the switches on one page (without a switch). .../? Shows only relevant switches when other switches are present. /HELP Shows the switches in detail (print this output). /HELPA Shows the /HELP listing in alphabetical order. /HELP /x Shows a portion of /HELPA for switches starting with letter x. /HELPE Lists the Exit codes (ERRORLEVEL values) returned by XXCOPY. 3.38 Installation Control /SKIPIC Skips the creation of XXCOPY Desktop icon on installation. /SKIPXC Skips the installation of the XXCONSOLE utility. 4. Command Entries 4.1 Environment Variables: XXCOPY Specifies command line (any switches except src or dst). XXCOPYX Specifies exclusion specifiers (without the /X prefix) COPYCMD /Y /-Y can be accepted (XCOPY compatible) 4.2 Environment Variable Control /ZE Disables the use of all Environment Variables for XXCOPY. /ZX Disables the use of the Environment Variable XXCOPYX. /ZX0 Enables use of the Environment Variable XXCOPYX. 4.3 Command File /CF Specifies a text file which contains command line text. 4.4 Macro Reference (XXTB #24) --- examples shown below /$DATE$Expands to month and date (equivalent to /$MMDD$) --> "1225". /$TIME$Expands to hour and minutes (equiv. /$HHNN$) --> "1315". /$YYMMDD$Expands to 2-digit year month day --> "021225". /$YYYY-MM$Expands to 4-digit year month --> "2002-12". /$YY-M-D$Expands to 2-digityear-mo-dy (mon and day without leading zero). /$HHNNSS$Expands to hour minutes second --> "131530". /$MON-DD$Expands to month day --> "DEC-25". /$Y$Expands to last digit of the current year --> "2". /$WWW$Expands to day of the week --> "WED". /$W$Expands to ordinal number of day of week (0-6) --> "3". /$IIII$Expands to ISO 8601 Year value for Week number --> "2002". /$II$Expands to ISO 8601 Year value for Week number --> "02". /$WK$Expands to ISO 8601 Week number --> "W52". /$K$Expands to ISO 8601 Day-of-the-Week number (1-7) --> "3". Note: The above examples are for 2002-12-25 13:15:30 (Wednesday). Punctuation with ( . , - _ ' ! # % & @ ~ { }  T ) may be used. 4.5 Environment Variable // keep a common set of exclusion items in one place. /%xxxx% Environment Variable reference in command files (/CF /EX). 4.6 Offset for Macro Time Values /TM0 Cancels the time offset (in days) set by /TM+ or /TM-. /TM+<n> Adds an offset (Dy) to the current time of macro reference. /TM-<n> Subtracts an offset (Dy) to the current time of macro reference.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #28 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The Wild-Wildcard Source: the source spec with wildcards Date: 2001-01-28 =============================================================================== XXCOPY Command Parameter Syntax: XXCOPY source [ destination ] [ switches... ] We have shown XXCOPY's basic command line syntax at numerous occasions. In this article, the topic is focused on the first item, the source specifier (any of the switch arguments can be placed anywhere including at the position left to the source). Source Specifier (XCOPY-compatible standard): In another article, XXTB #25, the standard source specifier that is compatible with Microsoft's XCOPY is discussed. The standard source specifier is made of the following three parts. [ volume_spec ] [ directory ] [ file_pattern ] The other article discussed the case where the directory specifier contains no wildcard character because Microsoft's XCOPY will treat them literally (the * and ? has no special power as wildcard). On the other hand, wildcard characters in the source specifier are handled more appropriately by XXCOPY which is the subject of this article. The Wild-Wildcard Source Specifier (XXCOPY-extended feature): This is one of the most distinguishing feature of XXCOPY from most other file management utilities. The source directory specifier can be further separated in two sub-parts (compare with the standard, three-part source specifier). [ volume_spec ] [ base_dir ] [ directory_pattern ] [ file_pattern ] The [ directory ] component in the standard specifier is now broken up to [ base_dir ] and [ directory_pattern ]. The "constant" part of the directory specifier which has no wildcard will be classfied as the base_dir. The remaining part that include a wildcard will be classified as the directory_pattern. Any of the four parts can be omitted. But, of course at least one must be present as the source specifier. For example XCOPY C:\Windows\sys*\*.dll D:\dst\ /S According to the standard three-part scheme, it breaks up like volume_spec: C: directory: \Windows\sys*\ file_pattern: *.dll Of course, with Microsoft's XCOPY, you get nothing by this command. XCOPY looks for a directory, C:\Window\sys*\ which does not exist if interpreted literally (XCOPY does just that) and find no matching files (*.DLL). With XXCOPY's wild-wild-source (four-part scheme) feature, it works as. XCOPY C:\Windows\sys*\*.dll D:\dst\ /S volume_spec: C: base_dir: \Windows\ directory_pattern: sys*\ file_pattern: *.dll The command line effectively combines the action previously done with multiple lines like XXCOPY C:\windows\system\*.dll d:\dst\system\ /S XXCOPY C:\windows\system32\*.dll d:\dst\system32\ /S ... The Multi-level Subdirectory Specifier: In various examples, you may have seen a source specifier like XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\?cache*\*\*.jpg \dst\ Yes, XXCOPY's unique Wild-Wildcard Source feature allows you to use wildcards liberally pretty much anywhere in the source specifier. That includes the new \*\ notation where a single asterisk forms a sole level of directory. You can go really wild with this feature of having as many wildcards anywhere, any level, any number... It makes XXCOPY a very wild beast indeed. The \*\ sequence is a new notation which we came up with XXCOPY in order to encode the multi-level directory name matching. Actually, the same concept has been present in Microsoft's XCOPY in the form of the /S switch which specifies that a filename pattern be applied to multiple-level subdirectories. For example, XCOPY C:\Windows\*.jpg \dst\ /S XXCOPY C:\Windows\*.jpg \dst\ /S The /S switch is a very basic switch and most XCOPY/XXCOPY users are familiar with this concept. It includes not only the first level directory, but also includes all subdirectories. C:\Windows\mywife.jpg // first-level directory C:\Windows\cache\mother1.jpg // another-level C:\Windows\cache\deep\son.jpg // third-level ... * * * * OK, Microsoft's XCOPY runs out of gas here. * * * * The rest of the discussion applies only to the XXCOPY utility. Using the new \*\ notation, the /S switch can be substituted as XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\*.jpg \dst\ In this command line, the \*\ sequence immediately before the filename template (*.jpg) makes the files to be applied to all subdirectories beyond the path (C:\Windows\). Therefore, the *.jpg pattern applies to any subdirectories which is how the /S switch works. Next, I will show you even a better example of \*\ sequence which illustrates a case which cannot be specified by the traditional /S switch. XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\cache\*.jpg \dst\ In this case, the subdirectory cache may appear at any level of subdirectory (including the first level). Somewhat similar to the spirit of the /S switch, but it does NOT allow the last name part (*.jpg) to be matched in any other directory level than the one immediately inside the cache\ directory. Note the difference carefully: the \*\ sequence does not appear between \cache\ and *.jpg. Therefore,the following three cases are all different one another. XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\*.jpg \dst\ XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\cache\*.jpg \dst\ XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\cache\*\*.jpg \dst\ The first line is equivalent to the familiar /S switch where file pattern *.jpg applies to any level below C:\Windows\. In the case of the second line, \*\ modifies the multi-level matching of only the directory pattern, \cache\ (it just happens that it contains no wildcard charcter, but it may be allowed). But, the filename pattern, *.jpg applied only to the immediate directory of whichever \cache\ directory. The third case is the most universal case of all: the \*\ sequence appears in both before the directory pattern, \cache\, and before the filename pattern, *.jpg. Here are some variations of the multi-level directory specifier: \*\ // zero or more levels of subdirectory \?*\ // exactly one level of subdirectory of any name \*\?*\ // one or more levels of subdirectory There are no particular limit that is set by XXCOPY. You may use as many wildcars you want in the source specifier. Of course, there is a practical limit in the whole length of the source specifier (260 character in all for a full pathname in Windows). Just for old-timer's finger habit: For backward compatibility mostly to accommodate old timers' finger habit, Microsoft allows *.* to denote any file (or directory) name which may not necessarily has the dot character in it. To honor the same tradition (and to make it fully XCOPY-compatible), XXCOPY accepts *.* as equivalent to the simpler (and preferred) single- asterisk, *. To be symmetrical, the multi-level subdirectory matching sequence \*\ may be substitued by \*.*\. Similarly, \*\*\ (or even \*\*\*\*) is a redundant (but permissible) expression which will be treated as equivant to \*\, What is the "Base Directory": We call the "constant" part of the source directory in an XXCOPY operation the Base Directory. There is always only one Base Directory in XXCOPY command. In the traditional XCOPY-compatible (without wildcard) source directory specifier, the pathname up to the last name (the file_pattern) was the Base Directory. With wildcard specifiers in the source specifier, the Base Directory refers to the first part of the source specifier which does not contain any wildcard character. This is why there is always only one Base Directory. The distinction of the Base Directory from the directory_pattern is significant not for the name's sake. But, it is the directory level which is the base directory to which a relative path is referenced. The Base Directory is used in both the formation of the destination directory and the referece point for an exclusion (/X) directory. For example, using the same command line showen earlier: XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\*cache*\*.jpg D:\dst\ /I In the destination directory, you will find files like... C:\Windows\abc\mycache\xrated.jpg --> D:\dst\abc\mycache\xrated.jpg C:\Windows\a\b\cachex\xxx_pic.jpg --> D:\dst\a\b\cachex\xxx_pic.jpg C:\Windows\cache\pta_oked.jpg --> D:\dst\cache\pta_oked.jpg (The /I switch let a new directory to be created if missing). The Base Directory in this case is the C:\Windows\ which is the longest source directory path which does not contain a wildcard. So, if you have a relative referece in an exclusion switch, the path will will be relative to the Base directory. For instance, XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\*cache*\*.jpg D:\dst\ /Xcache*\ Here, the exclusion specifier (/Xcache*\) gives the pattern for the directories to be excluded as "cache*\" which is relative to the Base Directory. that is C:\Windows\cache*\. And the line XXCOPY C:\Windows\*\*cache*\*.jpg D:\dst\ /XC:\Windows\cache*\ In the above example, the following file would be caught by the exclusion specifier. C:\Windows\cache\pta_oked.jpg Does the Wild-Wildcard Source scheme apply to the exclude swich? Unfortunately, the answer is NO. The exclusion specifier is not implemted as flexibly as that of the source directory specifier. It is mostly the for the sake of reasonable issue. If the exclusion specifiers are given a total freedom in terms of the placement of wildcard characters just like the source specifier, unless we come up with a very clever algorithm, the combinatorial explosion will be so severe, the operation will be intorelably slow it will not be useful --- that is our official excuse at least. On the other hand, the current set of exclusion feature is chosen in such a way that the overall XXCOPY performance will not severely compromized even by a very large number of exclusion specifiers. Currently, the use of wildcard in an excluded item is limited to the last name (either file or directory) portion of the specifier.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #29 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The Windows 98 Startup Disk Date: 2001-02-08 =============================================================================== This article discusses the use of the Windows 98 startup floppy disk and an alternative boot disk to handle troubles in booting up the Windows 98 system. Most of the discussion here apply equally to the Windows 95 and Windows ME operating systems (OS) but there are minor differences from one OS to another. The Windows Startup Disk: If you do not have the Startup Disk for your Windows 98 (or you have misplaced it since you made it when you installed Windows 9x on your system), this is the time to make one. It is conveniently done from Control Panel. Control_Panel > Add/Remove Programs >Startup Disk A surprising number of users don't have the startup disk handy and even those who have it have never used it, or do not know what it is for and how useful it is. If you have done it recently, you may remember that the Windows 9x installation steps always provide the option of creating such a diskette --- but never explains how to use it. What's on the Startup Disk? The diskette is also called Emergency Boot Disk (EBD) is a replica of the contents of the directory at C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EBD. (If you are not a techwiz, just skip the file list) IO.SYS ; System boot file. MSDOS.SYS ; Boot option information (paths, multiboot, and so on). DRVSPACE.BIN ; Microsoft DriveSpace compression driver. CONFIG.SYS ; Loads the device drivers. HIMEM.SYS ; Extended (XMS) Memory Manager. COMMAND.COM ; Command interpreter. AUTOEXEC.BAT ; A batch file which runs when you boot it. ASPI2DOS.SYS ; Real-mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver. ASPI4DOS.SYS ; Real-mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver. ASPI8DOS.SYS ; Real-mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver. ASPI8U2DOS.SYS ; Real-mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver. ASPICD.SYS ; Real-mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver. BTCDROM.SYS ; Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver. BTDOSM.SYS ; Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver. FLASHPT.SYS ; Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver. OAKCDROM.SYS ; Generic device driver for ATAPI CD-ROM drives. SETRAMD.BAT ; Searches for first available drive to be a Ramdrive. RAMDRIVE.SYS ; Creates a Ramdrive during startup. FINDRAMD.EXE ; Utility to find the RAM drive during startup. EXTRACT.EXE ; File to expand the Ebd.cab file. FDISK.EXE ; Disk partition tool. SYS.COM ; System transfer tool. EBD.SYS ; Disket identifier file (Windows 98 startup disk) MODE.COM ; Lets you change console parameters README.TXT ; Document file EDB.CAB ; Cabinet (compressed) file containing the following ATTRIB.EXE ; Add or remove file attributes. CHKDSK.EXE ; Simpler and smaller disk status tool. DEBUG.EXE ; Debug utility. EDIT.COM ; Real-mode emergency text editor. EXT.EXE ; File extract utility. FORMAT.COM ; Disk format tool. HELP.BAT ; Launches the readme.txt for the startup disk. HELP.TXT ; Help text file. MSCDEX.EXE ; Microsoft CD-ROM file extension for MS-DOS. RESTART.COM ; Restart your computer. SCANDISK.EXE ; Disk status tool. SCANDISK.INI ; Disk status tool configuration file. SYS.COM ; system transfer tool. UNINSTAL.EXE ; Removes Win 98 and restores the previous state. The floppy disk is essentially a bare bones DOS 7.x system disk with various disk initialization tools, such as FDISK.EXE FORMAT.COM SYS.COM These tools allow you to initialize the hard disk prior to the Win 98 installation. But, in order to read the Win 98 Installation CD-ROM for the setup procedure, you need the capability of accessing the CD-ROM which often needs SCSI device drivers. ASPI2DOS.SYS ASPI4DOS.SYS ASPI8DOS.SYS ASPI8U2DOS.SYS ASPICD.SYS BTCDROM.SYS BTDOSM.SYS FLASHPT.SYS OAKCDROM.SYS Surprisingly, there is no software in Startup Disk which allows you to start Windows 98. The tools are good mostly to re-install the Windows 98 operating system from the CD-ROM. Although the Win 98 re-installation procedure would not normally delete user files on the hard disk, it is a very time-consuming process. It should be pointed out that on many occasions, there are steps you can take that are much quicker to make the system disk capable of rebooting into Win 98 system without a complete re-installation of the OS. But, the Startup Disk will not allow you to do so. The Master Boot Record (MBR): Every now and then, a Windows 9x system becomes unbootable for various reasons. The most common cause is probably the contents of the master boot record (MBR) of the boot drive (the first disk drive that is enabled) are not configured properly. FDISK is the official tool to manipulate the contents of the MBR in Microsoft's OSes. The most well known "undocumented" feature (even Microsoft's page documents it) is to refresh the MBR by the following command. FDISK /MBR This command runs very quickly without fanfare: it does not even tell you whether or not the operation was successful. Also, it is a good idea to run FDISK (without arguments) and examine the first disk to make sure the first partition is a Primary DOS Partition and it is set as Active Partition. It is unfortuante that FDISK allows you to make only the Primary DOS parition of the first disk drive an Active partition. So, even if your BIOS configuration menu has a feature to allow you to set the disk volume other than C: as the boot volume, it does not do you any good as long as you use FDISK because it refuses to make any other partition active. An Alternative Boot Disk: From time to time, for various reasons, the Windows 98 system disk gets slightly corrupted and becomes not bootable. It take only one crucial file to make the system fail to boot successfully into the Windows 98 environment. Anyway, it is very useful to have a bootable system diskette which allows you to not only boot into a DOS environment, but also reach all the way to the Windows 98 environment even on a volume which cannot otherwise boot itself to the Win98 world. Such a capability is sorely missing from the standard Win98 Startup Disk (a.k.a. EBD). Note: This technique works with Win98, but NOT on Win ME. How to make the Alternative Boot Disk: Perform the following sequence to prepare the boot diskette from a command prompt (in DOS or in a DOS Box). FORMAT A: /U /S XXCOPY16 C:\MSDOS.SYS A:\ /H/R/Y XXCOPY16 C:\CONFIG.SYS A:\ /H ECHO C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT >A:\AUTOEXEC.BAT Here, in this example, XXCOPY16 is used because it can be run either in the 16-bit or in the 32- bit environment. But, you may use XXCOPY (the 32-bit version) in a DOX Box of Win9x. If XXCOPY/XXCOPY16 is not available, you need to perform extra steps (ATTRIB to manipulate the attribute bits first, and copy the file accordingly). The forth line here is a quick way to make a one-line text file on A:. Of course, you may add other utilities to the diskette such as FDISK.EXE, FORMAT.COM, SYS.COM for your convenience. If you are not familiar with XXCOPY16, it is available in the XXCOPY Freeware package. Using the Alternative Boot Disk: This diskette allows you to boot into Win9x where the system disk at C: is not capable of booting itself. This is usually a result of the partition that is assigned to C: is not an "Active" DOS Primary partition. Additional note: This technique can be extended to a customized "multi-boot" scheme based on floppy disks. For instance, I have a Japanese version of Win98SE which is installed on Drive E:. That is, when the particular version was installed, it was deliberately installed to E: so that E:\WINDOWS is the official windows system directory for that environment. According to Microsoft's official "rule", only one kind of Win9x OS can exist on a system, (the dual-boot is possible with WinNT/2000/XP but not with another Win9x or ME), when I need to boot into the Japanese version of Win98, I use a specially made diskette which has its own unique MSDOS.SYS file which declares that the E: drive is the boot drive. Of course, you may acquire a specialized boot control software such as the System Commander that allows even more flexible booting option among many OSes. But, the alternative boot disk allows you to test the system and see which of the key files are causing a boot sequence problem.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #30 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Feature comparison: XXCOPY vs ROBOCOPY Date: 2002-12-03 (Revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: Since we receive a large number of inquiries about XXCOPY's relative strength and weakness against ROBOCOPY, the administrator's tool bundled with Microsoft's Windows NT/2000/XP Reseource Kit, this article was created to contrast the two utilities. Apparently, ROBOCOPY (which stands for Robust Copy) and XXCOPY both come from Microsoft's XCOPY utility as the basis for the overall approach which of course comes from COMMAND.COM's built-in COPY command. As its name implies, XXCOPY adheres to XCOPY's general behavior very closely. This makes XCOPY user's initial experience with XXCOPY quite painless. In general, XXCOPY is much closer to XCOPY than ROBOCOPY is to XCOPY. Howerver, as the following chart shows, the two utilities have remarkable similarities. Except for minor implementation differences, the designers of ROBOCOPY seem to have the same general mindset as XXCOPY's designer to the file management problems. Common features: Let us start with a list of common features (with sometimes different switch letter) which are nearly equivalent in the two programs. Robocopy XXCOPY Comments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ srcdir srcspec XXCOPY Allows wildcards anywhere any number dstdir dstdir Destination specifier file ---- Part of srcspec to be XCOPY compatible file... /IN<file> /IN allows additional filename patterns /S /S Copy subdirectories /E /E copy subdirectories even if its empty /LEV:<n> /DL<n> Limit the number of directory levels /MOV /RC Delete from source after copying /MOVE /RC/E Delete from source after copying /PURGE /Z Delete dst files/dirs that no longer exist in src /MIR /CLONE Mirror a directory tree /A+:<mask> ---- Add the given Attributes to copied files. /A-:<mask> ---- Remove the given Attributes from copied files. ---- /KS/KD/KN Keep the src attributes/dst attrib/sets new ---- /AC Clear src archive bit /CREATE /CLONE/TR0 Create directory tree + 0-length files only. /FAT /N Create destination files using 8.3 names. /A /A Copy only files with the Archive attribute set /M /M Like /A, but remove A-bit from source files. /IA:<mask> /AT<mask> Include only files with some of the Attrib set. /XA:<mask> /AX<mask> Exclude files with any of the given Attributes set. /XF /X<file> Exclude Files matching given names/paths/wildcards. /XD /X<dir\> Exclude Directories matching given names/paths. /XC /BS Exclude changed files (backup only same files) /XN /BO Exclude newer files (backup only older files) /XO /BN Exclude older files (backup only newer files) /XX /Z Exclude extra files /XL /U EXclude Lonely files/dirs (update only existing ones). /IS /BI0 Include Same files (copy even if they may be same). /MAX:<n> /SZ:-<n> Exclude files bigger than n bytes. /MIN:<n> /SZ:<n>- Exclude files smaller than n bytes. /MAXAGE:<n> /DA#<n> Exclude files older than n days/date. /MINAGE:<n> /DB#<n> Exclude files newer than n days/date. /LOG:<file> /ON<file> Output status to LOG file (overwrite existing log). /LOG+:<file> /OA<file> Output status to LOG file (append to existing log). /L /L List only (no copy, timestamp, or delete action) /NP /PB0 Enable/Disable progress display /R:<n> ----- Number of retries on failed copies /W:<n> ----- Wait time between retries: default is 30 seconds. ---- /CR<n> In XXCOPY the retry period is specified in seconds. /SEC /SC Copyies Security information. /SECFIX /SF Fixes up security information without copy. /X ---- Report all extra files, not just those selected. /V ---- Produce Verbose output, showing skipped files. ---- /Q<n> Control various quiet (verboseness) levels ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Note: The comments above are mostly for ROBOCOPY user's convenience. The terminology in the comment column is that of ROBOCOPY's. For example, ROBOCOPY' manual refers to the files that is present in the source but not in the destination as a "Lonely" file. Also, the way ROBOCOPY classifies files is almost always by comparing the source against destination. Although many XXCOPY's switches in the backup group (starts with /B ) are in the category, XXCOPY does not always take the viewpoint (bias) in the file-selection process. That is, whereas ROBOCOPY is apparently designed with the backup and archiving operation as its primary purpose, XXCOPY's functionality is wider in scope with more non-backup related file management operations (e.g., more selection in file-removal, file-gathering, etc.) Features found only in ROBOCOPY: ROBOCOPY ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- /Z Copy file in restartable mode for quick retry later /TIMFIX Fix timestamps on existing destination files. /REG Save /R:n and /W:n in the Registry as default /TBD Wait for sharenames To Be Defined (retry error 67). /ETA Show Estimated Time of Arrival of copied files. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Features found only in XXCOPY: XXCOPY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- WildWildSrc Wildcards anywhere any number in the source /X*\dir*\ Exclusion dir may be in any level and with wildcards /EX<file> Exclusion specifiers supplied in a text file. /CF Command file which removes the size limit of command line. /RS/RD/RX Delete file/directory (not just a copy utility) /DA#/DB# File age specifier in Days, Hours, Minutes, or Seconds. /CCY handle a cyclic copy to proceed. /SP Span backup into multiple volume (for floppy, CD-RW) /SX Flatten a directory tree /SG Gather files into a directory /Lxxx List (/L) with a customized display format /BZL/BZS/BZE/BZX Backup if size is larger/smaller/equal/different /NX Preserve short filename /NL Restore long filename after a SFN-only copy /NS Restore short filename /NW/ND Select filename-matching algorithm (Win32 vs DOS) /NP Precise filename matching (no alias-matching) /FL/FU Use Filetime in LocalTime/UTC-time /FW/FA/FC Use Filetime in Last-Write, Last-Access, Create /FF Fuzzy Filetime with adjustable margin in time comparison /TR<n> Copy first n bytes to the destination file /ED/ED0 Delete/leave an empty directory when deleting /CK/CK0 Enable/disable remaining-space check before copy /IA/IP Terminate if destination is absent/present /CB/CQ Continue batch (batch enhancer feature) /NI<n> Be nice to other tasks (add idle to ease CPU demand) /ER Report exit code in XCOPY-compatible mode /V2 Verify a file-copy on a byte-by-byte comparison basis. /SZ!<n>-<m> Exclude range <n>-<m> which ROBOCOPY can't do /TS+/TS-/TD+/TD- Time comparison with offset (inter-timezone synchronization) /WS/WE/P/PD/PW/YY Control for user prompts on various occasions /PC Prompt on create (in addition to prompt on overwrite) /PB Progress Bar for the entire job /PB<n> Progress Bar for file with adjustable cutoff size. /MD Make Directory (mkdir) for log file, etc. within XXCOPY /oX Output the list of exclusion items after optimization /xxxx/? Smart help with a focused list of relevant switches ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Intangible differences: 1. ROBOCOPY provides more detailed statistics than XXCOPY. 2. ROBOCOPY provides percentage display on each file (but good for only a few very large files). XXCOPY has progress bars for the entire job as well as single file copy with variable cutoff limit (shows progress only for large files). 3. When you abort ROBOCOPY, it abruptly ends the whole job without any display of statictics thus far completed. When you abort XXCOPY, it first waits for the completion of the file copy in progress and provides statistics. 4. Robocopy runs only under Windows NT/2000/XP, not in Win95/98/ME. XXCOPY runs under any Microsoft OS (Win 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP) and even has a real-mode (DOS) version XXCOPY16.EXE with essentially the same set of switches (compiled from a common set of source files). 5. XXCOPY provides voluminous documentation with many examples in the web site. The XXCOPY technical bulletin articles are 10 times the size (> 450,000 characters) of the ROBOCOPY documentation (41,000 characters).. 6. XXCOPY's licensed customers receives competent and prompt tech support. 7. XXCOPY has a discussion group where users can exchange ideas and ask questions. Quick Tips for Robocopy users: Since the roots of both ROBOCOPY and XXCOPY are apparently, the same, (Microsoft's XCOPY), the two programs have relatively similar feels. But, even the small difference is sufficient to confuse the first time XXCOPY users who have mostly forgotten how XCOPY worked. Here's a summary of the most confusing aspects. The way the two programs accept the filename ("lastname") patterns is quite different. The following three command lines are essentially the same. robocopy c:\mydir *.doc *.xls *.mp3 d:\dest /s xxcopy c:\mydir\ /in*.doc /in*.xls /in*.mp3 d:\dest\ /s xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /in*.xls /in*.mp3 d:\dest\ /s XXCOPY uses the /IN switch to list multiple filename (lastname) templates. But, most often, experienced users who are familiar with XCOPY prefer to use a combined "source specifier" when there is only one filename template. robocopy c:\mydir *.doc d:\dest /s xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc d:\dest /s The rest of the differences are the name of command switches that are mostly a difference in mapping of the switch alphabets. The comparison charts above is a good starting point. To locate a specific XXCOPY command switch, XXTB #27 is probably the best page. Summing up... ROBOCOPY XXCOPY ---------------------------------------------- Common features 39 39 Unique features 5* 38 ---------------------------------------------- Total 44 77 * Most of the ROBOCOPY features which are unique to ROBOCOPY are idiosyncratic, or otherwise, of relatively minor import. The only unique feature of any substance is ROBOCOPY's /TIMFIX operation which XXCOPY does not support as of this writing (September, 2001).  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #31 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY's Exit Code (for ERRORLEVEL checking) Date: 2004-09-09 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: Upon the completion of execution, Windows (and DOS) programs return a 16-bit value (8-bit value in DOS) to the parent process. XXCOPY is of no exception. The value is usually referred to as Exit code which is also widely known as the ERRORLEVEL value in batch file programming. Due to the DOS compatibility, the batch program can examine only the low order 8-bit value (0 - 255) for testing. The exit code provides a mechanism to evaluate the result of the program execution which can be incorporated in a conditional branch operation (for IF ERRORLEVEL n GOTO ...). For related topics on batch file technique, see, XXTB #19. XXCOPY's standard exit codes: Exit Code Comment (in default mode with /ER0) --------------------------------------------------------- 0 No error, Successful operation 1-32 Reserved 33 Aborted by user 34 Illegal command parameter 35 Invalid DOS version 36 The current directory is invalid 37 Resident DATMAN wrong version 38 Cannot create the destination directory 40 Some fatal error has occurred 41 Invalid source specifier 42 Invalid destination specifier 43 Invalid exclusion item specifier 44 Disk Full 45 Share violation error 46 Conditional termination 47 Path name exceeds the file system's limit 48 Cannot overwrite read-only file 49 Problem in network 100 No files were found to copy 101-254 # errors in file copy (1-154, biased by 100) 255 # errors exceeding 154 files XCOPY-compatible exit codes: Exit Code Comment (in XCOPY-compatible mode with /ER) --------------------------------------------------------- 0 No error, Successful operation 1 No files were found to copy 2 Aborted by user 4 Disk Full, command syntax error, etc. 5 Disk write error. The Built-in Exit Code Help: The error code tables shown above are also available as a built-in Help text by running the following switch. XXCOPY /HELPE  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #32 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: A better boot diskette for Win9x/ME Date: 2001-08-18 =============================================================================== Introduction: One thing really annoying with Windows ME is that the "Start UP" diskette which WinME creates as part of the initial installation (the so-called Emergency Boot Disk, or EBD) is quite useless. It does not allow you to enter the windows ME environment at all. All it gives you is a pseudo DOS environment with/without the support of the CD-ROM drive (Oh, yes, it gives you a Help menu). It seems that when something goes wrong with the few key files in the root directory and/or the master boot record (MBR), the only option you have is to re-install the whole Windows ME. This is also true even with our favorite environment, Win98SE. There are times when you are installing another OS (sucha s Windows 2000 as a dual boot system and something goes wrong with the set up, or a virus attack. The complicated steps in the boot up process, especially with a dual-boot system, if any of the many files are even slightly corrupted, you can't enter Windows 9X or ME. With this regard, Windows ME was one step backward from Win 9x where at least you have a DOS environment where you can fix things and enter the Windows environment. Enter the Quick Boot Diskette: Anyway, here's a technique that works quite well to enter the Windows 9x/ME world without using any file in the root directory of the C: drive. The disketter you prepare with this technique is useful even for a dual-boot system (e.g., 98SE and XP) as long as the disk was installed with a Windows 9x/ME system. It seems too simple to be true. Assume that you are running a healthy Win9x/ME system. Here's how to create the "Windows Quick Boot" diskette: 1. Open a DOS Box inside Win9x/ME (or its DOS counterpart). 2. FORMAT A: 3. XXCOPY16 C:\IO.SYS A:\ /H 4. XXCOPY16 C:\MSDOS.SYS A:\ /H Note: if you don't have XXCOPY16, use the standard ATTIRB and COPY command to copy the hidden files. The two files listed above are essential. Optionally, you may copy the following files if they are present in the root directory (but not mandatory) 5. XXCOPY16 C:\CONFIG.SYS A:\ 6. XXCOPY16 C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT A:\ That is it!!! The diskette is a bootable diskette which does not rely on any file in the root directory of the C: drive. If you are not familiar with XXCOPY16, it is available in the XXCOPY Freeware package. The MSDOS.SYS file: Of course, the contents of the MSDOS.SYS file should be carefully controlled. The following text shows a typical MSDOS.SYS fie. (Note: the Windows 9x/ME system directory is assumed to be name as C:\WINDOWS. If it is different, make adjustments as needed.) ---------------------------------------------------------- [Paths] WinDir=C:\WINDOWS WinBootDir=C:\WINDOWS HostWinBootDrv=C [Options] AutoScan=0 BootDelay=0 BootMulti=0 BootGUI=1 BootMenu=0 BootMenuDefault=1 BootMenuDelay=4 DoubleBuffer=1 Logo=0 DblSpace=0 DrvSpace=0 DisableLog=1 WinVer=4.90.3000 ; ;The following lines are required for compatibility... ;Do not remove them (MSDOS.SYS needs to be >1024 bytes). ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ; ... ----------------------------------------------------------- The most important thing with the MSDOS.SYS file is that the copy in the diskette should have the following line in the [Options] section of the file. DisableLog=1 If the line reads "DisableLog=0", then, the log file (BOOTLOG.TXT) will be created on the diskette which makes the boot up procedure painfully slow. (In Win ME, the log file will be created only when you choose Safe Mode or manually select Logged mode. Still, for the floppy based operation, you don't want the log file.) Note: If your windows directory is not "C:\WINDOWS", make adjustments as needed. Here, some non-default settings are chosen: AutoScan=0 (1 to carry out ScanDisk) Logo=0 (1 to hide the screen by the log image) DisableLog=1 (0 to generate BOOTLOG.TXT) DblSpace=0 (1 to load DBLSPACE.BIN automatically) DrvSpace=0 (1 to load DRVSPACE.BIN automatically) The WinVer value should reflect the version of Windows: WinVer=4.00.0950 // Windows 95 WinVer=4.00.1111 // Windows 95 OSR2 WinVer=4.10.1998 // Windows 98 WinVer=4.10.2222 // Windows 98 SE WinVer=4.90.3000 // Windows ME In case of trouble: 1. With WinME, the Quick boot diskette should go right into the Windows screen without letting you to stay in DOS. This procedure does not use any of the files in the root directory of the system disk (C:). On the other hand, with Win9x (Non-ME), the boot menu gives you the familiar option to stay at the command prompt. 2. If your system is too corrupted to come back alive using the Quick-restart diskette, you should use the Windows Emergency Recovery diskette that you made in the installation step. 3. Run FDISK to make sure that the Master boot record (MBR) has the proper master boot code. FDISK /MBR (it runs in non-interactive mode). Then, run FDISK in interactive mode (without an argument) and from the FDISK menu, make sure that the Primary DOS Partition is active. 4. Run the SYS command to refresh the boot sector (the first sector of the active partition) has proper boot program. SYS C: This program initializes the boot sector of C: drive and also copies the IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and DRVSPACE.BIN files. Caution: If your system is configured as dual-boot with Windows NT/2000/XP, this procedure will make it Win9x-only system (However, after making it Win9X-only boot first, you may run the FIXBOOT command inside the Recovery Console, to make it dual-boot again). 5. If you suspect that the system registry settings (especially for essential device drivers) are badly configured, you may reestore the key files from the system backup directory. First, see how many backup sets have been captured. DIR C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP\*.CAB Here's an example of what you see: RB000 CAB 1,888,538 05-21-01 5:36a rb000.cab RB003 CAB 1,889,721 05-22-01 7:38a rb003.cab RBBAD CAB 1,834,739 01-26-01 3:28p rbbad.cab RB002 CAB 1,892,943 05-20-01 12:45p rb002.cab Note that the file number and the file dates are not in a particular order. Yesterday's copy is usually good. Don't pick the one with RBBAD.CAB which is a bad one! Once you decide which of the .CAB files to restore You may increase the number of backup sets stored in the SYSBCKUP directory by editing the C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI file (e.g., specify MaxBackupCopies=10 for ten sets). 6. Once you decide which backup set to restore, run: EXTRACT C:\WINDOWS\SYSBCKUP\RB002.CAB /L C:\WINDOWS /E /Y Here, the RB002.CAB was chosen as an example. The directory name following the /L switch specifies the location of the the extracted files. The /E switch extracts all files. The /Y switch suppresses the overwrite prompts. In the case of Windows ME, the following files are expected to be restored: C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DAT C:\WINDOWS\USER.DAT C:\WINDOWS\CLASSES.DAT C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI 7. After the FDISK, SYS and EXTRACT procedures described above, you can try again with the Quick Boot diskette to reboot. Also, note that the files that are on the Quick Boot diskette were originally from the root directory of the system disk (C:). Therefore, you may restore them by copying the files back to the root directory if need: XXCOPY16 A:\*.* C:\ /H /R /Y Tip: Although the Quick Boot diskette needs only a handful of files, if you add the few utility programs into the diskette, it will make the diskette useful in case of trouble. IO.SYS ; essential for boot up MSDOS.SYS ; needed to boot up into the GUI environment CONFIG.SYS ; optional for boot up AUTOEXEC.BAT ; optional for boot up FDISK.EXE ; to make the hard disk bootable SYS.COM ; to make the hard disk bootable FORMAT.COM ; to start over XXCOPY16.EXE ; good idea XXCOPY.EXE ; if you have room Epilog: I have tested the technique described in this article using a computer with Win98, Win98SE and WinME. I believe the same technique should work on Win95 and Win95-OSR2. Let me know if you encounter problems with the techniques described in this article. Kan Yabumoto For a similar technique in creating a better boot diskette for WinNT/2000/XP, see XXTB #33.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #33 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: A better boot diskette for WinNT/2000/XP Date: 2005-07-16 (revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: The previous article, XXTB #32 shows a technique to create a quick boot disk which is convenient to start up a Win9x/ME system when it fails to enter the Windows environment because any of the master boot record (MBR), the boot sector, or the essential files in the root directory is missing or damaged. This article presents a similar technique for a Windows NT/2000/XP system which fails to boot up into the Windows environment. Again, the cause of the problem is typically in the MBR, the boot sector and/or a few key files in the root directory. When you install a Win9x/ME system on a Windows NT/2000/XP system, the capability of dual-boot is sometimes lost. The standard procedure for such an occasion is to use the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD). But it requires an in-depth understanding of the operating system environment. It is not for everybody. Besides, it is just too slow. ====== Breaking News ======================================== We have been working on a new product, called XXCLONE in the past two years. This program allows you to make a self-bootable clone of the Windows system disk (for Win NT/2K/XP) with a graphic user interface (GUI) that anyone can use. It also has a function to create a Quick Boot Diskette (QBD) with mouse-clicks as opposed to the command-line (DOS-bOX) operations described in this article. The freeware package available in the following URL supports the feature to create a QBD. http://www.xxclone.com ============================================================== Enter the Quick Boot Diskette: Here's a simple procedure to create a Quick Boot diskette for WinNT/2000/XP. It allows you to start up the Windows NT/2000/XP system with a minimum hassle in case of bootup trouble. Assume that you are running a healthy WinNT/2000/XP system. Here's how to create the "Windows Quick Boot" diskette: 1. Open a DOS Box (Start > Run... > cmd). 2. FORMAT A: 3. XXCOPY16 C:\NTLDR A:\ /H 4. XXCOPY16 C:\NTDETECT.COM A:\ /H 5. XXCOPY16 C:\BOOT.INI A:\ Note: if you don't have XXCOPY16, use the standard ATTRIB and COPY command to copy the hidden files. XXCOPY16 is a 16-bit version of the XXCOPY freeware utility that is available at http://www.xxcopy.com. The three files listed above (NTLDR, NTDETECT.COM, and BOOT.INI) are all essential. Optionally, you may copy the following files if they are present in the root directory (needed only when you need to boot into Win9x/ME as a dual-boot system) 6. XXCOPY16 C:\BOOTSECT.DOS A:\ /H 7. XXCOPY16 C:\IO.SYS A:\ /H 8. XXCOPY16 C:\MSDOS.SYS A:\ /H 9. XXCOPY16 C:\CONFIG.SYS A:\ /H 10. XXCOPY16 C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT A:\ /H If you have a Recovery Console entry in the menu, add the following two files. 11. XXCOPY16 C:\CMDCONS\NTDETECT.COM A:\CMDCONS\ /H 12. XXCOPY16 C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT A:\CMDCONS\ /H If you use a SCSI disk, you also need the SCSI driver 13. XXCOPY16 C:\NTBOOTDD.SYS A:\ /H That is it!!! If you are not familiar with XXCOPY16, it is available in the XXCOPY Freeware package. The diskette is a bootable diskette which does not rely on any file in the root directory of the C: drive. --------------------------------------------------------------- Caution: The FORMAT command in the Windows NT/2000/XP looks deceptively similar to the one which comes with a DOS/Win9x/ME system. But, the boot sectors of the two types of diskette are different each other. The boot code of a DOS/Win9x/ME diskette loads and executes the IO.SYS file whereas that of a WinNT/2000/XP diskette is tied to the NTLDR file. If you use a pre-formatted diskette, you must initialize the diskette using the FORMAT command run in the NT/2000/XP environment as described above (don't have the absense of the /S switch in the FORMAT command fool you). You must not skip the FORMAT step in this procedure. --------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------- Note: The BOOTSECT.DOS and \CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT are specific to the particlar hard disk's drive dimension and cannot be shared with other drive. This dependency makes the WinXP Quick Boot Diskette specific to the drive. If you have nearly identical disk drives on a different machine, you may use one Win9X Quick Boot Diskette on multiple machines as long as the BOOT.INI configurations are made sharable. --------------------------------------------------------------- Customization: The initial bootup menu reflects the contents of the BOOT.INI file which you can edit by NotePad. The following pages in Microsoft's web sites explains technical details of BOOT.INI. Contents of the boot.ini file (Q289022) Parameters for the boot.ini file will show you how to edit the file in order to customize the boot up procedure which is different from the disk-based bootup configuration. The version differentiation: If you have studied my previous article, XXTB #32, you will find many parallels in the DOS family (DOS/Win9x/ME) boot procedure and the NT family (WinNT/2000/XP) boot procedure. Unfortunately, this scheme does not work with XP. The MBR is universal whether it is for DOS, Win9x, WinNT, or even for Linux. On the other hand, once the boot up partition is selected the corresponding boot sector (the first sector of the partition) supplies a specific boot code which is either for the DOS family (DOS/Win9x/ME) or the NT family. In the DOS family, the first file loaded will be C:\IO.SYS which is Windows-version specific. That is, when a particular IO.SYS is loaded, it accepts only the proper version of Windows and fails to boot up with any other version. The next file looked at is C:\MSDOS.SYS which supplies the location of the Windows system directory. So, once the IO.SYS is loaded, you cannot choose Windows versions --- this is why it is difficult to have multiple-versions of DOS family OS to be loaded. On the other hand, in the NT family, the first file loaded will be NTLDR which is not version-specific. Therefore, you may select which version within the NT family to load (WinNT4 or Win2000). But if you mix NT versions, make sure that you use the NTLDR module which came from the newer version. That is, Win2000's NTLDR is good for NT4 but NT4's NTLDR cannot load Win2000. About the Recovery Console: The bare DOS environment is often useful in accessing files in partitions formatted in FAT. On the other hand, files in an NTFS partition cannot be accessed from DOS. When you have problem in an NTFS volume, the standard method to repair the disk is to load the Recovery Console. Even if you have a FAT-based system disk for an NT/2000/XP system, fixing the MBR and the boot sector needs the Recovery Console. After all, the Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) is useful only when you establish the Recovery Console (or the Emergency Repair Session). It is strongly advised that you should go through the Recovery Console at least once while your WinNT/2000/XP system is in good health. There are three ways to enter the Recovery Console: 1. Use the set of Setup Diskettes (4 floppies). This method is painfully slow. But, simplest to operate. 2. Use the original install CD-ROM and run /I386/WINNT.EXE (from DOS), or /I386/WINNT32.EXE (from Windows). If the Install CD is a bootable CD and your BIOS supports booting from the CD, this is faster. Even if your system cannot boot from the CD, if you have a Win9x Emergency Disk, it lets you configure a DOS environment with CD access so that you can launch the WINNT.EXE or WINNT32.EXE. Note, entering the Recovery Console uses the same setup procedure which is also used for a fresh WinNT/2000/XP install. Be assured that you will be given a menu to enter the Recovery Console instead of re-installing the whole OS from scratch. 3. Use the files in the C:\CMDCONS (hidden) directory which can be set up on your hard disk (while you have a healthy Win2000). As one of the boot options in the menu which are shown from entries in BOOT.INI, you can simply select the Recovery Console option at the boot up time. This is the quickest method of all. (We have tested this technique only with Win2000 --- but not with NT4.) We recommend the 3rd option as the most convenient method. Basically, all of the three alternatives use exactly the same set of files --- the difference is where these files are loaded from. In the third case, it consumes about 7 MB of disk space which is not much, today. Even in rare instances where your system fails to go far enough to show you the boot menu, you can use the Quick Boot Diskette to load the files in the C:\CMDCONS directory. Here's how to set up the C:\CMDCONS files. 1. Inside Windows 2000, run the following console command from the Install CD (assume it is accessed at D:) D:\I386\WINNT32.EXE /cmdcons This will create the C:\CMDCONS (hidden) directory and saves all the files which are neccessary for the Recovery Console. It also modifies the BOOT.INI file with an appropriate entry for the Recovery Console option. 2. Edit the BOOT.INI file in your Quick Boot Diskette by looking at the newly modified C:\BOOT.INI file on your hard disk. The line should look like the following: C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT.DAT="MS Win2000 Recovery Console" /cmdcons Note: In the above discussion, the system volume was assumed to be C:\ which can be another drive letter. Once you are in the Recovery Console, it is like the DOS world (many familiar commands such as DIR, MKDIR, CHDIR, COPY, are there). The long filename is also supported. You can even invoke a batch file (using a different syntax). Troubleshooting: If your system cannot boot up using the Quick Boot Diskette made by this technique, you still need to run the Emergency Repair Disk which is outside the scope of this article. The following Microsoft article may be a good starting point: "Description of the Windows 2000 Recovery Console (Q229716)". Let me know if you encounter problems with the techniques described in this article. Kan Yabumoto  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #34 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The differences between XXCOPY Pro and Freeware Date: 2009-11-18 (Revised) =============================================================================== This article explains how XXCOPY Professional Edition (XXCOPY-PRO) differs from the XXCOPY Freeware which is available for free. ====== For those who don't have time to read the entire page ======= The Freeware is designed primarily for a stand-alone computer, whereas other packages work better in network environments. Besides, there are many other enhanced features in XXCOPY-Pro that most of which available in the Freeware for demonstration. In such a case, the function performs normally after the user dismisses the initial user prompt. Please note that the Freeware license agreement prohibits its use by corporate users for purposes other than product evaluation. ==================================================================== Currently practically all XXCOPY-Pro features are available in the XXCOPY Freeware version except that in some circumstances, the Freeware version displays a message which requires a user response. 1. Accessing remote computers (networked computers), beyond the number of computers for which your license allows. XXCOPY version // Host count (# of computers) -------------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY Freeware // 1 (the local computers only) XXCOPY-PRO (TestDrive) // 100 = 99 networked computers XXCOPY-PRO (for N computers) // N = (N-1) networked computers 2. Macro references /$DATE$// Current Date (same as /$MMDD$) /$TIME$// Current Time /$YYMMDD$// Any combination of YYYY, MM, DD, HH, NN, SS /$xxxxxx$// And many more /%xxxxxx% // Reference to environment variable from /CF 3. Security related features (available in NT/2000/XP platforms) /SC // Copy security info when a file is copied /SF // Fixup security info, without copying file 4. Non-default log output /oP // Parameter /oP // Parameter (command switch detailed) list. /oI // Include-item (alternate file template) list. /oX // Exclude-item list. /oF // File list (files which were successfully operated on). /oS // Skipped-file list (with the reason why skipped). /oD // Deleted-file list (by a /Z or /ZY switch). /oE // Error summary with the system error code 5. Miscellaneous advanced features /FD // Inter-timezone (adjust the destination timestamp) /FS // Inter-timezone (adjust the source timestamp) 6. Warning on an untested OS environment XXCOPY Freeware // Always a warning is displayed XXCOPY-PRO (TestDrive) // The OS-version warning may be suppressed 7. Other occasions XXCOPY Freeware // You may see occasional user prompts XXCOPY-PRO // Practically all prompts can be suppressed. The above list is a description of difference between the two XXCOPY packages as of this writing (v.2.60.0 for the official release version and v.2.71.0 for beta test version). In the future, more differences may occur as we implement more features which are primarily for the XXCOPY Professional Edition. We guarantee that the XXCOPY-PRO version with a proper license will function indefinitely under the current operating environment. Of course, XXCOPY Freeware comes with no warranty of any kind.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #35 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: How XXCOPY-Pro manages the site license. Date: 2009-11-18 (Revised) =============================================================================== Introduction: The major design feature that differentiates XXCOPY-Pro from its Freeware package is its behavior in a network environment. ====== For those who don't have time to read the entire page ======= The Freeware is designed primarily for a stand-alone computer, whereas other packages work better in network environments. Besides, there are many other enhanced features in XXCOPY-Pro that most of which available in the Freeware for demonstration. In such a case, the function performs normally after the user dismisses the initial user prompt. Please note that the Freeware license agreement prohibits its use by corporate users for purposes other than product evaluation. ==================================================================== XXCOPY's license is always sold as a site license. In order to simplify the customers work in administering the XXCOPY license, we even allow users to operate XXCOPY on multiple sites as long as the same contact person oversees the deployment and usage. We simply call it "site license" that has a "Host Count" that specifies the total number of computers for XXCOPY operations. Determining the Host Count: XXCOPY's license fee is determined by the Host Count (and also by the length of the update subscription). So, you should know how XXCOPY determines the Host Count before purchasing your XXCOPY license. 1. Count *ALL* computers that you intend to access using XXCOPY, regardless of how you characterize them: Servers, Clients, Workstations, Terminals, Hosts, etc. 2. Also count disk drives that are attached to your network (e.g., NAS, SAN, SNAP, etc.) that are to be accessed by XXCOPY. These disks behave literally like a computer that are attached to the network even though they lack their own keyboard, mouse or monitor. 3. The computers that launch the XXCOPY.EXE program must also be counted. 4. Include any device that behaves like a computer on a network (including VPN) with a unique NetBIOS ID (the first element of UNC path) is counted as a computer as far as XXCOPY's site license is concerned. (If you assign two or more IDs to a computer and use them interchangeably in XXCOPY commands, they will be counted multiple-times.) Note that you need not count the computers on your network that will never be accessed by XXCOPY. You count only the ones that are involved with XXCOPY operations. We no longer sell a XXCOPY-Pro license for a stand-alone configuration. Therefore, the smallest XXCOPY-Pro license is for two computers. You may increase the host count of an existing site license by ordering a Quantity Upgrade at any time. The remainder of this article explains how the XXCOPY-Pro keeps track of the number of unique computers it encounters using an example of administering a site license for ten computers. Automated Management of the Registered Hosts: XXCOPY-Pro implements a rudimentary counting scheme where it maintains a list of computers that have been accessed by XXCOPY. The record is kept inside the XXCOPY entry of the system registry. 1. Installation When you acquire a site licence for 10 computers, you will receive a special license file (XXCOPY.LIC) which is custom- made for you. The license file is typically delivered to you as a small zipped file which is attached to an Email. To properly install XXCOPY-Pro, place the unzip XXCOPY.LIC file in the same directory as the XXCOPY.EXE file (separately downloaded from Pixelab's server). The first section of the license file is a text which is terminated with a Ctrl-Z (End-of-File) marker. It is suitable for direct parroting. You can examine the contents of a license file by simply running the following command line at the console: type xxcopy.lic And you will get a print out like the following: ------------------------------------------------------------ XXCOPY License Serial Number: 67-8901-2345 License Code: 98-7654-3210 License Granted to: Pixelab of Naperville, IL The maximum number of installations at this site: Ten (10) ------------------------------------------------------------- To install, execute the following command line: xxcopy /install To display the current license status: xxcopy /license 2. The Record in the System Registry XXCOPY then creates an entry in the system registry and sets up a table for 10 computer names to be stored (likewise, a site license for 50 computers creates a table good for 50 entries). The first slot in the table always keeps the name of your computer (the network name for "My Computer"). XXCOPY keeps track of all remote computer names (UNCs) it encounters. We call them "Registered Hosts". The name of the most recently accessed computer will always be placed to the second position in the table immediately below the host computer. If your XXCOPY activities are limited within the registered hosts, the entries in the table will remain the same (but the order of the entries will be altered by each access). 3. Listing the Registered Hosts At any time, you may examine the current contents of the list of registered hosts by running the following command line: xxcopy /hosts 4. When you run XXCOPY and exceed the Host Count? Say, you run an XXCOPY command and access a new machine whose name is not in the list for registered hosts in the system registry, and the list is full. With 10 computer names that XXCOPY has encountered, and there is no more room in the table. This happens from time to time. It is not always a violation of the license terms. As a matter of fact, we expect from time to time that computer names are changed. For example, when an employee leaves the company, his computer is often renamed. Or, a computer is upgraded and renamed. XXCOPY is designed with the anticipation that network environments are always in constant change. And, the site license management is designed to accommodate the evolution of the network. So, when an 11th computer is accessed by XXCOPY, it will display the following user prompt: ----------------------------------------------------------- \\MyServer, a server (networked computer) volume is being accessed. The server is not in the list of 10 computers that you are authorized to access using XXCOPY. In order to avoid this warning message in the future, you should upgrade the license so that more server names (at least 11 computers) can be maintained. Do you wish to add the server name in the list now (Y/N)? ----------------------------------------------------------- If you answer Y(es), the new computer name will be recorded (at the second spot immediately below the host computer's entry) in the table. That will push away the computer name in the bottom of the list (the least recently accessed one). On your next access to the remote computer by XXCOPY, you will not see the user prompt again. On the other hand, you may answer N(o) to the prompt. In that case, the name of the new computer will not be saved in the list --- no changes in the table takes place. But, when you access the same machine the next time, you will have to see the same prompt once again. If you get tired of this, it is probably time to upgrade your site- license with a larger limit. Adding a Computer as a Registered Host: As an alternative to the automated management of registered hosts by XXCOPY, you may explicitly add a computer name to the list. xxcopy /addhost:<computer_name> You may even create a batch file with the current list of computer names for the registered hosts, For example, register_hosts.bat (edit the host name portions) -------------------------------------------------- xxcopy /addhost:Server_John xxcopy /addhost:Server_Pete xxcopy /addhost:Server_Mary xxcopy /addhost:Server_Greg xxcopy /addhost:Server_Mike xxcopy /addhost:Server_Kate xxcopy /addhost:Server_Alex xxcopy /addhost:Server_Rich xxcopy /addhost:Server_Zach -------------------------------------------------- Note that this (or similar batch file with a /ADDHOST function) batch file instigate user prompts. This batch file is not for unattended operation. It still provide a convenient way to specify the contents of the registered hosts list maintained by XXCOPY in the system registry. With the use of the /ADDHOST function and specifying all members of the desired roster when your network environment is being changed, you can prevent an unanticipated user prompt due to an unregistered host.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #36 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Norton Ghost and XXCOPY Date: 2002-03-01 (Original Edition) 2010-03-18 (Addendum added) =============================================================================== This technical bulletin is based on the article that I wrote for BootLIST.Com (www.bootdisk.com/bootlist/005.htm) in February, 2002. ************************************ What is XXCOPY really all about? ************************************ By Kan Yabumoto <tech@xxcopy.com> 2002-02-07 ©2002 Copyright Kan Yabumoto Hello, Everyone. My name is Kan Yabumoto. I'm the author of the XXCOPY software. It is a great honor to be invited to this new exciting newsletter for an article. The subject is of course, XXCOPY. Its home page is http://www.xxcopy.com Rather than boring you all to the death by parading the myriad of features in XXCOPY, I would like to pick a few topics and give you my side of the story. I've been using a lot of software products just like you, and I seldom come into contact with the author of the program. So, let me make myself available to you and discuss the product's history, the primary goal, and the near-term and long-term road map of XXCOPY development. Also, I would like to brag about a feature in XXCOPY that I'm most proud of. After all, XXCOPY is just a file-copy utility. In order for XXCOPY to stand out from the crowd in the competition, it has to offer to the user something unique. We wanted to make XXCOPY irresistible to those who give it a try. Many of you must have come to know XXCOPY for a particular purpose. I hope you found it useful for what you had in mind. But, chances are, you are still wondering why XXCOPY is so often talked about in various newsgroups lately. From my point of view, many favorable comments about XXCOPY by others are often picking just one of the many virtues of XXCOPY. By observing the newsgroups at the sideline, I often find myself frustrated by the fact people talk about the relatively "minor" features of the tool. The real power of XXCOPY seems to be largely untapped by most users. So, here I am, trying to de-mystify the tool and set the record straight. What is XXCOPY all about? 1. Brief history of XXCOPY XXCOPY debuted in the Internet as a freeware in November, 1999. But its predecessor, DCOPY (and DCOPY32) was born around 1994. It has been a bundled utility program in our DATMAN package (DATMAN makes a tape drive behave like a disk. Visit http://www.datman.com for details). Its modest goal was to circumvent the problem of Microsoft's XCOPY which often got stuck in a script (batch file) when files are transferred to a NetWare file server for backup. The file-sharing problem in a multi-tasking and networking environment has always been a common headache. The problem will be with us forever. When a file is exclusively opened by one program, the next program which attempts to access it has no choice but to let the first program be done with it. The trouble with Microsoft's XCOPY was that it gave the user the infamous "R(etry) or A(bort)" choice --- you either try it again which usually gets you nowhere, or abort the whole backup operation. But worst of all, the situation makes the batch script sit there idle (Microsoft later added the much-needed third, F(ail) option in the prompt along with the /C switch to prevent a failed copy from ruining the rest of the backup operation). DCOPY had that capability long before Microsoft corrected its XCOPY. We always listen to the users. Later, we found ourselves adding many more backup-related features to DCOPY. But, after many more switches were added, one key principle remains the same: the latest XXCOPY's command line syntax is still compatible with Microsoft's XCOPY. When we released XXCOPY to the general public in late 1999, our motivation was to provide something for free in the Internet to attract more traffic to our main DATMAN.COM web site. We gave it the new name, XXCOPY which correctly characterizes the nature of the product; the behavior stays very close to that of XCOPY. This makes the user's first experience with XXCOPY relatively painless, provided that he already knows Microsoft's XCOPY fairly well. 2. XXCOPY for cloning the Win9x system disk. Soon after the XXCOPY freeware version became more widely circulated, a few people discovered its usefulness in duplicating the Windows 9x system disk. I'm not sure exactly who mentioned this usage first. At various newsgroups, XXCOPY was recommended to others for disk cloning purposes. At that time, many people were using Microsoft's XCOPY for this. We still see plenty of users run the following command for this purpose. XCOPY C:\ D:\ /h /e /k /r /y Being compatible with XCOPY, XXCOPY can be run using exactly the same combination of switches XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /h /e /k /r /y But, I was recommending an improved variation, XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /ks /h /e /r /q /y /bi /zy In order to help memorize this long combination, I came up with the following mnemonic for it; "Kiss Her Quick, Yes, But I'm busy." But, it requires photographic memory. So, I devised a shortcut switch in XXCOPY that is a direct substitution of the longer combination. That is how the /CLONE switch came to life. Now, the command is much easier to remember. XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /CLONE Of course, we could have advocated a batch file to achieve the similar goal. But, this shortest form as a built-in switch was an instant success. Then, I wrote a special manual with step-by-step instructions for this operation. http://www.xxcopy.com/xxtb_010.htm If you help others by mentioning the /CLONE switch for duplicating the Win9x system disk, I hope you also add this pointer in your advice so that the new user will not have to wonder "What's next?" after he runs the /CLONE operation and still does not have a bootable disk. The MBR, the boot sectors, etc. must be properly initialized in order to have a bootable system disk. Now, you know why we did not develop XXCOPY for disk clone operations. Nor was the very /CLONE operation specifically designed for cloning! It is simply a natural consequence of making a versatile tool for many purposes. The /CLONE switch remains a mere convenience feature in XXCOPY to ease the typing and memorizing. 3. Ghost, DriveImage and XXCOPY The /CLONE switch made XXCOPY a free alternative to Norton Ghost and PowerQuest's DriveImage. I have great respect for both of these products. In newsgroups, we find so many people asking the same question over and over again. Here's a typical thread: Q: I just bought a 20GB hard disk and I want to replace my Win98 system disk with the new one. Tell me how? A: Most hard disks come with a utility to do just that. Otherwise, buy Ghost or DriveImage, or try freeware XXCOPY. Some people adamantly suggest Norton Ghost. Not only do they recommend it for the one-time system cloning operation, they also advocate the use of Ghost for daily/weekly backup. That is fine. But, many say they chose XXCOPY and they are happy with it. After all, when you buy a$90 disk, would you spend
an additional $50 just for this one-time operation? --------------------------------------------------------- I hear the Ghost software that one bought two years ago cannot do well in cloning the XP disk. Thus, the$50
price tag is not a one-time investment for a good tool,
but rather a recurring expense like an annual
subscription.  I suspect many Ghost advocates are a
professional system integrator or consultant who buy
Ghost as his tool for everyday work.  But they must
not forget that they are talking to one-time users.
---------------------------------------------------------

XXCOPY works great for this purpose.  It works better
than the XCOPY method by not taking chances with the short
filename (SFN) (see http://www.xxcopy.com/xxcopy03.htm
for detail).  XXCOPY preserves the SFN when files are copied
using the long filename (LFN), whereas most other programs
(including Microsoft's tools) neglect this aspect.

XXCOPY's /CLONE command can be used for subsequent daily
backup without any change (by leaving the old disk in D:
as a backup drive after the disk swap).  The incremental
backup will run much faster than Ghost or DriveImage for
this purpose.  Moreover, in a relatively rare instance of
either of the disks (original or the newly cloned one)
having a bad sector, a disk imaging software such as Ghost
usually cannot handle the bad sector unless the two drives
have bad sectors in exactly the same positions.

It is quite amazing that both approaches work.  It's like
traveling from New York to New Delhi, via Hawaii or via
Europe.  We fly to totally opposite directions at first.
In the middle, we are thousands of miles apart.  Yet, we
arrive at the same goal.

Am I saying XXCOPY is better than Ghost or DriveImage?  No.
I say it is just plain silly to compare apples and oranges.
But, since it continues to be a hot issue, let me briefly
give my advice to the disk cloning issue once and for all.

My answer to the Win9x/ME disk clone question:
-------------------------------------------------------------
Try XXCOPY Freeware first (be sure to read the XXTB #10).
If it fails, use Ghost or DriveImage that fits your budget.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Honestly, I shouldn't waste my energy on this small issue.
XXCOPY has never been designed for and will never be made
for disk imaging.  It happens to work great when one
wants to make a bootable system disk for Win9x/ME.

As of this writing, we do not have a similar recipe for
making a bootable WinNT/2K/XP disk using only XXCOPY.

4. XXCOPY - More Than A One-Trick-Pony.

When you have done your first /CLONE job with XXCOPY
and you are happy with it, XXCOPY is not finished yet.
It has just demonstrated its versatility in one of the
many things that it is capable of.  Let me emphasize it:

XXCOPY is not a one-trick-pony, not just for /CLONE.

When you run XXCOPY /HELP for the first time to obtain the
help text, the sheer volume will probably overwhelm you.
The good news is, you need not learn them all at once.
Take time.  Learn one feature at a time and use it
repeatedly and explore some more.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of what those switches do.

a. select files by filetime, size, attributes, etc.

b. specify exclusion pattern (files and directories)
specify inclusion pattern (filename patterns only)

c. create log file and name-list file.

d. modify behaviors of all the above and much more...

In essence, the great majority of file management activities
you want to carry out are probably supported by XXCOPY already.
But you need to find out which switch to use and that can be
difficult.  My favorite reference page for that is:

http://www.xxcopy.com/xxcopy27.htm

the listing is ordered by the functionality of the switches.
It is even more useful as an overview of all the available
switches using the functional classification in mastering the
galaxy of XXCOPY command switches.  I highly recommend it.

Let me conclude this section with some more examples:

xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /da#10      // files modified within 10 days
xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /da:2002-2  // files modified after Feb 2002.
xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /sz:-100m   // files up to 100 MB long
xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /ats        // files with system attribute
xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /x*.tmp     // exclude files that end by .TMP

Rather than showing all of the 200+ switches, I let your
educated guess extend this short list to what kind of cases
the other 200+ switches might do for you.

5. The feature in XXCOPY that I'm most proud of.

If there is a defining feature in XXCOPY, this is it.
The feature called "Wild-Wildcard" is the crown jewel of
the program.  It opens up new ways to look at the files
and directories.  Forgive my complacency here, but I want
you to feel my enthusiasm for it and learn the feature.

From the user's point of view, the Wild-wildcard feature
allows you to place as many wildcard characters and at
any position in the source specifier.  It's quite elegant.

Programming this feature was a little hard.  Then, handling
the exclusion items with wildcards made it more difficult.
Now, to implement all this with a great execution efficiency,
was the most challenging experience in the entire project.
But, inventing this type of unique and powerful feature
brings joy to the programming profession.

Here's an example of that.

xxcopy c:\micro*\*\cache*\*\*.jpg  d:\myimages\

If you know what "*" does to a filespec at the end of a
fully spelled-out path, you can reasonably guess what it
does when it appears in the middle of a multi-level pathspec.

If you are confused and prefer not to know it, that is fine.
On the other hand, if you are intrigued by it, let me briefly
explain.  It's a liberal application of wildcards ( * and ?).

One way to look at this is to view the feature as an extension
of the /S switch.  See the difference of the following lines:

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfile.*      // one directory level
xxcopy c:\mydir\myfile.* /s   // multi-level subdirectories

Most XCOPY users are quite familiar with the /S switch that
allows the file pattern (myfile.*) to appear anywhere inside
the subdirectories under the c:\mydir\ directory.  The
file may appear immediately inside the c:\mydir\ directory
or it may be in second, third or any level of subdirectory.

Now, we introduce a new notation to denote the effect of /S:

xxcopy c:\mydir\myfile.*   /s   // multi-level subdirs
xxcopy c:\mydir\*\myfile.*      // equivalent to the above

When it has the single-star (..\*\..) sequence, it signifies
that the item(s) at the right hand side can be at any level of
subdirectory.  The two command lines behave exactly the same.

Once we agree upon how the sequence works when it is placed
immediately left to the filename pattern, we can shift the
occurrence of the single-star sequence to any other place.
In short, this notation lets you apply the mechanics of /S on
the subdirectory level other than the lowest (rightmost) level.

xxcopy c:\mydir\*\xyz\myfile.*  // the /S switch can't do this

Another innovation in the wild-wildcard feature is to allow
wildcards (both * and ?) to appear for any number of times.

xxcopy c:\*\*dir\*\xyz?\*\myfile.*    // can really go wild.

So, let us wrap up this section with one more example:

xxcopy c:\abc\*\xyz\*.jpg

The xyz subdirectory can be anywhere under c:\abc;

c:\abc\xyz\john.jpg
c:\abc\def\xyz\paul.jpg
c:\abc\def\ghi\xyz\john.jpg

All the above are selected with c:\abc\*\xyz\*.jpg

6. A One-Liner Batch File for You.

Who in their right mind need to go wild with the Wild-Wildcard?

You seldom need to go very wild in filespec.  But, the ultimate
flexibility in XXCOPY becomes very handy when you look for
something in your disk.  Since you don't want to remember
the XXCOPY switches that work best for file searches, a batch
file really makes your life easier.

Here is my favorite batch file:

where.bat
-----------------------------------------------------
xxcopy /lzdl/s/h %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
-----------------------------------------------------

It is a file-finder script.  It often works best with a
pathname that starts with the root (but need not to).
With this batch file, I sometimes go quite wild.

examples:

where \windows\*\cache*\   // list all in cache dirs
where \*\temp*\  /sz:0     // zero-byte files in temp dirs
where \          /da#10m   // made in the past 10 min
where \mydir\ \ref\   /u   // files common in both dirs

This simple batch script exemplifies the flexibility of
XXCOPY by allowing many ways to select files.  For instance,
the fourth example above shows off some nifty combination.

7. XXCOPY Road Map, Near-term and long term.

Lately, I started to realize a disturbing fact in XXCOPY's
user community.  I enjoy relating my experience in early
days of CP/M, MS-DOS and so on with XXCOPY users who reminisce
their stories with me.  But I suspect that the average age
of the XXCOPY users is higher than that of the whole computer
professionals (I'm afraid the same is true to BootDisk.Com)!

We often hear from people at IT departments' supervising
positions saying their young system administrators prefer
clicking the mouse button a few thousand times to taking the
time and edit a five-line batch file.  Sadly, it may be true.

If we continue the command line-only design, XXCOPY will
repeat the demise of the dinosaurs.  We have no illusion.
So, Graphical User Interface (GUI) is the future of XXCOPY.

In the near term, a simplistic GUI-based program will satisfy
novice users' need for XXCOPY.  Since it will omit most
advanced features, this product can be finished first.

We also want to introduce a GUI application which helps the
user find the right switches for file management operations.
Since it presents nearly all XXCOPY switches in a well-
organized fashion, it takes longer to develop; hence, it
will be released at a later date.

In the past, we have been contacted by a few individuals
who wanted to develop a GUI-based front end program which
runs side by side with the XXCOPY program.  We welcome
initiatives from interested parties who might work with us
for a loose, non-exclusive partnership.

8. Conclusion for now.

In conclusion, I try to make XXCOPY a worthwhile program
for nearly everybody who is eager to learn its rich set of
file management operations.  My publicly stated goal for
this program is:  One day, XXCOPY will be called

The Undisputed King of the File Management Utilities.

Lastly, I hope this will not be my last time in this
comments to bootdisk@xxcopy.com.  I will respond to you in
my next appearance here (whatever name you use in the

Alternatively, you may post your question to the XXCOPY
discussion group, or join the group and/or subscribe the
Email delivery of the messages.

To post your message, send Email to: xxcopy@yahoogroups.com
To subscribe the messages: xxcopy-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

place to meet other XXCOPY users who are quite eager to
help newbies with their experience.  I will also post my
message there when a clarification is needed.  It is also
example, a new XXCOPY beta version is always announced in
the discussion group, first.  You can post your suggestion
for a new feature there.  It's like a Usenet newsgroup
specialized in XXCOPY except responses usually arrive much
more quickly.  The archived messages (> 1500) are a gold mine
to retrieve past messages using the keyword search.

So, please join the "XXCOPY Revolution".

Kan Yabumoto
Naperville, Illinois.

for Windows 9X systems that reside in a FAT volume.  This
technique cannot be used in the NT-family Windows (NT4/2000/XP
and so on).

Specifically for Windows NT4/2000/XP and Server 2003, we
designed XXCLONE (a siter product of XXCOPY) that makes the
job of creating a self-bootable clone of Windows system disk
extremely easy for anyone.

www.xxclone.com



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #37

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Format Specifications of Command File in XXCOPY
Date:    2010-01-01 (revised)
===============================================================================

Introduction:

XXCOPY provides a mechanism to allow the user to specify the
invocation command using text files.  Currently, there are two
cases of accepting the command input from a text file.

/CF<cfile>   // command file for regular command text
/EX<xfile>   // exclusion file; lists exclusion items

-----------------------------------------------------------
The only difference between the two types of text file
is that the command file (by /CF) contains the command
text that consists of ordinary XXCOPY command arguments
and switches whereas the exclusion file (by /EX) holds
a list of exclusion items (file and directory specifiers)
without the "/X" command-prefix on each exclusion item.
Other than this difference, the two types of file follow
the same set of rules in their format.
-----------------------------------------------------------

The purpose of XXCOPY's command file is to allow the user
to compose a command text that may exceed the limit of the
command line length.

Since the command line syntax of the original XCOPY (and
earlier versions of XXCOPY) had to cope with the limit in
the overall length of the command line, the command switches
were designed to be short, hence often cryptic.  As a

Once we are free from the limit in text length, we can use
the freedom to our advantage.  Of course, the command file
still accepts the same command text that you would enter
directly to the command line.  You may think of the command
file as an "include" file that supplies a stream of text to
the command line.

E.g.,  XXCOPY   /CF:myfile.xcf

This invocation is equivalent to running the XXCOPY
program by typing the contents of the myfile.xcf
file directly at the command line.

You may add switches before or after the /CF switch. In
addition, you may use two or more /CF switches in one line.
All of them are evaluated from left to right.

E.g.,  XXCOPY   /Q  /CF:myfile.xcf  /WE

Examples Speak Tons:

For those who are in a hurry and rely on intuition by looking
at a few examples, let me show a few of them with ample comments.
If you read all the comments in the examples, most of the
key features are explained.  But for air-tight definitions
of the format rules, you must read the lengthy (and boring)
details that follow.

script1.xcf
-----------------------------------------------------------
"C:\My Programs\" c:\backup\  /CLONE     // daily backup
-----------------------------------------------------------

This is a one-line script.  The line is just like an
ordinary XXCOPY command line except that it does not
contain the "XXCOPY" word itself at the beginning.
Again, to run this script,

XXCOPY  /CF:c:\bin\script1.xcf

Note: the comment is allowed even in the real command line
--- this becomes handy in a batch file.

Here comes a little more realistic example.

script2.xcf
-----------------------------------------------------------
// This script should be run once a day.

"C:\My Programs\"           // the source specifier
c:\backup\myprog\           // the destination dir
/CLONE                      // save the latest
/Z0                         // don't remove extra files
/oN:c:\bin\script1.log      // create a log file
/WE                         // wait for a key at the end
-----------------------------------------------------------

My first recommendation is to place only one command item
per line and to add a comment on each line.

Finally, let me give you a classy example.  The text in it
is meant to explain the various features of the command file.

script3.xcf
-----------------------------------------------------------
/*****************************************************
*                                                    *
*  script3.xcf    created 2002-05-05                 *
*                                                    *
*  This XXCOPY script carries out a daily            *
*  incremental backup operation from C: to E:        *
*  The E: drive may be made bootable as C:.          *
*                                                    *
*  Invocation:  xxcopy  /cf:c:\backup\script3.xcf    *
*                                                    *
*   Log file:    c:\backup\script3.log               *
*                                                    *
*   Note: A command filename may have any extension. *
*         We use .XCF (for Xxcopy Command File).     *
*                                                    *
*****************************************************/
C:\                        // source (the whole disk)
// is named after the value
// in Environment Variable

/clone                      // my favorite switch
/PZ0                        // prompt killer (for /Z)
/ON:c:\backup\/$yyyy-mm-dd$.log   // create a log file
// Macro for today's date
/Fo:c:\backup\script3.lst   // save file list
/FM:dtzl                    // list file format control

//  list of exclusions  ------------------------------
/X:*.tmp                    // no temp files
/X:\Windows\*\cache*\       // cache files of any kind
/X:"c:\My documents\my pictures\2002-May// string split
\Susie's birthday\*.jpg"            // into 2 lines

/*
A // sequence preceded by a non-blank character
allows you to logically connect two lines.
(This is a traditional C-like comment.)
*/

/EX:c:\backup\exclude.lst  // you may use /EX inside
/CF:c:\backup\another.xcf  // nestable (up to 8 levels)

:: An in-line comment may start by // or :: which ends
// at the end of the line.
-----------------------------------------------------------

Note to experienced programmers:

The Command File format is modeled after modern
programming languages like C.  A few exceptions:

1. A comment does not behave as a blank.
2. A comment may be inside a quoted string.
3. It has a peculiar line-continuation mechanism.

Command File Basic Rules (also applies to Exclusion File):

The XXCOPY command file is an ordinary plain text file that
can be created/edited by any text editor (e.g., Notepad).

Currently, only a 8-bit characters are supported.  I.e.,
Unicode text is not supported, yet.

You may add any number of lines in the command file.

Each line is terminated by a CR (Carriage Return),
a LF (Linefeed), or a CR-LF sequence.  We call them
line-break, collectively.

A TAB character can be used interchangeably with a space
(also called blank).  In this document, we use the word
blank which may actually be a TAB.  (A TAB character is
not allowed in a file or directory name.)

A line-break is usually treated as a blank.

There is a provision to make two (or more) lines behave
like a continuous line using the Line Continuation Mechanism
(see below).

All the usual XXCOPY command line syntax applies to the
command file text.

--------------------------------------------------------------
The XXCOPY command line contains two kinds of arguments:

1. Command switches (also called options) that always start
with a slash (/) character (one exception to this rule
is a macro reference that has the /$xxxx$ (or /%xxxx%)
sequence which may appear as a non-switch argument).

The first non-switch argument is always the source
specifier and the second (optional) non-switch argument
is always the destination directory specifier.

The two types of arguments can be ordered in any way
except that the source specifier always comes before the
destination specifier.

Command switches are evaluated by the order they appear.

Some related switches are affected by the evaluation order.
--------------------------------------------------------------

the meaning and the intent of the command switches.
Comments are strictly for people and ignored by XXCOPY.

Two styles of comments are supported:

1.  In-line comment           // like this one

An in-line comment starts at either // or :: and
extends until the end of line.  It can start anywhere
in the line including at the beginning of the line.

2.  Bracketed comment         /* like this */

A bracketed comment begins at /* and ends at */ which
may straddle over two or more lines.

The two styles are of equal precedence.  That is, when
an in-line comment is specified, a /* sequence specified
to the right hand side of the in-line comment header
(// or ::) within the same line is completely ignored.

Similarly, once a bracketed comment field is started by
a /* sequence, either // or :: within the bracketed
comment field has no effect until the terminator, */ is
encountered.

Not a substitute for a blank:

Unlike most programming languages which treat a comment
field as a blank, XXCOPY does not treat either an
in-line comment or a bracketed comment as a blank.
That is, a bracketed comment field that begins at /* and
ends at */ may even be placed within a path specifier
(this bad habit is strongly discouraged, nevertheless,
it is syntactically acceptable).

The comments and line-continuation mechanisms are totally
independent of whether or not they appear within a quoted
string (surrounded by a pair of double-quotes, ").

No carry-over of a comment:

An open bracketed comment which is started by /* but not
terminated by */ within the command file will be implicitly
terminated so that a runaway comment (a syntax error) will
not be carried over to outside of the file.

Macro reference (/$xxxx$ and /%xxxx%):

A sequence that starts with a slash followed by word(s) that
are sandwiched by a pair of dollar signs (/$xxxx$) will be
substituted by the value pre-defined by the macro rules.
For example, the sequence, /$yyyy-mm-dd$ will be replaced by
today's year, month and day value.

Similarly a slash followed by a word sandwiched by a pair of
percent signs (/%xxxx%) are substitued by the corresponding
environment variable (E-var).  This is similar to the command
line processing rule that also applies to batch files.  Note
that the command line text that XXCOPY receives from the system
are pre-processed for E-vars whereas the E-vars that are
referenced inside XXCOPY's command file is beyond CMD.EXE's
reach (that XXCOPY will process using its rule).  Note that
a reference to an E-var inside command file requires a leading
slash character.

(See XXTB #24 for details.)

Line Continuation Mechanism:

Since Windows' long filename (LFN) may have as many as
256 characters, the whole string may not be visible in
a window of a text editor if it is entered as one long
string.  XXCOPY's command file format allows you to break
up a long string into multiple lines to facilitate the
handling and help improve the readability while treating
it logically as a single string.

There are two ways to logically connects adjacent lines.
Both of them take advantage of the way XXCOPY treats the
comment field (the In-line comment and the Bracketed comment
as discussed above).  Let me explain the use of Bracketed
comment first which is probably easier to use.

Bracketed comment to connect adjacent lines:

Since a bracketed comment will be removed by XXCOPY
as the first step in processing a command text, it provies
a simple way to connect two lines.  All the characters
between the /* sequence and the */ sequence (including
the beginning and ending two characters) will be completely
reremoved from the text.

Example:

"C:\Documents and Settings\Default User\/*  comment
*/Application Data\"

In this example, the above two lines are the same as

"C:\Documents and Settings\Default User\Application Data\"

Unlike in common programming languages such as C, the
bracketted comment will not be substituted by a space
character.  Therefore, the absence of any space character
before and after the comment field will result in the
combined string without space. as shown above.  You may
also break the line after a space.  The following example
is another example to split the same path name above.

"C:\Documents and Settings\Default /* glue comment
*/User\Application Data\"      // regular comment

Note that the exact number of the space character is
preserved by this technique.

Needless to say, you may connect an arbitrary number of
lines into one logical string.

Example:

"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual /*
*/Studio .NET\Vc7\VCWizards\Classwiz/*
*/\MFC\Simple\Templates\1033/*
*/\doc.cpp"

In-line comment to connect adjacent lines:

A line whose in-line comment field (that starts with //
or ::) is immediately preceded by any character other than
a blank will be logically connected to the first non-blank
character in the next line.

Example:

/ON:c:\my_directory\and_this_path_name_is//  comment
\connected_like_this\logfile.txt

In this example, the in-line comment that begins at //
is placed without any blank.  Any leading blank
(space or tab) character in the next line will be
discarded.  In the above example, the second line that
starts at the backslash connects to the previous line
immediately before the comment-marker (//).

Example:

"C:\Program Files\Micro::

Here, a filename is broken up into three lines and
was not split at a clean boundary of a directory name.
Note that the line-continuation may connect lines
even within a quoted string.

Note:

You may add blanks at the beginning of the continuing
line that follow the line continuation sequence to

It is recommended that a filename string be split at
a non-blank character.  If you are forced to split a
filename before or after a space character, you may
do so by use of the bracketed comment (/* .. */).
The following two pairs of lines are equivalent.

E.g.,  "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Internet\Internet//
/* before a space */ Mail\cookies.txt"

"C:\Program Files\Microsoft /* after a space */::

But, then, it is probably simpler to use the bracketed
comment to begin with.

E.g.,  "C:\Program Files\Microsoft /*

The choice between the bracketed comment scheme and the in-line
comment scheme as the mechanims for line-connection is totally
up to the user.  Some people just do not like the way the
continuing line looks which typically starts with a funny
sequence (*/).  The in-line comment method allows you to start
the continueing line with your characters.

Either of the methods does not force you to start the
continuing text at the first colume even though it will
be perfectly legal.

Colon after a command switch:

With the command file feature, the old syntax of making
the command as short as possible is no longer a virtue.
Now, readability has precedence over compactness.

Any XXCOPY command switch that accepts a parameter may use
a colon to separate the command letter(s) from its parameter
except in cases where a non-alphanumeric character is a
syntactic element of the switch.

/ONmyfile.log    /IN*.tmp    /FMdtl     /Q2
/ON:myfile.log   /IN:*.tmp   /FM:dtl    /Q:2

Here are the exceptional cases where a colon cannot be added:

/DA#4   /SZ!5-10   /TD+5

Note: the colon as a separator between the switch letter(s)
and its parameter is strictly optional and is not a
required element in the XXCOPY command.

Of course, there are a few cases where a colon is a
required character that distinguishes between like
variations (e.g., /DA:2002 and /DA#2000).

Nesting:

Since the text in a command file can contain any valid XXCOPY
command arguments and switches, it is natural to allow a /CF
switch within a command file.  It is called Nesting.

To avoid a possible recursive inclusion (which would result in
an infinite loop), XXCOPY sets the maximum nesting levels to 8.

Nesting a command file (/CF) or using a exclusion file (/EX)
usually add a complexity to the command organization.  But if
used judiciously, the technique may factor common sets of
command switches and exclusion items.

On the other hand, a single /CF file organization (without
embedded /CF or /EX) is most straightforward.  It also allows
viewing the entire XXCOPY in one self-sufficient file.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #38

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Creating a Shortcut from the command line using XXMKLINK
Date:    2013-02-28
===============================================================================

Introduction:

The Shortcut (a.k.a. Shell Link) is a convenient object in
Windows' environments that makes everyone's life easier.

It is trivial to create one.  Most Windows users know how.
Here are just a few common ways:

1.  Inside Windows Explorer, highlight an object (file or
directory) and then Menu > File > Create Shortcut,
and Bingo!!!   Or, once you have an object highlighted,
clicking the right mouse button will give you a floating
menu that has the "Create Shortcut" option.

2.  Windows Explorer also offers the Menu > File > New > Shortcut
that opens the "Create Shortcut" wizard which will assist
you from there.  Alternatively, you may place the mouse
cursor where you want a new shortcut and obtain the floating
menu by right mouse click for the New > Shortcut sequence.

Once you create a shortcut, you can further customize the
appearance and behavior of the shortcut via the property sheet.

From a script (batch file):

Now, the batch file is a useful way to automate a lot of things.
Naturally, it would be useful to automate the process of making
a shortcut using a batch file.  But, we have not seen such
a tool that can be invoked from a batch file.  In my estimation,
this is due to the fact that there is no straightforward method
in the Win32 API.

Creating a shortcut is not an everyday thing.  Also the ordinary
method of making a shortcut is quite easy.  For these reasons, I don't
expect many people to find this tool very useful.  But, if you are
an IT professional whose job is to setup a computer environment for
novice users, you may find this tool useful.  Because automation is
a key to their work efficiency, a utility that can be easily
incorporated into a batch file may find some audience.

With XXMKLINK, you can write a batch file for software
installation which has been done by specialized installation
programs.  Basically, XXMKLINK is a tool that gathers various
information from a command line and packages it into a shortcut.

xxmklink spath opath [ arg [ wdir [ desc [ mode [ icon[:n] ]]]]]

where

spath     path of the shortcut (.lnk added as needed)
opath     path of the object represented by the shortcut
arg       argument string (use quotes with space, see below)
wdir      path of the working directory (for "Start in")
desc      description string (shown in Shortcut's Properties)
mode      display mode (1:Normal [default], 3:Maximized, 7:Minimized)
icon[:n]  icon file [with optional icon index value n]

In addition to the above, the following switches are supported
which can be placed in any position in the command line.

/p        prompts before action
/q        no output when successful (quiet)
/e        checks error condition strictly
/a        enables Run as Administrator (set in the checkbox)
the /a switch is supported by V.2.00 or higher.

Note:

Switches (whose first character is always slash) can be placed in
any position of the command argument.  A string that starts with
a slash as a non-switch argument must be surrounded by a pair of
double-quotes (").  It is recommended that the XXMKLINK's switches
be placed before or after the non-switch arguments for clarity.

Make sure that each element is surrounded by a pair of
double-quotes (") if embedded space is present.

The third field (arg) is for the argument string for the object
(typically a program that requires command arguments) that must
be entered as one string here, even if it has many parts that are
separated by spaces and possibly with double-quote characters.

When double-quoted string has an embedded double-quote,
add a backslash in front of each embedded double-quote.

Use an empty string (two consecutive double-quotes) as a
place holder since this command syntax is sensitive to the
order of the field, optional switches cannot alter the
predetermined order as defined by the program.

When an invalid display mode is specified (not 1, 3 nor 7),
the default (Normal Window) value will be used.

When the icon specifier does not point to an existing file,
the icon field will be ignored.

When the /e switch is present, any error condition will
result in a failure in creating the shortcut.  The default
behavior (without /e) which forgives minor error conditions
(e.g., missing icon file or invalid icon index) is probably
the preferred outcome in most cases.

Special cares must be taken when the % character is embedded
in the path specifier because it has special meaning to the
command processor (CMD.EXE) --- See below for examples.

The /a switch is supported in XXMKLINK 2.00 (available with

At least two arguments are always needed.

xxmklink c:\myauto c:\autoexec.bat "/q" . "I say \"Hello.\""

When the shortcut path is specified without the ".lnk"
extension, it will be automatically supplied since
all shortcuts must be so named.  Note that the third
argument string, "/q" is entered as a quoted string.  If
it were without the quotation marks, it would be treated
as the xxmklink switch, /q, not the argument string for
the object program.

When this command is run either directly from the command
line or from a batch file, the %systemroot% part will be
replaced by the command line processor (CMD.EXE) immediately
(before XXMKLINK.EXE has chance to see it) to something
like C:\WINDOWS which is supplied by the environment variable.

When you want the literal string, %systemroot% to be kept
in the shortcut setting, this command line should be run
from a batch file where the "escape sequence" (%%) will
protect the %systemroot% string from the Environment variable
substitution mechanism.  Note that this command line is
still subject to the substitution when run directly from the
command line resulting in an undesired outcome.

XXMKLINK is available for personal use without charge.

The URL below is for XXMKLINK Ver 1.00.

for distribution, please obtain a written permission from
Pixelab, first.  We do charge a nominal fee for commercial
distribution.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #39

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: The HTML-Style Help file for XXCOPY
Date:    2007-08-18  (revised)
===============================================================================

Introduction:

We recommend everyone who uses XXCOPY on a regular basis,
or who tries to learn the program in any way to download the
XXCOPY.CHM file, an HTML-style help file for XXCOPY.

It is a self-contained help file that includes all techincal
convenient alphabetical index of all XXCOPY command switches.
It is colorful and extremely well-organized.

(without being inside a ZIP file) at the followoing URL:

(See the special instruction below when you encounter difficulties

Who created it:

Mr. John Zeman of Iowa, U.S.A. designed it, and still maintains
it to this day.  John was just a user of XXCOPY.  He made this
file available to *ALL* fellow XXCOPY users without any form of
compensation from us, Pixelab, the publisher of this software.

John is also a friend to all in the XXCOPY discussion group
and is very knowldegeable in pretty much everything in XXCOPY
operations.  He is a very humble and selfless individual.

Join the group at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/xxcopy

How to use XXCOPY.CHM:

When you use an Internet Browser (e.g., Windows Explorer, or FireFox),
and specify the URL of the ZIP file version of the XXCOPY.CHM file,
http://www.xxcopy.com/xcln_chm.zip, or just click the hyperlink to
the ZIP file to your Desktop, or save it somewhere and place its
shortcut icon on the Desktop.  The xxcopy.chm file that is extracted
from the ZIP file should be ready for viewing.

When you download the CHM file rather than the ZIP format version
just like a ZIP file.  But, the file property need to set properly
in order to view the help pages correctly.

For the first time user:

When you download the XXCOPY.CHM file for the first time, you will
probably encounter the following pop-up warning message:

If you don't pay attention to this and proceed with the check box

[v] Always ask before opening this file

Then, you will end up with the following page with the CHM file.

This nuisance started presumably with some Internet Explorer
update you performed in recent weeks.  The failure to display
the proper text in the right-hand pane of the help file is
a result of security setting of your browser system.

If you see this happen, just terminate the XXCOPY.CHM session first.
There are a couple of ways to fix this problem.

1. Using Windows Explorer, locate the XXCOPY.CHM file and right-click
the file to reach its Property sheet.  And click the "Unblock"
button.

2. Or, start XXCOPY.CHM once again (either by clicking the shortcut
icon or using any other method).  You will be greeted with the same
warning message about the "Unknown Publisher".

This time, make sure that you uncheck the option:

[ ] Always ask before opening this file

Either way, you will not see the warning again for this copy of the
XXCOPY.CHM file.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #40

From:    Bob Weir  ---  An experienced XXCOPY user
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: A very quick recovery scheme for Win9X/ME
Date:    2004-10-06
===============================================================================

Introduction:

them appreciate and select the appropriate level of security
for their standalone single PC and then pick a suitable scheme
to effect recovery from a variety of PC failures.  It describes
several options, all using XXCOPY, that can deliver quick
recovery from a corrupted PC and which need a minimum of
routine housekeeping.  For those with no previous knowledge
of XXCOPY (or DOS), details are included on how to create
a bootable recovery hard disk and the associated cloning
icons and files for use on a single W9x/ME PC.

It was first published together with data on achieved
performance and illustrations (making it an easier read)
not easy to use from a screen (too long winded) but if the
topic triggers serious interest after a quick scan, I
recommend printing it out for recursive reading (perhaps as
an installation guide!).

The XXCOPY Bootable Clone Solution To the "OOPS" and Downs of a PC User:

In a stand-alone Windows computer; a hard drive catastrophe,
a propagating software fault, virus infection, incompatible
new software or human error are terminal disasters that,
eventually, afflict most users.  When this happens, the
ability to revert quickly to an earlier condition is
invaluable. There are several good proprietary solutions
available but this low cost XXCOPY scheme is a custom
self-build that can be tailored to suit individual needs.

Restoring from a backup kept on CD-R, DVD-R, tape, etc.
(or via a network connection) will need first a clean
operating system running on the PC that has just failed!
That takes time and knowledge.  Re-installing everything is
a daunting task that can usually be avoided by taking an
evening to implement a recovery scheme. Much quicker than
starting with re-installation, is re-starting from a second
hard disk carrying a recent BOOTABLE CLONE (not a compressed,
proprietary or partial image).

A BOOTABLE CLONE makes possible recovery to a working PC,
running the last backup of the entire drive in about three
minutes.  With IDE hard disk costs approaching $1/GB, putting a bootable clone on a second hard disk is now a cost-effective solution for fast re-writeable backup of whole drives. The level of security needed for your system and data determines where to keep the clone and how long recovery will take. A second drive on the same disk is of limited use since it cannot protect against hard disk failure and recovering from other failures is a slow process. By using two internal fixed IDE disks, recovery from an HDD failure or drive corruption is achieved by changing the start-up sequence in the BIOS to re-boot from the clone disk. With two hard disks and one (or both) in removable caddies, recovery is even simpler, just a physical swap of disk location(s). Storing a removable disk separately will make possible data recovery after PC theft or destruction (using your replacement new PC!). My preferred solution with W98SE/ME uses a second disk in a 5-1/4" removable rack (with fan for fast disks) fitted into an external firewire connected enclosure plus an identical empty 5-1/4" removable rack connected to IDE1 Master. Normal running boots from the internal disk on IDE1 Slave with the second disk in the external 5-1/4" enclosure. Recovery is by changing over the location of the removable second disk. To minimise the risk of corruption, only power the external cloned disk when needed. If you are paranoid about loss of data or corruption you can fit a third hard disk in the "spare" caddy and alternate the second and third disks in the external rack. The only software needed with W9X/ME is the XXCOPY multipurpose copying utility for Windows from www.xxcopy.com (free for personal use with one PC). This generous licence applies both to fitting a new hard disk and, at present, to routine re-cloning. The diligent (e.g. daily) running of a short (incremental) re-cloning job is the only ongoing precautionary task. The scheme is widely applicable but may not be compatible with some proprietary system modifications or with software registered to specific disks. Although XXCOPY will copy WinXP files, it will not create a BOOTABLE CLONE of an XP system, that task requires an XP cloning utility (under development as XXCLONE). Backup: Identifying and backing up all "critical" OS and personalised files etc. is desirable but is too complicated for non-expert users. The simple alternative is entire or holistic backup of the drive(s) but most "copy all" backup schemes for an entire drive are too slow for routine use. Cloning with the incrementing + DECREMENTING scheme described here will be quick enough for most users if run over an IDE, Firewire or USB2 connection. USB1 is only tolerable for occasional use. Routine re-cloning is safer with a desktop icon and a C2D batch file (avoids typing errors that can wipe clean a whole drive). Remember that if any backup scheme is scheduled, is run in background, or otherwise automated (like RAID1) it may produce a corrupt copy of a corrupt drive. Where a problem is known to be present and cannot be fixed - shut down and recover to the last clone. Re-clone as needed to sustain two sound, bootable, disks. Microsoft's XCOPY cannot duplicate a drive but XXCOPY copes with attributes, long and short filenames, filetime differences and the decrementing action needed when routinely updating the content of a clone disk. Now for the up front DIY tasks on hardware and software. If you are happy about fitting a new ATA/IDE drive in your PC, installing new software and typing a few command lines, the result will be more dependable W9X computing. Preparation: The main task is to prepare separately a second hard disk and create an active formatted partition on it. The XXCOPY technical bulletin www.xxcopy.com/xxcopy10.htm describes this task. Given the choice, use a twin of the first hard disk. Check the partition data in the original disk and prepare the second disk with the same partitions, file system and format. Avoid using more than two logical drives per disk (i.e. just one drive in the extended partition). Remembering that C and E are on the running fixed disk with D and F on the second fixed disk is simple enough for W9X (and the user!) to keep track of changing drive letter allocations when they are swapped. If you use one fixed and one external disk this will probably be C and D on the fixed, E and F on the external. To prepare the second hard disk, disconnect the power lead from the original master (or CS) disk, jumper the new disk as a slave (or CS on grey if you use an 80 wire ATA66/100 cable) and connect it. Prepare a W9X start-up diskette and boot from it (you need to add FORMAT.COM to an ME start-up diskette by copying it from C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND). From the A:\> prompt, run FDISK and create twins of the partition(s) on the original disk. Set the new primary partition to active. FDISK will not create a second active primary partition, so this second disk has to be prepared separately in the PC. Now format the second disk for file access. At the A:\> prompt, run FORMAT C: Label this volume to identify that it is on disk2, e.g., DISK2-PRY. Format any drive in the extended partition and label it, e.g. DISK2-EXT. Re-connect the power lead to the original master disk, fit the new disk after setting the jumper to suit the location (sharing with an ATA33 device may slow routine cloning). Check that the D (F) drive(s) on disk2 are recognised. To use two fixed hard disks, the BIOS must include a start-up sequence that can start from "D" (the second disk) and, preferably, supports auto-detection. To use a pair of removable disks on one 80 wire ATA66/100 cable, set the disks to CS and fit the original disk to the end (black) master connector and the new disk to the middle (grey) slave connector. To use one fixed with one removable disk in an external enclosure put the fixed disk as the slave and a second (empty) 51/4" rack as the master on the primary IDE connector. In most PC's, you cannot create the active partition on a disk when it is in an external USB or Firewire connected enclosure, it has to be done on an internal IDE connection. The Initial Cloning: After creating an active primary partition on the second disk, re-boot from the original drive. Check the volume names and drive letters for both disks (the primary partition drive letter on an external USB or FW disk may not be D). Install XXCOPY in C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ on the original hard disc. Re-start in safe mode (hold CTRL during start-up). Run SCANDISK and DEFRAG on C. In safe mode open the MSDOS prompt, check that the destination drive is D, and, if so, at C:\WINDOWS> type: XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /CLONE /X:WIN386.SWP This excludes Win386.SWP from the clone but do not worry, it is created afresh on every start-up. Repeat this /CLONE command line and do a refresh run (much quicker). Repeat if necessary to get a no error cloning, then re-start normally. XXCOPY does not copy the master boot record (MBR), volume name or volume serial number. Now test the clone. Swap the original with the second disk and re-start. With two fixed disks, change the start-up sequence from "C" or HDDO in BIOS features set-up to one that will start from "D" or HDD1, save and re-start. The PC will now boot from the new disk with the drive in its primary partition becoming Drive C and the drive in the primary partition of the original disk becoming Drive D (or E with two drives on both the fixed and the external disks). Some third party multi boot and multi partition software can cause atypical changes and problems here. If the clone is okay, swap back the disk(s) (or return the BIOS start-up to its original setting). The Backup Routine: To refresh the clone routinely, it is safer to use a batch file that clones C to D and a desktop icon. For an adequate version of these, open the MSDOS prompt box and at C:\WINDOWS> type: COPY CON XXC2D.BAT XXCOPY C:\ D:\ /CLONE /X:WIN386.SWP /FF PAUSE EXIT /^Z (that's CTRL+Z) At C:\WINDOWS> type EXIT and create a new desktop shortcut to C:\WINDOWS\XXC2D.BAT. Right click this shortcut icon; select properties, then program and tick close on exit. To make selection easier, exchange the MSDOS icon for an Xx icon from XXCOPY or XXPBAR. Re-name this shortcut C2D. For a second drive, create a similar E2F batch file and icon. With two drives on an internal hard disk and two drives on an external hard disk the batch files should be C2E and D2F. The (now redundant) Restore function in ME has "always in use" files that slow the cloning process, adding /X:_RESTORE\ to the second command line above will exclude these files. For faster re-cloning exclude multiple items from the clone by listing them in an OMIT.TXT file and replacing /X:WIN386.SWP with /EXOMIT.TXT in the second line of the XXC2D batch file. Use Notepad to create your own custom OMIT.TXT file with one item per line and save in C:\Windows for example: WIN386.SWP *\*.IE5\ *.TMP\ *.TEMP\ *.BAK\ *\_RESTORE\ Recovery: The crucial task of recovery comes last in any backup process but needs "proof testing" at the outset. Starting-up from the bootable clone by changing over the removable disk(s) or the fixed disk start-up sequence will recover to (not partially restore from) a previous backup. No other supplementary procedure or hardware is required. After an enforced recovery, if the original hard disk is not ruined, run a virus scan and check the work done since the last re-cloning (it will be on drive "D" (or "E") after the disk changeover). If everything is healthy, copy the work back to "C". That's it! Since it faithfully copies a cluttered source, cloning won't completely eliminate re-installs but you only re-install when you want to, not when you have to. Take great care, /clone clears all unmatched existing data from the destination drive so check the source and destination meticulously before cloning (or use the /BU switch instead of /CLONE). Bob Weir (Click here to contact via Yahoo Group.) --------------------------------------------------------------- Note: This article was contributed by Mr. Bob Weir who uses XXCOPY on his home computers. ---------------------------------------------------------------  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #41 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: File Compression on the NTFS Volume Date: 2008-03-15 =============================================================================== Introduction: One of the advantages in NTFS is its file compression capability. Starting with v 2.95.0, XXCOPY adds features that relate to file compression on the NTFS volume. In many instances, the file system treats the compression state of a file somewhat like an additional bit in the file attributes. On the other hand, there are many applications (notably, Windows Explorer and the command-line utility, ATTRIB.EXE to name a few) that treat the new C-bit (Compression bit) differently. Furthermore, the way files and directories are created in a directory is dictated by the directory's compression setting. In short, the C-bit in the NTFS volume is not like other ordinary file attributes. Compression, Pros and Cons: The NTFS design with regard to the compression setting is quite elegant and very easy to use. For example, when you initialize a new NTFS partition in Windows XP, the Disk Management tool (DiskMgmt.msc) provides a checkbox for volume-wide compression setting immediately before a volume format operation. Or, you may select any individual directory and enable or disable the compression setting through its property sheet. Thereafter, its contents are created using the parent directory's compression setting. You may later change the compression setting of any file or directory regardless of the parent directory's setting. With the property sheet, it is quite intuitive and easy to use. The best part of this scheme is that a compressed file behaves exactly like an uncompressed file from application program's point of view. It is transparent to most programs. Ultimately, file compression can save substantial storage space. The down side of the file compression is, of course, some penalty in access speed. The trade off between the speed and the space saving should be carefully weighed when you implement the file compression on your NTFS volumes. If you strike a good balance between the two factors, there are a lot to gain by using the file compression feature. It seems that the relative obscurity of the file compression may be due to the lack of efficient control of the settings. First of all, the most common way to manipulate the setting is by Windows Explorer's property sheet for the file/directory object which requires a second level of dialog in the Advanced Attributes setting window. It takes six mouse button clicks per file to compress an individual file. XXCOPY to handle the compression settings: Starting with v.2.95.0 (released 2007-03-01), XXCOPY supports the file attributes C-bit (Compression). Although the C-bit behaves somewhat differently from the rest of the common file attributes, XXCOPY will treat it uniformly. That is, when you would like to convert a regular file to a compressed file, you set the C-bit of the file attributes using XXCOPY (the standard ATTRIB.EXE utility can handle only the A, H, S, and R bits). Remember how XXCOPY made files hidden and readonly? xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /AS:HR // set H and R bits Then, the following is how to clear all AHSR bits: xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /AR:AHSR // reset all four bits ---------------------------------------------------------- In addition to setting and resetting the file attributes bits, the /AN switch can be used to force a new value of any combination of the A, H, S, or R attribute bits xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /AN:AR // force a new value Please note that the /AN operation does not support the C-bit just like the ATTRIB.EXE utility whose scope of operation is confined int the the A, H, S, or R bits. ---------------------------------------------------------- Changing the compression state of files uses the same command: xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /AS:C // set the C-bit xxcopy c:\mydir\*.doc /AR:C // reset the C-bit This is how you can compress a group of files in one breath and also how to uncompress them. A change in the C-bit in the file attributes involves a compression or decompression operation of the file data which goes through file read/write accesses that are obviously much slower than normal changes in the file attribute bits. If the operations would not change the existing C-bit value, XXCOPY's file attribute operation skips the assignment of the C-bit value for efficiency's sake. The relationship among the /AS, /AR, and /AN switches: Although the /AS (Set) and /AR (Reset) operations are listed in the same group in the documentation and related switches are typically treated as mutually exclusive (and if so, the last one always prevails), XXCOPY accepts both the /AS and /AR switches in one command, allowing the combination of the set and reset operations in one step as a special exception to the switch-grouping rule. -------------------------------------------------------------- When contradicting set of parameters are specified with /AS and /AR, then, the last value prevails. For example, the following two commands achieve exactly the same result: xxcopy *.doc /AS:H /AR:AHC // H-bit to be set, then reset xxcopy *.doc /AR:AHC // H-bit will simply be reset -------------------------------------------------------------- While both the /AS and /AR operations work as a bit-wise manipulation of the existing file attributes value, the third method, the /AN operation assigns a whole new value to the file or directory object. Therefore, the /AN switch and the other two (/AS and /AR as a pair if you will) are treated as mutually exclusive group as usual (the last one prevails). Compression Setting of Directories: Although XXCOPY's original design was mostly on files, the NTFS file compression feature demands XXCOPY to manipulate the directory attributes (known as "File Attributes" of directory). So, the /AS and /AR functions are extended with the /ASD and /ARD functions respectively to handle directories as opposed to files. To avoid complexities in the command line rules, we chose not to mix the two types of operations into one. That is, for file attributes, use /AS or /AR and for directory attributes, use /ASD and /ARD. The required parameter (a combination of letters A, H, S, R, and C) works exactly the same for /ASD and /ARD. E.g., xxcopy c:\mydir\ /ASD:C // set the C-bit on mydir xxcopy c:\mydir /ASD:C // set the C-bit on mydir ---------------------------------------------------------- Note that the trailing backslash is not needed because the /ASD switch disambiguates the meaning of the source specifier (c:\mydir). However, we strongly suggest that you form a good habit of always furnishing the trailing backslash whenever you specify the name of a directory. ---------------------------------------------------------- The important thing is that when the C-bit of a directory is set, the effect is limited to the directory's attributes setting itself. The current contents of the directory, if present, will not be compressed by this action. Files and subdirectories created thereafter in the directory will automatically inherit the compression setting of the directory (files will saved in compressed mode). If you want to compress the whole directory and its existing subdirectories, then, you should specify /S as usual. xxcopy c:\mydir\ /ASD:C /S // mydir and its subdirs Since the above command does not touch the files inside, you need a second command to convert the content files. xxcopy c:\mydir\ /AS:C /S // files inside every level Note that XXCOPY does not perform a conversion in either direction (from compressed to uncompressed and vice versa) when the file is already in the right state of compression. In other words, there will be no performance penalty in letting XXCOPY compress a file that is already stored in compressed mode and vice versa. Suggested Usages: As experienced XXCOPY users know, the power of XXCOPY is its ability to select files and directories. The file compression feature of the NTFS volume is an excellent arena to show off XXCOPY's prowess. The following example is to crate a backup directory in compressed mode, then, uncompress certain files that does not benefit by compression. mybatch1.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------- cd d:\backup // create directory xxcopy d:\backup\ /ASD:C // set C-bit xxcopy c:\mydir\ d:\backup\ /S // copy all files compressed xxcopy d:\backup\*.jpg /in:*.mp3 /AR:C /S ------------------------------------------------------------------- The second example below copies files into a non-compressed destination first, and then compress all the files except certain classes of files that that are known to be highly compressed already. mybatch2.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------- xxcopy c:\mydir\ d:\backup\ /bu // normal backup xxcopy d:\backup\ /AS:C /X:*.jpg /X:*.mp3 // avoid dense files ------------------------------------------------------------------- Afterthoughts: It is quite natural for a user to wish a more direct control of file compression which is carried out Anthe. That is, with the current version of XXCOPY, you need to copy files into the destination using the default compression mode set by the parent directory once (say, in uncompressed mode), and then, to compress the files in a second pass. Instead, it would be nice to directly write the selected file in compressed mode as a part of the file-copy operation when the destination directory is not set for compression. We will explore such a feature in the future.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #42 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY on Windows Vista --- living with UAC Date: 2007-09-01 =============================================================================== Introduction: It is no surprise that the corporate world has been in the usual "Wait-and-see" mode since the introduction of Windows Vista this January. It may be just me, but the transition from XP to Vista seems to be slower than any of previous Windows' version updates. Aside from the cosmetic changes, the most notable enhancement in Vista is the new User Account Control (UAC) scheme. Because of its importance and pervasiveness, everyone needs to take time and examine what UAC is all about and how it affects our use of the computer, especially in XXCOPY's operations. In this article, I will try to summarize the UAC-related issues that are relevant to XXCOPY operations in my own words. In essence, the UAC scheme tries to improve the system security by erecting a boundary between the standard (regular) system resources and the administrative (vulnerable) resources. One of the most informative articles on the subject that I have seen so far is "Inside Windows Vista User Account Control" written by the widely respected author, Mark Russinovich of Winternals. Although very technical, it is a very good reading for those who want to run XXCOPY on Windows Vista. Too busy to learn UAC? For those who refuse to pay the due in learning the UAC scheme, there is a simple way to avoid the UAC-related hassles and get on the business of using Vista (and XXCOPY on it) --- at least for now and to revisit the issue when there is more time: Just disable the UAC settings. Here's how. Control Panel > User Accounts > Turn User Account Control on or off uncheck the following check box: [ ] Use User Account Control (UAC) to help protect your computer then, click [OK] and reboot the system. That is it! Of course, disabling UAC means that you are giving up the improved security that the UAC scheme promises. It sounds a bit scary. But, using the Vista without UAC would not be any worse than running a previous version of Windows. When you disable the UAC setting, XXCOPY will work just fine. All the headaches associated with the UAC scheme will go away. You can even stop reading this page here because the rest of this article is relevant only when you enable UAC on Vista. Make sure that you revisit this article when you turn on UAC. Then again, why Vista? Unless your new computer arrived with a pre-installed Vista, it may be wise to wait a little longer if not for all the third- party Vista support infrastructure become available. For one thing, Vista does demand considerably more system resources (faster CPU and more memory) to sustain the same level of responsiveness of the previous version of Windows. Lastly, if you are like most of us who need to live with Windows in the foreseeable future, you will eventually have to face the tune of Vista (and UAC). So, let's get on with it, now. UAC's view of things: The UAC scheme is to force a user in the Administrator group to operate in Standard User mode most of the time and to grant the administrative rights only to programs that need them with an explicit user prompt on a case-by-case basis. The idea is to minimize the exposure of the critical system resources to malware and viruses by shielding the vulnerable parts from most of the programs. If you are a standard (non-administrator) user, you can't modify the protected resources on the disk (the root directory, the "Windows" and "Program Files" directories). One important thing to recognize is that UAC implements its policy on a program-by-program basis. UAC classifies programs into there types: 1. Legacy programs that do not declare as Vista-compatible. 2. Programs that do not change administrative resources. 3. Programs that may change administrative resources. All Vista-compatible programs need to provide a "manifest" (an XML document) where the requirement for administrative privileges is declared. (XXCOPY of Ver 2.96.0 or newer has a embedded manifest within the program for user convenience.) Unfortunately, an application program such as XXCOPY.EXE cannot acquire the administrative privileges on an As-Needed basis. Therefore, whether or not your XXCOPY command modifies the protected directories (such as the root directory), UAC will intervene and prompt you for your acknowledgement that you are knowingly invoking the "high-risk" program. In order to serve those who do not intend to modify files that require administrative privilege, we decided to package a version of XXCOPY for the standard (non-administrative) user that does not elevate the privileges, namely, XXCOPYSU.EXE. Using UAC's classifications (see above), various versions of XXCOPY can be categorized as follows: 1. XXCOPY.EXE (legacy) // old version (v.2.9x.x or earlier) 2. XXCOPYSU.EXE // the standard-user version of XXCOPY 3. XXCOPY.EXE // the full-capability XXCOPY program The UAC scheme also classifies resources in the computer into two groups: 1. regular resources // any program can modify 2. admin resources // only privileged programs can modify The regular resource (files in ordinary directories or entries in ordinary areas in the system registry) can be modified by any class of programs without restrictions. The great majority of files on your disk follow this scenario. The admin resource includes the root directory, the Windows directory, the "Program Files" directory and certain areas in the system registry. When a program attempts to modify a file in such directories, the result depends upon which of the three types the program belongs to. Program Behaviors when UAC is enabled: In the discussion above, three types of programs were mentioned. Any of these programs can manipulate files in a directory in the general resource in the same old way. Nothing special. The key difference is when files in a directory that belongs to the admin resource is written or modified, the outcome will vary depending upon which of the three types the program belongs. 1. A legacy program (e.g., old XXCOPY.EXE) will appear to work well without showing an error condition. However, the Vista environment puts the program in a "sand box" where the program writes the output into a virtualized directory. In actuality, the Vista environment protects the admin resource (such as the root directory) by faking the changes. While the fooled program believes that it made changes in a file in the root directory, the new file is written in a separate directory. 2. A regular program without the administrative privilege (e.g., XXCOPYSU.EXE) will fail to modify an admin resource (e.g., to change a file in the root directory). The UAC-enabled environment simply refuses to let a program to alter the contents of admin resource without proper permissions. 3. The invocation of a privileged program (vista-compatible XXCOPY.EXE) will prompt users for the UAC elevation. If the log-in user belongs to administrators group, then, the user prompt can be dismissed by a simple mouse click. If the log-in user is a standard user, then, it invokes a "OTS" elevation which asks for the choice of administrator and his password to proceed. In either case, the administrator privilege will be granted with the temporary log-in (when the password is entered correctly) and the remaining execution of the program will work unimpeded. The important thing to remember is that the execution of XXCOPY will prompt you for either a simple mouse-click (if you have the administrator privilege) or an administrator password (if you are a standard user) in a UAC-enabled environment. Types of UAC Dialog Boxes: If you (the current log-in user) are an administrator, you will encounter one of the following dialog boxes. It is color-coded Green: Very Safe, Gray: Generally Safe, Yellow: Need Caution. A program that comes with Windows (supplied by Microsoft) You can trust this type of programs (at least in theory). A third-party program with the publishser's digital signiature If you are not familiar with the publisher, examine the publisher's digital signature carefully. It's usually safe. A third-party program without a digital signiature. If such a window popped up unexpectedly, you should cancel it. However, there are cases where a legitimate application comes without a digital signature. For a standard user (not logged-in as an administrator), the dialog boxes will be slightly different. The choice to proceed with the program requires a special (temporary) log-in as a user with the andministrator privilege. The dialog box provides a choice of the log-in user and a box for password. Avoiding the UAC-related prompts: When you run XXCOPY a number of times in a setting, or run a batch file that repeatedly launches XXCOPY or other programs that require the UAC-elevation, the prompts caused by the UAC- enabled environment will not only become a nuisance, but also prevent an unattended operation. We suggest that you create a user console (CMD.EXE --- so-called DOS Box) that is invoked with the elevated UAC privilege. Once inside the privileged console, all XXCOPY executions will be carried out with the elevated privilege without a prompt. XXConsole, a Super Console Generator: The following command line installs XXCOPY on your computer: xxcopy /install It saves XXCOPY-related files from the temporary directory (where the downloaded ZIP file is expanded) into the final destination (typically at \Windows\system32). This procedure also creates a shortcut icon of the command processor (CMD.EXE) in the Desktop under the label of XXConsole. It is to make XXCOPY users' life simpler by a dedicated shortcut for an administrator console with a regular mouse click. Note the "Administrator:" label at the top left corner. Since this window which is created by the command processor (CMD.EXE) is launched with the administrative privilege, all command-line executions of the XXCOPY program and all batch file invocations inside this console window will inherit the elevated UAC setting without any additional user prompt. The next technical bulletin explains the XXConsole tool in detail.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #43 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXConsole --- A Super Console Generator for Windows Vista Date: 2007-09-01 =============================================================================== Introduction: As a bonus feature of the new Vista-compatible XXCOPY, when the application is installed, a shortcut icon will be created on the Desktop which will open up a console window (CMD.EXE) with the Administrator privilege. Under a UAC-enabled Vista environment, the command console with the elevated privilege is probably the best way to run XXCOPY and batch files alike. Rather than adding the one-time-only function into the XXCOPY program, we chose to segregate the shortcut-creation function into a stand-alone utility program in order to keep XXCOPY's size small. Although it is a humble one-trick pony, we decided to publish the tool as freeware for personal use. It is called XXConsole. It provides a single-page dialog which combines the four-page Property sheet of the CMD.EXE shortcut. Indeed, all of the functionality provided by XXConsole are available from the CMD.EXE property sheet except for the several embedded icon images. ------------------------------------------------------------- It is almost embarrassing to call it a new utility program. However, we thought there may be someone who might find it useful. So, we decided to make it look half way decent and added the install/uninstall feature as well. ------------------------------------------------------------- Command Line Invocation Syntax: This utility can be invoked from a command line (also suitable for a batch file invocation). xxconsole.exe [ switches...] where switches may be zero or more of the following: /fs:<n> font size (4 - 72) /ra:0 disables run as administrator /ra:1 enables run as administrator (for Vista) /sw:<n> screen buffer width (1 - 1024) /sh:<n> screen buffer height (1 - 9999) /ww:<n> console window width (1 - 1024) /wh:<n> console window height (1 - 128) /tr:<n> text color value red (0 - 255) /tg:<n> text color value green (0 - 255) /tb:<n> text color value blue (0 - 255) /br:<n> bgnd color value red (0 - 255) /bg:<n> bgnd color value green (0 - 255) /bb:<n> bgnd color value blue (0 - 255) /start starts immediate action /uninstall uninstalls this program /? displays the command syntax (this message) Unspecified values are set to respective default values. Tip: You may add any of the above switches as the command arguments for a XXConsole.EXE shortcut (without the /start switch) to override the built-in default values to suit your taste. Changing the Settings after Icon is created: The XXConsole application helps you create a shortcut icon for the console for the first time. After the shortcut is created, any subsequent change in its parameters must be made through the property sheet (by right-click of a mouse on the shortcut). Similarly, other parameters that are not specified by the XXConsole application should be made from the property sheet. Download XXConsole: The XXConsole Program is available for personal (non-commercial) use, free of charge. For commercial use (in corporate enviroments) or for mass distribution/deployment, please contact Pixelab for pricing. http://www.xxcopy.com/download/xxconsole.zip  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #44 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Concurrent access of a file Date: 2007-09-27 =============================================================================== Introduction: In a multi-tasking operating system such as Windows, many processes (executing programs) are running at any given moment. Inevitably, there will be instances where a file is accessed by two or more processes at the same time. Ideally speaking, if all programs completely avoid accessing the same file, there will be no problems except every program needs to wait for its turn for access. Therefore, if the programs coordinate their accesses to a common file whenever the simultaneous access can be safely performed, the system performance can be increased. For example, when all programs that access the file in read-only mode, then, sharing the files should be done and such file sharing takes place all the time. In the Windows system, files are available for access on a first-come-first-served basis. That is, when a file is currently not opened by any program, it is available to any program (provided that the log-in user has the necessary access permission) in any share mode it wants. The programmer who writes the application has discression in the determining the file share setting. The application declares the file share mode setting at the time of opening the file. The default mode of opening a file is an exclusive access (not to share with any other program until the file is closed). Fair-minded programs often share the file they open for read-only purposes. The file share control switch: XXCOPY (starting with ver 2.96.0) now allows the user to select how the file sharing is performed with the following new switches. /SHR // Enables read-share (default) /SHW // Enables write-share /SHRW or /SHWR // Enables rd/wr-share (old default) /SH0 // Disables file share (most conservative) Typical scenarios: The great majority of file-copy operations can be safely carried out with the default (/SHR) setting. Since XXCOPY does not alter the contents of the source file, using the read-share (/SHR) setting allows it to share a file that has been opened by another program that declared its willingness to share the file on a read-only basis. When a program modifies the contents of a file, it typically opens the file for read-write purposes with no share allowed. In this case, XXCOPY will have to wait for the file to become accessible (XXCOPY's /CR switch determines the length of the retry period). But, there are rare cases where a program opens a file for read/write purposes, yet allows other programs such as XXCOPY to concurrently access the file by allowing a read-write share. Then, XXCOPY with the /SHRW switch can access the file and make its copy. In such a case, there is an implicit "trust" by XXCOPY to the other program that first opened the file to behave reasonably in order to maintain the integrity of the shared file. If the other program modifies part of the file in such a way that the snapshot of the given file (read by XXCOPY) loses the coherency, then, the copy of the file may become "corrupt" even though XXCOPY completes the copy operation "without error". We believe there are rare but useful occasions where copying a file regardless of the integrity of the file contents is beneficial. XXCOPY allows for the use of /SHRW (or even /SHW) when the particular situation calls for it. Then, there are cases where the user does not want to copy a file which is being opened by another program even though the conservative sharing mode (/SHR) makes a perfectly safe copy. In such a case, /SH0 disallows XXCOPY to access any file that is being opened by another program.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #45 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Comparing File Data Date: 2007-11-02 =============================================================================== Introduction: XXCOPY performs a file comparison operation on a byte-by-byte basis on various occasions. One such case is immediately after a file is written in the destination directory to verify the file data. With the /V2 switch, XXCOPY will re-open the file in the destination and compare the contents with the source file. While the feature (/V) has been available with Microsoft's XCOPY since the early days of DOS with the floppy disk, and the operation is still practiced widely, there are questions being raised for its efficacy. This is due to the fact that today's common storage systems (such as the hard disk) are equipped with multiple levels of buffering and layers of cache schemes. Recent versions of Windows employs the write-behind cache technique without which the performance will be unacceptable. The shere volume of data necessitates streamlining the data flow. That is, when XXCOPY verifies the file contents, the data read from the destination file will likely come from buffered memory rather than the disk surface. -------------------------------------------------------- XXCOPY provides the /CA switch for rudimentary control of file data buffering. However, its use is practical only for a limited amount of data volume, especially in a network environment. -------------------------------------------------------- A more practical way to verify the file contents after a backup operation is to run the file copy operation at full speed (without /V2 that has become questionable), and to perform a separate run of XXCOPY for a data compare operations on a byte-by-byte basis. Another motivation for the data compare functions is the fact that the traditional fast incremental backup operation relies on a favorable assumption that matching the file size and the timestamp values is sufficient to determine a pair of files are indeed identical. Data Comparison Functions: Starting with Ver 2.96.3, a new set of data comparison operations are available. /CDM // Compares data and selects the file if matched. /CDU // Compares data and selects the file if unmatched. /CDX // Selects the file if unmatched and brand new files. /CD0 // Does not compare file data (default). (You may add a colon for readabilty; /CD:M, /CD:U, /CD:X or /CD:0.) The four switches are mutually exclusive (if two or more such switches are specified, the last one will prevail). They perform a file-selection operation on their own, or in combination with other file-selection switches. They are especially useful when combined with various backup (/Bxx) switches. The data compare operation is carried out between the file in the source directory and its counterpart in the destination directory on a byte-by-byte basis. Prior to the data comparison, the file size is always compared first, and a mismatch in the size will always be treated as a mismatch without accessing the file contents. The /CDM and /CDU functions are exact opposite one another; /CDM excludes any file that does not match exactly in the file contents to its counterpart in the destination and /CDU selects only files that match the contents if the counterparts exactly. Note that the /CDM, /CDX, and /CDU operations ignore the timestamps unlike the /BS, /BE or /BI operations. This fact makes the combinations such as /CDU/BS and /CDU/BI slightly different (and more stringent) than the mere /CDU switch. The /CDX function is a more generalized than /CDM where /CDX does not exclude the brand new files. That is, /CDX is to exclude the files strictly by the result of file-data comparison that does not exclude files that are not subjected to data comparison. In other words, the /CDX/U combination is equivalent to /CDM. /CDX is rarely useful but is provided mostly for symmetry's sake. Command examples: xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /bi /cdu /y // skip files that match exactly xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /clone /cdu // combine with the popular switch In the above examples, the addition of the /CDU switch makes sure the incremental backup operation does not take chances in determining files that are truly identical. A file in the source directory that matches in the timestamp and the size to its counterpart in the destination directory will be further scrutinized by a byte-by-byte comparison before treated as truly identical. Without the /CDU switch, the files with matching timestamp and filesize will be skipped even though there is a small possibility that the file contents vary. Although the favorable assumption (without the use of /CDU) is reasonable and necessary for speedy operation, the new feature satisifies demainding users' needs. xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /bs /cdu /l // select files that differ in data This command makes a list of files that would be erroneously treated identical to their backup copy even though their contents are different. If the operation generates a null list, that validates that the operation without the time-consuming data comparison is good. xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /rs /bs /cdm // deletes truly identical files This command deletes files from the source directory only when there is a perfect backup copy in the destination directory. xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /cdu // incremental backup, ignore time This command is similar to the first example above (/bi /cdu) except that it completely ignores the timestamp. Files with different contents are updated as well as brand new files copied to the destination. If the contents of a file is the same, it will be skipped even when the timestamp is different. xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /cdx /l // list identical and brand new files A /cdx switch exclude files that go through file-data comparison and result in a data mismatch. It includes brand new files. xxcopy \src\ \dst\ /cdm /l // list files with the same contents A /cdm switch implicitly adds the /u (common files only) function. Special rules on switch combinations: Like most other file-selection switches, the /CDM, /CDX and /CDU operations work as an exclusion mechanism except for an exception (see below). Each file-selection switch adds the types of files excluded (reduces the number of files selected). For example, the combination of /A and /CDU excludes files without the Archive attributes (by /A) and files with unmatched contents (by /CDU). The common rule is that adding a switch narrows the file selection. As a special exception, when /CDU is specified with /BI or /BX, the combined file-selection mechanism will be biased towards reducing the types of files excluded (increases the number of selected files selected). This concept can be better understood by recalling the relationship between the timestamp and the file size in /BI where the two aspects (time and size) are simultanously applied (logically ANDed) to specify the excluded files (the skipped files being more narrowly defined). Having /CDU (to skip matched files) on top of /BI adds the third element (in addition to the timestamp and the file size) that specifies excluded files. As a result, /BI/CDU means the exclusion of truly identical files whose timestamp, size and data all match to the files in the destination. By applying the more stringent requirement for skipping files with /CDU, the total number of files selected will increase (contrary to the common observation that adding a file-selection switch usually reduces the number of selected files). The /CDM and /CDU switches are exact complement one another. The files selected by /CDM contains none of those selected by /CDU and vice versa. Drawback: The user should be aware of the fact a comparison of files on a byte-by-byte basis is time consuming. The popularity of the /BI operation in incremental backup is due to its efficiency in determining the need for updating the backup copy. Tips: Confused? Yes. We all are. In typical file management operations, the most common usages of the file-data comparison function are /BI/CDU which is for the most stringent incremental backup, and /BS/CDM which is for selecting truly identical files in list-only or file removal operations. /CDU implicitly excludes files with different size, therefore, when you specify /CDU/BZE, then, /BZE is superfluous in the combination (/CDU alone covers the case for /BZE).  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #46 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY's User Prompts Date: 2009-10-18 (Revised) =============================================================================== Variations in XXCOPY's user prompts: XXCOPY generates a wide range of user prompts for various reasons. The most common type is to alert the user for a possible loss of files --- typically before a file is about to be deleted, or even to be overwritten. The following switches control user prompts /P // before each file copy /PC // before creating a new file /PD // before each directory is being processed /PJ // before an overwrite with a different J-thingy type /PM // before deleting an existing file on file-move (/MVF) /PN // when an excessive number of /NX failures occurs /Po // before a file overwrite (legacy /-Y) /PP // enables the space-bar pause feature /PR // before removing a file whose path contains reparce pt /PZ // when /Z, /ZY, or /CLONE operation is invoked The following switches control warning prompts /WD // when a non-directory source is to be copied (*See below) /WL // when the path length exceeds the limit /WR // when the src or dst path contains a reparse point /WU // when an unnecessary destination path is specified Note many of the above switches are set by default due to the nature of the prompt (a warning to alert the user for a possible loss of data). --------------------------------------------------------------- *Special note about /WD The /WD warning prompt appears when the source specifier is made of a non-directory object at the root level with /S (includes subdirectories recursively), XXCOPY prompts you to clarify whether the name is a directory name that simply does not exist, or a filename pattern that is meant to be searched for at every subdirectories. e.g., xxcopy c:\nonexistent d:\my_dst\ /s Quite often, it happens to be a typo error. --------------------------------------------------------------- How can we remember all these switches? No. You are not expected to memorize them. Instead, you should remember the following: ============================================================== Enter the question mark (?) as your response to the prompt. XXCOPY will show the command switch that suppresses the particular user prompt. ============================================================== What is the four-way user options in (Y/N/A/Z)? Starting with Ver 3.00, some of XXCOPY's user prompts end with (Y/N/A/Z) that gives you the following options: Y // Yes to the single occasion N // No to the single occasion A // Yes to All remaining occasions of similar kind Z // Zilch (No) to all remaining occasions of similar kind In the past, the Z (Zilch) option did not exist (and the users were forced to use the Ctrl-Break to terminate the whole operation). But, the Z option may become useful (e.g., to disallow file-overwrites from a certain point in operation). Incidentally, the enigmatic user prompts with the option of (Y/N/A/R/S) has been abolished due to its complexity and unpopularity.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #47 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The Very Long Pathname Support Date: 2009-11-15 =============================================================================== Introduction: The official limit in the full length of a path in the Windows API has always been 259 characters. In our estimation, this limit will not go away anytime soon. That's because it is virtually cast in stone as MAX_PATH which is a familiar constant to all Windows programmers (the constant is equated to 260 that accommodates the string-terminating null character). In the case of a FAT volume (FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32), the 259-character limit will live forever. The NTFS File System: Irrespective of the ground rule in the official Win32 API world, the Microsoft designers gave the all-inclusive NTFS file system a larger limit for the path length than what the Win32 API allows. An NTFS volume has the capability of support a path length up to 32767 characters. This foresight is greatly appreciated by those who are responsible in backing up the directories and files created by end users some of whom have no understanding of limits on things in computers. In order to manage backup directories in an orderly fashion, a backup administrator often needs a few extra levels of subdirectories in the backup directory that sometimes make the total path length exceed the 259 character limit. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Note that the maximum path length is different from the maximum length for the name of a file or directory that is 255 characters. This limit must be observed even when the total path length can be extended beyond the official limit of 259 characters. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Support of Very Long Path: The default behavior of XXCOPY with respect to the total path length is to adhere to the official Win32 maximum path limit (259 characters). When XXCOPY encounters a path length that exceeds the limit, it will issue a warning message that states that a exccessively long path is encountered and treat the operation a failure before further action. Increasing the Path Length Limit: With XXCOPY-Pro, you may extend the maximum length of the pathname to be supported using the /VL switch. The switch may accept an optional parameter. /VL0 // maximum pathname length = 259 (default) /VL // maximum pathname length = 32767 (the absolute limit) /VL<n> // maximum pathname length = n character You may specify a value between 1 - 32767 for the customized maximum pathname length that replaces the default value of 259 characters. Suppressing the warning message: You may suppress the warning message of excessive path length by adding a /WL0 switch in the command line (the default setting is /WL that enables the warning message).  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #48 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The Source Base Directory Date: 2009-11-16 =============================================================================== Introduction: During the long evolutionary path of XXCOPY, one enduring aspect of XXCOPY operations that has been the relationship between the source directory and the destination directory. Simply put, in a typical copy operation that involves subdirectories (with the /S switch), XXCOPY duplicates the directory structure (a.k.a. directory tree) of the source into the destination. In a two-directory operation (that involves a source directory and a destination directory), for any given path of a file or directory (possibly one or more level deep under the top-level directory) in the source, there exists one and only one path in the destination directory that corresponds its counterpart in the source. This one-to-one relationship between the source and the destination is the backbone of the XXCOPY view of the system storage. One Source ===> One Destination ------------------------------------------------------------------ The file-gathering functions (/SG and its variations) and the director-flattenning functions (/SX and its variations) are notable exceptions where the relationship between the source and the destination is "Many to One" rather than "One-to-One". (Currently, there is no such XXCOPY operations as "One-to-Many".) Even with such exceptional cases, the concept of the source base directory and the destination base directory still holds true. ------------------------------------------------------------------ The Base Directory: Let me first define the term, "Base Directory" in XXCOPY operations. A base directory is the longest part of either the source side or the destination side in an XXCOPY command where the user does not want any variation. Therefore, by definition, a base directory cannot contain a wildcard character. There is always one and only source base directory in a given XXCOPY operation and one and only one destination base directory (in a two-directory operation). Once the Source Base Directory is specified and the Destination Base Directory is also chosen, then, the two work as the anchor relationship that determines the rest of the subdirectories (tree structure). Note that in XXCOPY operations, for the destinationspecifier, you can only furnish the path of a directory (not a filename nor a filename pattern). Moreover, no wildcard character is allowed in the destination specifier, nor is the base directory marker (a double backslash) in the destination side. Therefore, the the directory furnished by the user in the destination specifier is always the destination base directory. In other words, you have no choice on specifying the base directory for the destination. It is always helpful to see such relationships examining a few examples. Simplest example: xxcopy C:\Windows\*.exe D:\backup\C\Windows\ /S // a simple one xxcopy C:\Windows\*\*.exe D:\backup\C\Windows\ // equivalent The first command line above copies all files whose name ends with ".exe" in the source directory (C:\Windows\) and all of its subdirectories into the destination directory (D:\backup\C\Windows\). The /S switch denotes that the operation includes the subdirectories. The second command line shown above is an exact replacement of the first one. The two commands specify exactly the same thing and will perform exactly the same operation. The use of ..\*\.. notation (that is placed immediately to the left the last element (file name pattern) in the source specifier is equivalent to the /S switch (hence, it is omitted in the second example). So, the respective base directories are... source base directory = C:\Windows\ destination base directory = D:\backup\C\Windows\ The reason why we emphasize the idea of the base directory is that anything under the base directory in the source side will be faithfully duplicated in the destination side. There is a clear one-on-one relationship between the source directory and the destination directory. The directory structure of the both sides will become identical when the copy operations take place. Another example: xxcopy \\My_Server\C\Windows\ E:\backup\My_Server_C\ /BACKUP source base directory = \\My_Server\C\Windows\ destination base directory = E:\backup\My_Server_C\ The same rule applies with a UNC path. Using the Wild-Wildcard feature: xxcopy C:\Windows\Sys*\*.exe D:\backup\C\Windows\ /BACKUP source base directory = C:\Windows\ destination base directory = D:\backup\C\Windows\ Here, unlike most other file management tools, XXCOPY allows you to sprincle wildcard characters (* and ?) anywhere in the source specifier for any number of times. In this case, the source specifier can match both C:\Windows\System\ and C:\Windows\System32\ (and even C:\Windows\SysWOW64\ in 64-bit Windows environments). Remember the rule, the source base directory cannot have a wildcard in it. A trick using the Wild-Wildcard: Consider one more example. A long pathname is always an irritation to type. It's even more of a nuisance when the path contains an embedded space that forces you to use a pair of quotation marks ("). xxcopy "C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe" "D:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\" source base directory = C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\ destination base directory = D:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\ We understand your hightened frustration when you find yourself re-typing much of the source path in the destination which is quite common. Let me show you a useful trick that alleviate the pain; the above command could be written as... xxcopy C:\Program?Files\Internet?Explorer\iexplore.exe D:\ The above command line replaced each of the space characters in the earlier command line with a question mark (?). The benefit is twofold; 1) you need not type the quotation marks (because no space characters) 2) look at the destination specifier. source base directory = C:\ destination base directory = D:\ Although there is a small chance that the source specifier with a slightly increased liberty in the matching pattern (with the use of the wildcard characters), you can easily visually verify the result (when the number of files being selected in the operation is very small in a case like this). Note that the base directories for the source and that of the destination should be adjusted in a similar fashion. Let us indulge ourselves in pushing this idea further... With the use of asterisk (*) in lieu of question mark (?), you can save more keystrokes... xxcopy C:\Program*\I*\iexplore.exe D:\ // works!!! xxcopy C:\p*\*\iex*.exe D:\ // still works (but takes longer) xxcopy C:\p*\*\iex* D:\ // No. It included other files Of course, the shorter (more freedom given) to the matching pattern, the greater the chance of inclusion of undesired files becomes. The second example above with the powerful ..\*\.. construct significantly widens the search area in the source directory. The third one failed with the inclusion of an unexpected file as follows: C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\en-US\iexplore.exe.mui Please note that this experiment was performed on a 32-bit Windows 7. In a 64-bit world, none of the three shown above were adequate. There is a directory named C:\Program Files (x86)\ where the 32-bit version of Internet Explorer is kept. In short, although the technique of replacing the real pathname with a substituted pattern using wildcards is tempting, you should be aware of possible side effects. For this reason, it may not be wise to use it in a batch file (where you should not be lazy in typing the full name). Enter the Base Directory Marker (\\): To take the spirit of the shortened source (and the destination) specifier without the side effect of inviting unwanted files into the party, we came up with a convenient feature that allows the user to specify explicitly the extent of the source base directory within a path string without the use of a wildcard character --- the use of a double-backslash sequence within the source specifier in the place of a regular (single) backslash. We call it the "Base Directory Marker". You are allowed to use it only once inside the source specifier. Let me recall the original command line in question... xxcopy "C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe" "D:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\" source base directory = C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\ destination base directory = D:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\ Using the new Base Directory Marker, the command line above can be written as xxcopy "C:\\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe" D:\ source base directory = C:\ destination base directory = D:\ Note that there are consecutive backslashes immediately after the colon character (the drive letter specifier C:). Compare this to the trickery introduced earlier by the use of "?" in the place of space character (C:\Program?Files\Internet?Explorer\iexplore.exe). While the space characters left intact cannot allow you to drop the required quotation marks, the Source Base Directory Marker explicitly specifies without enlarging the freedom in matching path pattern otherwise unwanted. Usage examples: A few more examples to clarify what's allowed. xxcopy C:\mydir\\projects\xxcopy\ver2975\debug\ D:\archive\ /BU // the Source Base Marker may be at any level xxcopy C:\mydir\\projects\xxcopy\v*\release\ D:\backup\ /BU // the right hand side of the source base directory marker may // contain a path with the Wild-wildcard syntax. xxcopy C:\mydir\\proj*\*\*.jpg D:\backup\ /BU // the position of the source base directory marker may coincide // with the implicit base directory termination (no effect, no harm). xxcopy C:\mydir\projects\xxcopy\\ D:\backup\ /BU // another example of harmless, yet useless marker position xxcopy \\Kans_PC\C\\Documents*\*.jpg C:\ /BU // This is from a working script actually in use by the author. Also, bad examples show you what to avoid. xxcopy C:\mydir\pro*\\xxcopy\ver2975\release\ D:\backup\ /BU // the left hand side of the source base directory marker must // not contain a wildcard character. This is because the backslash // immediately left to the first wildcard character marks the end // of the source base directory path that cannot be overridden by // an explicit marker positioned to the right. xxcopy C:\mydir\\project\xxcopy\\ver2975\ D:\backup\ /BU // the source base directory marker can be used only once. Avoid ambiguity with a UNC path: A source base marker is denoted by a double backslash with an additional backslash in place of a single backslash that normally separate one level of directory to the next. Since a path that starts with a double backslash is an established syntactic rule in specifying a UNC path, you must not start with a double backslash notation when you want to use a root directory without an explicit drive letter. If the original path starts with a drive specifier (a letter followed by a colon), any double-backslash sequence is syntactically unambiguous. C:\mydir\ ===> C:\\mydir\ // good However, if the path is a root directory without the drive specifier that starts with a single backslash, adding a backslash at the beginning would make it look like a UNC path which is unacceptable. \mydir\abc\ ===> \\mydir\abc\ // BAD!!! (avoid this) In such a case, you may either furnish the drive letter and colong to avoid the confusion with a UNC path. Alternatively, you may add a "dot-backslash" sequence to avert the possible ambiguity. \mydir\abc\ ===> \.\\mydir\abc\ // good mydir\xyz\ ===> .\\mydir\xyz\ // good  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #49 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Unicode Support in XXCOPY Date: 2009-12-23 =============================================================================== Background: Starting with Version 2.97.0, XXCOPY added the support of Unicode (16-bit characters). Earlier versions of XXCOPY were confined to process only 8-bit characters in practically all aspects of its operations. Being a console application program, XXCOPY is still confined to receive the command line (keyboard) input in 8-bit characters and its console output also in 8-bit strings. -------------------------------------------------------------- Even though the code page of the CMD.EXE console can be set to UTF-8 (code page:65001), the console is unable to process the full range of Unicode characters. --------------------------------------------------------------- Thus, earlier versions of XXCOPY had to rely on the code page of the console that determined the character encoding within the console environment which was often inadequte to access some of the files and directories present in a disk volume. With the support of Unicode, XXCOPY can process any file and directory name since all pathnames are internally represented by a Unicode string. Input to XXCOPY using Unicode strings: Even with the Unicode support, XXCOPY will continue to operate in the console (CMD.EXE) window whose input and output streams are in 8-bit characters. There are times when you need to specify a directory or path name that contains Unicode characters that are not mapped in the current code page. In such a case, the only way to specify such Unicode strings is to use an external file with the /CF (for command file) and /EX (for exclusion list). These files can be either in the traditional ANSI text format, or in the UTF-8 encoded Unicode text format with the presence of the Byte-Order Mark (BOM) at the beginning of the file. Note that there is no explicit switches that control the type of input string to XXCOPY. The UTF-8 BOM sequence at the beginning of the file implicitly tells XXCOPY that the file is formatted in UTF-8. You may create such a file using the ubiquitous NotePad utility and Save-As command with the selection of UTF-8 encoding. Most text editors available today should provide a user option to create a file in the UTF-8 format with the BOM header byte sequence. Output text by XXCOPY that contains Unicode strings: Another problem associated with Unicode text is XXCOPY's output. Since the console output by XXCOPY will be in 8-bit character stream, some of the characters may be displayed with a question mark (?) as a spaceholder. This is a limitation of the console display. On the other hand, you should specify the /UT switch if you anticipate Unicode characters that cannot be represented by an 8-bit character. With the /UT switch, all XXCOPY output files (for /oA, /oN and /Fo) will be encoded in the UTF-8 format. The default (/UT0) output files are made in Windows ANSI (8-bit) encodging. The Special Dialog Window for User Prompts: From time to time, XXCOPY halts its operation with a user prompt, for example for the confirmation of a file overwrite (/Po). Since the console display is usually limited in in 8-bit character string, the filename displayed on the console may not be recognizable. With the /PW switch, XXCOPY will pop up a dialog window that displays the full pathname in Unicode even when the display on the console window fails to show the proper characters. References: Unicode http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode UTF-8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-8 Code page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_page  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #50 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: Reparse Points and Hard Links Date: 2009-12-30 =============================================================================== Introduction: A "Reparse Point" is a type of NTFS file system object (implemented in Windows 2000 and later versions) that provides extended functionality to an NTFS volume. The most notable examples of reparse points include junction point, volume mount point and symbolic link (plus other exotic features like remote storage service (RSS) and single instance store (SIS) that are not within the scope of this discussion). Junction point (also called directory junction) and volume mount point were introduced in Windows 2000. More recently, the symbolic links (for directory and for file) were introduced in Windows Vista. The common characteristic of these reparse points is that they store a reference path (called target) and behave as if they were the target object when accessed by most application programs. --------------------------------------------------------------------- In Vista and Windows 7, your old friend, "C:\Documents and Settings" is not a regular directory. Rather, it exists as a junction point whose target is C:\Users. Similarly, the "All Users" directory inside "\Documents and Settings" is replaced by a directory-type Symbolic Link, "C:\ProgramData\" whose file attributes are usually marked with the hidden and system bits. These reparse points are presumably provided for the backward compatibility's sake. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Microsoft's document states "Symbolic links are designed to aid in migration and application compatibility with Unix operating system." --------------------------------------------------------------------- You should not be confused with reparse points and the Shortcut files (with the .LNK extension) which was introduced by Windows 95. A shortcut is an ordinary file which is accessed like any other file by most application programs except by Windows Explorer that treats a shortcut as an alias of the real file. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Aside from reparse points, hard links are officially debuted in Vista (even though the NTFS volume had provision to support hard links from earlier days). In the case of regular files, the file data is stored under a unique pathname. On the other hand, using hard links, one set of file data is stored under two or more pathnames. From the hard link viewpoint, if the file data is associated by only one path (link), the file is called a regular file (non-hard link). Hard links refer to a case where the file data is accessed via multiple pathnames. When a file with two hard links is deleted using one pathname, then, it will become a regular file with only one pathname representing the file data. Behavior of Reparse points: Unlike shortcuts (special .LNK files under Windows Explorer's control), reparse points behave almost like the object they represent. For example, when an application accesses "C:\Documents and Settings", the underlying file system automatically delivers the "C:\Users" directory instead. While this behavior is exactly what the reparse point mechanism is designed for for most purposes, it poses a problem for a backup occasion. Ideally speaking, when a source volume or directory is to be backed up, the destination should contain the same structure that was found in the source. A reparse point in the source should be reproduced as teh same type of reparse point in the destination. However, prior to v.3.00, XXCOPY was not capable of preserving reparse points as such. Rather, a reparse point in the source would become a subdirectory in the destination. This behavior was not completely satisfactory. It was not only space-consuming in the destination, but also simply wrong in the truest sense. Most other traditional file copy utilities had the same problem. That's because one of the purposes of the reparse point was to fool regular applications to treat it like a directory. Now, backup applications such as XXCOPY need to pay close attention to the peculiarity of the reparse point. Unfortunately, a relatively small number of programs are available to copy and create reparse points at this writing. Microsoft's MKLINK.EXE is one such tool (albeit quite rudimentary in its capability). XXCOPY (v.3.0x) is one of the premier products that provide a wide range of functionality Classifications: For the lack of better name, we refer to the various reparse points and hard link as J-thingies (for junction points, et al with many command switches that start with letter J) in XXCOPY's documentation. At present, reparse points includes only four types; 1) Symbolic Link Directory 2) Symbolic Link File 3) Junction Point that is not volume mount point 4) Volume Mount Point (a special case of junction point) XXCOPY recognizes the following types of reparse points, hard link, and regular file and regular directory Type Abbr. Description ------------------------------------------------------------------ F [FIL] Regular File (not symbolic link nor hard link) S [SYM] Symbolic Link File (a reparse point) H [HLK] Hard Link (file data shared with another hard link) D <DIR> Regular Directory (not a reparse point) L <LNK> Symbolic Link Directory (a reparse point) P <JCT> Junction Point (a reparse point) M <MNT> Volume Mount Point (a reparse point) J Represents all J-thingies (S)(H)(L)(P)(M) R Represents all Reparse Points (S)(L)(P)(M) ------------------------------------------------------------------ The "Type" letters shown above will be used as the parameters for many command switches that are relevant to J-thingies. XXCOPY Command Switches for J-thingies: XXCOPY v.3.00.0 introduces many new functions that deal with the J-thingies (many of which are assigned to switches that starts with letter J). In the Windows system, reparse points behave very much like a real directory (or a file) when they are accessed by common application programs, including previous versions of XXCOPY. On the other hand, in many occasions, we want such objects to be duplicated exactly as they are. The new XXCOPY allows you to choose either way to copy reparse points and hard links alike. By default, the new XXCOPY (ver 3.00 or newer) treats all J-thingies (reparse points and hard link) as such. /JL Treats directory symbolic links as symbolic links (default). /JP Treats junction (non-mount) points as junction pts (default). /JM Treats volume mount points as volume mount points(default). /JS Treats file symbolic links as symbolic links (default). /JH Treats file hard links as hard links (default). /JJ Treats all J-thingies as such (shortcut for /JL/JP/JM/JS/JH) /JR Treats reparse points as such (shortcut for /JL/JP/JM/JS) Or, you may let XXCOPY treat them as if they are a regular directory or file by the following switches. /JL0 Treats directory symbolic links as a regular directory. /JP0 Treats junction (non-mount) points as a regular directory. /JM0 Treats volume mount points as a regular directory. /JS0 Treats file symbolic links as a regular file. /JH0 Treats file hard links as a regular file. /JJ0 Treats all J-thingies as a regular directory or file. /JR0 Treats reparse points as a regular directory or file. ####### CAUTION to old XXCOPY users ############################### The default treatments of J-thingies by XXCOPY Ver 3.00 are now exact opposite to what they were with older XXCOPY versions. If you want XXCOPY to behave like the old versions with respect to the J-thingies, you need to add /JJ0 in the command line. ################################################################### You may use the object type for file/directory selection by the new exclusion function. /JX<mask> Excludes one or more types of J-Thingies as well as regular files and directories (F,D,S,H,L,P,M,J,R). /JI<mask> Includes only the J-thingies specified. This function is implemented as a shortcut of the inverse function of /JX<mask>. When XXCOPY displays a reparse point on the screen, the path of the referenced object will be shown. /oR Shows the reference path of a reparse point (default) /oR0 Disables the display of the reparse point reference path When an existing object in the destination is to be overwritten by a different J-thingy type, the user will be prompted. /PJ Prompts on overwrite by a different J-thingy type /PJ0 Suppresses prompt on overwrite by different J-thingy type. When a file whose path contains a reparse point is to be deleted, the user will be prompted. /PR Prompts when a file with a reparse point path is to be deleted /PR0 Suppresses prompt on overwrite by different reparse point type. When an elements in the full path of the source or the destination specifiers contain a reparse point, XXCOPY will issue a warning prompt. /WR Warns when src/dst path contains a reparse point /WR0 Suppresses the warning for a reparse point in src/dst path Since a reparse point directory can be created to form a cyclic reference, it could cause a recursive meltdown (for example, "C:\ProgramData\Application Data\" points to "C:\ProgramData\" that forms a infinite loop of reference). XXCOPY detects such cyclic reparse points and prevents the recursive meltdown. XXCOPY has a command to show all occurrences of cyclic references. /JCYCLIC Scans the source directory and lists all cyclic links /oC Displays a cyclic link that is being skipped (default) /oC0 Suppresses the display of cyclic links that are skipped XXCOPY provides a bulk hardlink creation: /MLH Makes a hard link file in dst for each file in src /ULH Unlinks (convert hard links into regular files)  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #80 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: A minimum WinXP Install (work in progress) Date: 2003-03-23 =============================================================================== In many occasions, it is very convenient to have a Windows XP system with a minimum set of functionality. It is sometimes convenient to have a second set of Win XP system installed on the same drive as what Microsoft calls "Parallel Install". Although Microsoft discourages to use the same volume for parallel install, there are also advantages of doing so. For one thing, the volume already has common directories such as "\Program Files\" in place which are readily available. This is one of the situation that knowing the minimum XP file set helps reducing the unnecessary storage space. ------------------------------------------------------------ When you use the same volume for second "Parallel Install", you need to take certain precaution in order to avoid possible collision of files that inadvertently "breaks" the working (main) Windows XP system. So, don't try it at home --- not just yet. Another technical bulletin with a full coverage on the subject is in order. ------------------------------------------------------------ The following is a list of files for the minimum XP. C:\windows\ C:\windows\fonts\*.ttf *.fon C:\windows\resources\themes\luna\luna.msstyles C:\windows\winsxs\manifests\*.manifest C:\windows\winsxs\winsxs\*\comctl32.dll C:\windows\system32\config\*.* C:\windows\system32\drivers\*.sys C:\windows\system32\*.dll (less than half is all you need) Here's what you don't need (You can safely delete) C:\windows\apppatch\ C:\windows\inf\ C:\windows\system\ (surprise!!!) C:\windows\msagent\ C:\windows\help\ C:\windows\ime\ (depending on the language) C:\windows\srchasst\ C:\windows\mui\ C:\windows\temp\ C:\windows\debug\ C:\windows\tasks\ C:\windows\registration\ C:\windows\pchealth\ C:\windows\installer\ C:\Windows\system32\catroot\ C:\Windows\system32\catroot2\ C:\Windows\system32\wbem\ C:\Windows\system32\dllclache\ C:\Windows\system32\setup\ C:\Windows\system32\npp\ C:\Windows\system32\spool\ C:\Windows\system32\inetsrv\ C:\Windows\system32\ime\ C:\Windows\system32\com\ C:\Windows\system32\1033\ C:\Windows\system32\usmt\ C:\Windows\system32\mui\ C:\Windows\system32\oobe\ C:\Windows\system32\xircom\ C:\Windows\system32\restore\ C:\Windows\system32\macromed\ Note that many of these directories will be created when you boot up the system for the first time into the minimum XP environment. Typically the newly created directories remain empty (you may delete them, but they will come back). I haven't tried to find the minimum set for the font files as well as most of the files listed as needed in here. But, the relatively small directories are not very relevant. I'm concentrating on the total space occupied by unnecessary files --- the goal for now is to reduce the storage requirement more than the total number of files (but in a FAT volume), many small files also contribute to a substantial waste. So far, I have reduced the \Windows\ directory size from 650MB down to 296 MB. Still the largest section is by far the C:\windows\system32\ directory which is a dumping ground for any applications. I have a hunch that once the essential DLL files are identified, the total byte count will be less than 200 MB. Since this directory grows over time (every time you add a new application, you may find lots of files added into this directory), it is nice to know what is the minimum requirement in this very important directory. Here's a few tips to remove unnecessary files: *.nls National Language support files. except for what aplly to your own language environment. In my (U.S. English) settings, I need only the following three: c_437.nls c_1252.nls l_intl.nls kbd*.dll Keyboard control library files. except for what applies to your own keyboard. In my (U.S. English) settings, I kept the following: kbdus.dll The easiest way to find what is needed is to run the following command: del c:\windows.alt\system32\kbd*.dll (the one in use won't be deleted.) odbc*.dll ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) related files avi*.dll Vide Capture tools Mmore study is needed to remove unnecessary files... If you know for sure a list of DLL files that are not needed, please let me know. Also, if you know certain files that are needed in your system (especially for non-US environment, please contact me. Kan Yabumoto  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #81 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: A minimum Win98SE Install Date: 2003-04-08 =============================================================================== Introduction: In many occasions, it is convenient to have a Windows Win9X/ME system with a minimum set of functionality. A typical Win98SE directory may grow to over 600 MB after years of use. But, it can be trimmed to less than 40 MB for a mininum yet functional environment. For example, when you migrate your Win9X system to XP, it may be useful at times to keep the minimum Win9X install as a dual-boot system which uses a modest disk space. There are some differences among various releases of the so-called "Win9X" (collectively referring to Windows 95, 95-OSR2, 98, 98SE, ME). Although Windows ME was the most recent release in the Win95 family, due to its restrictive nature (i.e., does not allow a smooth transition from the initial DOS stage to the Windows (GUI) environment. Therefore, we favor Win98SE as a relatively stable and easy-to-manage environment. Since the variations within the Win9X family are relatively small, most of what you find in this article should apply to all Win9X versions. ---------------------------------------------------------------- Before going into the details, let me clarify that what I refer to the "minimum" Windows environment is what I feel essential for common Windows system management, mostly file management operations. That includes the ability to access the local area network, but not necessarily to the Internet. It supports fully functional "Windows" (GUI) operations with Explorer with mouse control. In short, the minimum configuration is my arbitrary choice. Supports Removed --------------------------------------- ------------------- LAN access External USB-Disk Internet Explorer RegEdit Scheduled Tasks Outlook Express ScanDisk Windows Explorer Paint Brush DOS Box Control Panel CD (music) Player DeFragger 2xExplorer (shareware) Solitaire WinIpcfg TotalCommander (shareware) Sound Recorder ---------------------------------------------------------------- What to expect: The compactness of the Windows directory in the minimum Win9X system speaks a volume for its virtue. The following chart was compiled from a system that I have been using and the directory size. Most of us don't even remember what was the original size of the Windows directory when it was installed. So, I went back and reinstalled the Win98SE system as a clean install (a minimum configuration with network support). In the following chart, three size values are listed which are labeled, Initial (after a clean install), Before (the result of years of usage), and After (the end result of trimming non essential files), respectively. Directories Initial Before After ------------------------------------------------------------ C:\windows\ (1st level only) 10 MB 22 MB 8 MB C:\windows\system\ 98 MB 180 MB 23 MB C:\windows\inf\ 12 MB 22 MB < 1 MB C:\windows\java\ 11 MB 23 MB ----- C:\windows\sysbckup\ 8 MB 18 MB ----- C:\windows\help\ 7 MB 9 MB ----- C:\windows\fonts\ 5 MB 11 MB 3 MB C:\windows\system32\ 4 MB 4 MB 1 MB C:\windows\command\ 3 MB 5 MB 2 MB C:\windows\Start Menu\ < 1 MB < 1 MB < 1 MB C:\windows\All Users\ < 1 MB < 1 MB < 1 MB C:\windows\desktop\ < 1 MB < 1 MB < 1 MB C:\windows$$others)\ 13 MB 206 MB ----- ------------------------------------------------------------ Total space (size) 172 MB 500 MB 37 MB Total number of files 2,433 4,000 496 When we look at the history of the Windows OS evolution from DOS, other than the rudimentary network support plus the GUI support, everything else really lies outside of the traditional sense of operating system. The extra features are those which were once classified as applications (such as sound, image processing, and even video handling). We should not lose the sight by Microsoft's marketing policy of bundling everything on earth as the so-called Windows. Once these non essential parts are stripped away, Win 95 through ME should still be very similar. How do we trim the excess? Unlike the good old DOS where just one set of files supported practically all IBM-compatible PCs, the Windows operating system is dependent on the specific combination of hardware components. With Windows, hardware-specific device drivers are often needed. This makes it unpractical to define a small set of files that can support most of the PCs. The agonizingly long installation time for the Windows OS is spent mostly on hardware related operations. Therefore, the standard Windows OS contains a substantial amount of files that are not always needed in a particular environment. In order to achieve the ultimate minimum Win9X system for a computer, we need to identify and eliminate what's not needed. And, that takes time. The more you work, the more fat you can trim --- it all depends upon how much time you want to invest. From a practical point of view, what most of us want is not necessaryly the absolute minimum configuration, but rather, a reasonable configuration which is nearly optimum. After all, there are quite a few small files that just can't justify our attention. For this article, I've written a set of XXCOPY command file scripts (.XCF files) which help you slash the Win9X directory size dramatically with a least amount of effort. Additional trimming of the directory size must be carried out by you. To this end, I offer a few suggestions to follow. The strategy in achieving your minimum Win9X environment. Since this process is a trial-and-error method, it is best that we keep the orininal full featured Widows directory intact and work on its duplicate. It is inevitable that when files are removed from a working Windows environment, the system may become unstable, or even un-bootable. The technique described here keeps this in mind and prepares a simple recovery method in the iterative process. However, if you are a complete novice in the command line operation, this technique may not be for you. If you are scared by this statement, you may observe what others have to say with this article in the XXCOPY discussion group. We will create a special boot diskette from which you can boot into either the original (MAX) Windows or the trimmed down (MIN) Windows from a simple menu option. This approach enables us to work without disturbing the existing system boot setups on the hard disk. Let us call the special diskette, M9BSF disk which stands for "Minimum Win9X Boot Switch Floppy" (if only for no better name). The M9BFS disk used here is a variation of the Quick Boot Disk that was described in XXTB #32). When you create the M9BSF disk and restart your computer, you will see the following four choices in the startup menu: CURRENT // reboot without switching ORIGINAL // make the original (MAX) windows current and boot WIN_MINI // make the minimum (MIN) windows current and boot DOS_PROMPT // stay in the DOS command prompt The switching between the original and the minimum Win9X environments is carried out by renaming the windows directories. Original Mode <---> Minimum Mode ----------------------------------------------------------------- Original Win directory C:\WINDOWS\ <---> C:\WINDOWS.MAX\ Minimum Win directory C:\WINDOWS.MIN\ <---> C:\WINDOWS\ ----------------------------------------------------------------- Note: Since WinME does not allow you to enter the Windows (GUI) environment directly from the initial DOS (7.1) stage, every time the windows directories are switched, an extra reboot is needed. Windows 95, 98 and 98SE are much easier to work. Procedure overview (See the next section for detail). 1. Download the minwin9x.zip file for set of script files. All necessary script files are pre-configured. 2. Prepare the M9BSF disk by formatting a system diskette and add a few files by running MKM9BSF.BAT. 3. Create the minimum Win9X directory by running MKMIN9X.BAT which selectively copies files from the Win9X directory. 4. Reboot the system using the M9BSF disk and switch to the new mimimum Win9x environment for the initial test. 5. Further remove non essential files from the minimum Win9X directory. If needed, restore the orignal Win9X directory. Step-by-step Instruction. 1. Boot up your computer into the Win9X (GUI) environment. 2. Download the following file, http://www.xxcopy.com/download/minwin9x.zip Unzip the downloded file, minwin9x.zip into the temporary directory (e.g., C:\MinWin9x that was created earlier as the working directory). You will find the following files: README.TXT // a documemt file WINSTATS.BAT // show stats of the Windows directory MKM9BSF.BAT // batch file to make the M9BSF disk MKMIN9X.BAT // batch file to make the Minimum Windows directory MKMIN9X0.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 0) MKMIN9X1.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 1) MKMIN9X2.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 2) MKMIN9X3.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 3) MKMIN9X4.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 4) MKMIN9X5.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 5) MKMIN9X6.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 6) MKMIN9X7.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 7) MKMIN9X8.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 8) MKMIN9X9.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step 9) MKMIN9XA.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step A) MKMIN9XB.XCF // xxcopy command file (Step B) M9XFILES.TXT // list of refrence file set (by size) M9XFILEA.TXT // list of refrence file set (by name) M9REFDIR.ZIP // reference (skeleton) directory 3. Open a DOS Box ( Start > Run... [ command.com ] ) In the remaining steps, I will provide the command line that you type at the DOS prompt. 4. Make the temporary directory that you created earlier current. run command: CD C:\MinWin9x 5. Format a blank diskette. run command: FORMAT A: /S 6. Run the MKM9BSF.BAT program in the current directory. run command: MKM9BSF.BAT The batch file will create the following files: A:\MSDOS.SYS A:\CONFIG.SYS A:\AUTOEXEC.BAT These files are created on-the-fly based upon the name of the current Windows 9X directory (set by WINDIR setting). The diskette will be ready for the next reboot. 7. Run the MKMIN9X.BAT program in the current directory. run command: MKMIN9X.BAT The batch file program will invoke a series of XXCOPY commands using the command files saved in this directory. When the batch file is successfully executed, the new minimum Win9x directory will be created. 9. Reboot the system using the M9BSF disk. Make sure that the BIOS is configured to start from the diskette (A:) if not set accordingly. 10. You will find the following boot menu: CURRENT // reboot without switching ORIGINAL // make the original (MAX) windows current and boot WIN_MINI // make the minimum (MIN) windows current and boot DOS_PROMPT // stay in the DOS command prompt 11. Select the WIN_MINI option and enter the new minimum Win9X environment. Should you find the new environment unstable, you may reboot the system using the M9BSF disk and select the ORIGINAL option to go back to the full Win9X environment. 12. Ultimately, it will be most convenient if you make changes in the XXCOPY command files (MKMIN9X?.XCF) and recreate the minimum Windows directory from scratch. The XCF file set will serve as self-documenting scripts which can be used again, or become a basis for further refinements. To obtain the statistics on the current Windows directory, run the WINSTATS.BAT script. Another useful document can be generated by the following XXCOPY command: xxcopy %windir%\ /LZL/S/H/NP/Q2 Refinement strategies: If you find, warning messages complaining a missing driver file, write the file name down and make necessary adjustments inside the Windows if you can. Alternatively, you may reboot and select the DOS_PROMPT option. At the clean DOS environment before entering Windows GUI, you may copy missing files from the original windows directory (C:\WINDOWS.MAX$$. If you start this procedure from a Win9X system which has been in use for months, it is likely that the initial size of your minimum Windows directory may be 100 MB or more. The first thing you need to do is to establish a stable Windows environment without encountering any warning/error message at the time of booting. There are many approaches that you can take after the initial attempt to an optimally lean Windows directory. 1. One of my suggestions to achieve the smallest Windows directory is to install a fresh Win9X directory using Microsoft's Install CD (choosing the minimum option). The initial Windows directory size will be about 175 MB for Win98SE. By running the MKMIN9X.BAT program on the freshly installed Win9X directory, you should be able to further trim it down to less than 40 MB. A fresh install of Win9X may take 45-60 minutes. But, it may well be quicker than any other method. 2. Or, you may save some time if you study the reference files that are included in this package (also shown in XXTB #82. M9XFILES.TXT // list of refrence file set (by size) M9XILESA.TXT // list of refrence file set (by name) You should create a list of files in your Windows directory and go after large files. The M9XFILES.TXT file will give you a convenient reference since it is sorted by the file size. By going after the handful of largest files in the list, your early efforts should be rewarding. But, as you go down the list of files, the return on investment in time will gradually decrease. 3. Yet another method for consideration is to create a reference windows (skeleton) directory by unzipping the M9REFDIR.ZIP on your hard disk. To conserve space, all the files in the reference directory are zero-byte files. You may use XXCOPY's advance feature to manipulate your Windows directory with the skeleton directory as a reference. For example the following 3-step procedure removes files that are 100 KB or more that are not found in the reference directory (the second step marks the selected files by Archive bit (A-bit) which will be used in the 3rd step). xxcopy c:\windows\ /az/s // clear the A-bit xxcopy c:\windows\ c:\m9refdir\ /aa/s/h/bb/sz:100k- xxcopy c:\windows\ /rs/a/s/h/r // remove files with A-bit Or, you may tag the files not in the reference directory by A-bit and use other tools such as TotalCommander to move files in-and-out of the directory for experiments. xxcopy c:\windows\ /az/s // clear the A-bit xxcopy c:\windows\ c:\m9refdir\ /aa/s/h/bb Feedback: Due to the time constraints, the list of the files in my minimum Windows 98SE system is not the absolute minimum. If you find any of the files included in my list that is not essential to most computers, please let us know by posting message at the XXCOPY discussion group: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/xxcopy/ Please do not send me Email asking technical questions regarding this procedure. I encourage you to post your question in the discussion group.  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #82 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: The list of files for a minimum Win98SE install Date: 2003-04-08 =============================================================================== This is a supplement to XXTB #81 with lists of files in the minimum Windows 98SE directory. The first part provides the list of files in the descending order of file size that is followed by the same list in the alphabetical order. They are also provided in M9XFILES.TXT and M9XFILEA.TXT, respectively which are included in the minwin9x.zip file available for download. ---------------------------------------------------- Some statistics about the system Total Windows directory size = 38 MB A handful of files that are considered to be non-essential are not listed. OS: Windows 98 Second Edition (English) PC: Home-built PC: MB: Tyan Trinity (S1590) with AMD K6-II 350 MHz ----------------------------------------------------- List of files in the minimum Win9X directory (by file size) 2,158,624 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DAT 1,400,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHELL32.DLL 946,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOCVW.DLL 928,319 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32.VXD 803,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BROWSEUI.DLL 790,528 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLE32.DLL 745,168 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUPX.DLL 598,288 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLEAUT32.DLL 577,808 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMCTL32.DLL 549,664 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USER.EXE 504,080 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOC401.DLL 491,792 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MLANG.DLL 471,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KERNEL32.DLL 459,024 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WININET.DLL 446,736 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\URLMON.DLL 438,272 C:\WINDOWS\WINREP.EXE 409,600 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUPAPI.DLL 387,072 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSDM.CPL 385,024 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CRYPT32.DLL 373,643 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COOL.DLL 356,352 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOCLC.DLL 356,134 C:\WINDOWS\NET.EXE 345,584 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\GDI.EXE 339,968 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RPCRT4.DLL 322,824 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\TIMES.TTF 297,660 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COUR.TTF 282,896 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHLWAPI.DLL 276,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\INETCPL.CPL 274,704 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WEBCHECK.DLL 274,432 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSVCRT20.DLL 273,020 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\ARIAL.TTF 266,293 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSVCRT.DLL 249,012 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\TAHOMA.TTF 245,760 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSTASK.DLL 221,280 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DESK.CPL 217,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RASAPI32.DLL 215,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DSKMAINT.DLL 202,800 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DIBENG.DLL 185,902 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\IFSMGR.VXD 180,224 C:\WINDOWS\EXPLORER.EXE 176,128 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMDLG32.DLL 174,996 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LOCALE.NLS 167,936 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSLS31.DLL 166,029 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDIS.VXD 165,502 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANREG.EXE 165,437 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VREDIR.VXD 165,424 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\PORTCLS.SYS 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLEDLG.DLL 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPRSERV.DLL 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\GDI32.DLL 155,424 C:\WINDOWS\WINFILE.EXE 155,136 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMMCTRL.DLL 151,552 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSOSS.DLL 147,456 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USBUI.DLL 143,818 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANDISK.EXE 139,640 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VERDANA.TTF 139,264 C:\WINDOWS\WSCRIPT.EXE 138,752 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\JOY.CPL 137,120 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\KMIXER.SYS 136,032 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VERDANAB.TTF 135,168 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CSCRIPT.EXE 131,072 C:\WINDOWS\SIGVERIF.EXE 129,080 C:\WINDOWS\LOGOW.SYS 129,078 C:\WINDOWS\LOGOS.SYS 127,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KRNL386.EXE 126,704 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHELL.DLL 125,495 C:\WINDOWS\EMM386.EXE 122,936 C:\WINDOWS\MSOWS409.DLL 122,912 C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT 118,784 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSTASK.EXE 118,784 C:\WINDOWS\REGEDIT.EXE 118,752 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\WEBDINGS.TTF 115,068 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\LUCON.TTF 113,456 C:\WINDOWS\PROGMAN.EXE 112,888 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VSERVER.VXD 110,592 C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.EXE 108,528 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMSYSTEM.DLL 103,424 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MAIN.CPL 103,424 C:\WINDOWS\EXTRAC32.EXE 101,617 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VRTWD.386 98,432 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\KS.SYS 98,336 C:\WINDOWS\USER.DAT 94,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSSHRUI.DLL 93,890 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM 93,248 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MODEM.CPL 93,242 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EXTRACT.EXE 91,888 C:\WINDOWS\CHANNEL SCREEN SAVER.SCR 90,869 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNBT.386 89,856 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SSERIFF.FON 89,147 C:\WINDOWS\DOSREP.EXE 88,544 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMMDLG.DLL 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSWSOCK.DLL 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ACTXPRXY.DLL 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SCANREGW.EXE 84,416 C:\WINDOWS\MORICONS.DLL 82,944 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLECLI.DLL 82,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PIFMGR.DLL 81,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSNP32.DLL 81,744 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SERIFF.FON 81,000 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\WINGDING.TTF 80,928 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOLF.FON 80,385 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VIP.386 77,824 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSNET32.DLL 77,824 C:\WINDOWS\CVTAPLOG.EXE 76,704 C:\WINDOWS\DEFAULT.SF0 73,728 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WS2_32.DLL 73,728 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MYDOCS.DLL 72,863 C:\WINDOWS\DEFAULT.SFC 72,192 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\APPWIZ.CPL 70,656 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\STICPL.CPL 69,902 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EDIT.COM 69,632 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USER32.DLL 69,570 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\IOS.VXD 69,464 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOL.TTF 68,096 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WDMAUD.SYS 66,279 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VDHCP.386 65,895 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PCI.VXD 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINMM.DLL 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ADVAPI32.DLL 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\MSNMGSR1.EXE 64,656 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SSERIFE.FON 63,916 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FDISK.EXE 62,224 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINOA386.MOD 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHD401LC.DLL 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RNR20.DLL 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\ASD.EXE 60,928 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\INTL.CPL 60,592 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\UPDATE.SYS 60,257 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VTCP.386 59,539 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\UNIMODEM.VXD 59,184 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\AIC78XX.MPD 59,133 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDFS.VXD 58,870 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EGA.CPI 57,952 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SERIFE.FON 57,654 C:\WINDOWS\WIN98SE1.BMP 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\WUPDMGR.EXE 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\UPWIZUN.EXE 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMICORE.DLL 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPR.DLL 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SETDEBUG.EXE 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\CLSPACK.EXE 56,880 C:\WINDOWS\NETDDE.EXE 56,352 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOLE.FON 56,259 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DSOUND.VXD 55,488 C:\WINDOWS\GRPCONV.EXE 53,552 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSACM.DLL 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\WINIPCFG.EXE 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\NOTEPAD.EXE 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\IPCONFIG.EXE 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\INETMIB1.DLL 52,656 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SWMIDI.SYS 52,080 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGA.DRV 51,984 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWERCFG.CPL 49,575 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FORMAT.COM 49,152 C:\WINDOWS\TASKMAN.EXE 49,152 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMI.DLL 47,104 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PASSWORD.CPL 45,456 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SYSAUDIO.SYS 45,379 C:\WINDOWS\SMARTDRV.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\VCMUI.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSAFD.DLL 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CFGMGR32.DLL 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BROWSELC.DLL 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BATMETER.DLL 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\MSNCREAT.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\FTP.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SULFNBK.EXE 44,368 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDPARSE.SYS 44,320 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\DOSAPP.FON 41,973 C:\WINDOWS\WININIT.EXE 41,472 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY32.MOD 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK32.DLL 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SECUR32.DLL 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSPWL32.DLL 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\RG2CATDB.EXE 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\PIDSET.EXE 40,272 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBAUDIO.SYS 39,776 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\STREAM.SYS 39,506 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNETBIOS.VXD 38,400 C:\WINDOWS\SCRIPT.DOC 37,632 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHFOLDER.DLL 37,523 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VPOWERD.VXD 37,376 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TIMEDATE.CPL 36,864 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LINKINFO.DLL 36,864 C:\WINDOWS\HH.EXE 36,112 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SBEMUL.SYS 35,872 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VJOYD.VXD 35,680 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBHUB.SYS 35,572 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LPT.VXD 34,676 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\UNICODE.NLS 34,566 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBOARD.SYS 34,543 C:\WINDOWS\NBTSTAT.EXE 33,191 C:\WINDOWS\HIMEM.SYS 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTRAY.EXE 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SVRAPI.DLL 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SNMPAPI.DLL 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\ROUTE.EXE 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\NETSTAT.EXE 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\MM2ENT.EXE 32,419 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDVSD.VXD 32,240 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DDEML.DLL 32,146 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MEM.EXE 31,942 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD2.SYS 31,744 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COURF.FON 31,680 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\CCPORT.SYS 31,633 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD3.SYS 30,742 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\COUNTRY.SYS 30,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\UHCD.SYS 30,389 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DDRAW.VXD 30,193 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BIOS.VXD 29,820 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RTL8139.SYS 29,497 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\APIX.VXD 29,271 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MODE.COM 29,168 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSIDLE.DLL 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\TASKMON.EXE 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETBIOS.DLL 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPREXE.EXE 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\START.EXE 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\ARP.EXE 28,096 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CHKDSK.EXE 27,600 C:\WINDOWS\WINPOPUP.EXE 27,299 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MOVE.EXE 25,882 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SORT.EXE 25,741 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\HSFLOP.PDR 25,473 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MSCDEX.EXE 25,106 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGARTD.VXD 24,791 C:\WINDOWS\WIN.COM 24,626 C:\WINDOWS\CMD640X.SYS 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WS2HELP.DLL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VERSION.DLL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWRPROF.DLL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LZ32.DLL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL32.EXE 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\PING.EXE 24,527 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\AFVXD.VXD 24,406 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\ESDI_506.PDR 24,352 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SMALLE.FON 24,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLESVR.DLL 24,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\M_CTRL.DLL 23,744 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDIS2SUP.VXD 23,696 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LZEXPAND.DLL 23,650 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\SCSIPORT.PDR 23,520 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDCLASS.SYS 23,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSACM.DRV 23,424 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COURE.FON 23,183 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK2.VXD 23,102 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PARALINK.VXD 23,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINSPOOL.DRV 23,029 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\FILESEC.VXD 21,975 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DISKCOPY.COM 21,661 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSSP.VXD 21,504 C:\WINDOWS\WINSOCK.DLL 21,303 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DFS.VXD 21,281 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ISAPNP.VXD 20,901 C:\WINDOWS\CMD640X2.SYS 20,653 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VUDP.386 20,574 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FC.EXE 20,554 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DEBUG.EXE 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\TRACERT.EXE 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NTDLL.DLL 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETAPI32.DLL 20,334 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PTVCD.VXD 20,228 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERENUM.VXD 19,927 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYB.COM 19,632 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SMALLF.FON 19,270 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\SCSI1HLP.VXD 19,083 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DELTREE.EXE 18,967 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SYS.COM 18,939 C:\WINDOWS\SETVER.EXE 18,912 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBD.SYS 18,809 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\DISKTSD.VXD 18,625 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERIAL.VXD 18,585 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSGAME.VXD 18,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CSPMAN.DLL 18,491 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\VOLTRACK.VXD 18,296 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERWAVE.VXD 17,986 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SMARTVSD.VXD 17,904 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SUBST.EXE 17,655 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\IEXTRACT.EXE 17,631 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNETSUP.VXD 17,412 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\MARLETT.TTF 17,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LPTENUM.VXD 17,175 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DISPLAY.SYS 16,986 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DINPUT.VXD 16,400 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTHUNK.DLL 16,384 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMIEXE.EXE 16,384 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IMM32.DLL 15,809 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSMOUSE.VXD 15,527 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK.VXD 15,495 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DOSKEY.COM 15,252 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ATTRIB.EXE 14,848 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TELEPHON.CPL 14,800 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WMIDRV.SYS 14,696 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CONAGENT.EXE 14,624 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGAFULL.3GR 14,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETCPL.CPL 14,032 C:\WINDOWS\NDDEAPI.DLL 13,940 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMDEVLDR.VXD 13,884 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDTSD.VXD 13,242 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\RMM.PDR 13,014 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD4.SYS 13,011 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDISWAN.VXD 12,838 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SW3DPRO2.VXD 12,688 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KEYBOARD.DRV 12,496 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VER.DLL 12,472 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LOGGER.VXD 12,327 C:\WINDOWS\IOS.INI 12,288 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514OEM.FON 12,112 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TOOLHELP.DLL 12,101 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSANALOG.VXD 11,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSGSRV32.EXE 11,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SWGAMPAD.VXD 11,830 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SW3DPRO.VXD 11,311 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\ATAPCHNG.VXD 11,306 C:\WINDOWS\CLOUD.GIF 11,067 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\TORISAN3.VXD 10,992 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSCLASS.DLL 10,992 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514FIX.FON 10,982 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\HWINFOD.VXD 10,976 C:\WINDOWS\NDDENB.DLL 10,720 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\FIOLOG.VXD 10,471 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MORE.COM 10,194 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\DISKVSD.VXD 9,952 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\BIGMEM.DRV 9,926 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\NECATAPI.VXD 9,917 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSHTCP.VXD 9,866 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CP_1252.NLS 9,802 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SAGE.VXD 9,792 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\QEMMFIX.VXD 9,719 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ANSI.SYS 9,600 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514SYS.FON 9,324 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\LABEL.EXE 8,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CP_437.NLS 7,968 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\MODERN.FON 7,885 C:\WINDOWS\NETDET.INI 7,743 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ASPIENUM.VXD 7,712 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MOUSE.DRV 7,329 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANDISK.INI 7,315 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\JAVASUP.VXD 7,296 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGASYS.FON 6,940 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\NLSFUNC.EXE 6,658 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FIND.EXE 6,653 C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI 6,550 C:\WINDOWS\JAUTOEXP.DAT 6,417 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VFIXD.VXD 6,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUP4.DLL 6,007 C:\WINDOWS\SERVICES 5,935 C:\WINDOWS\GENERIC.CPE 5,872 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMM.DRV 5,859 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VFD.VXD 5,691 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VTDI.386 5,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\QUARTZ.VXD 5,664 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\REDBOOK.SYS 5,376 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGAFIX.FON 5,239 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CHOICE.COM 5,232 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGA850.FON 5,186 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WDMMDMLD.VXD 5,168 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGAOEM.FON 5,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDVKD.SYS 5,068 C:\WINDOWS\DELETEFI.INI 4,960 C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL.EXE 4,896 C:\WINDOWS\SCANDSKW.EXE 4,473 C:\WINDOWS\FYI.CPE 4,357 C:\WINDOWS\CONFDENT.CPE 4,345 C:\WINDOWS\URGENT.CPE 4,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WDMFS.SYS 3,878 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY32.EXE 3,878 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY.EXE 3,717 C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS.SAM 3,708 C:\WINDOWS\IFSHLP.SYS 3,648 C:\WINDOWS\WINVER.EXE 3,600 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WMILIB.SYS 3,296 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SWENUM.SYS 3,216 C:\WINDOWS\HIDCI.DLL 2,614 C:\WINDOWS\DBLBUFF.SYS 2,416 C:\WINDOWS\WINHELP.EXE 2,336 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSJSTICK.DRV 2,288 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTEM.DRV 2,118 C:\WINDOWS\BUBBLES.BMP 2,112 C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.EXE 2,047 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\BOOTDISK.BAT 1,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWER.DRV 1,813 C:\WINDOWS\WINLOGO.GIF 1,619 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI 1,603 C:\WINDOWS\HLPGLOBE.GIF 1,518 C:\WINDOWS\1STBOOT.BMP 1,492 C:\WINDOWS\HLPCD.GIF 1,407 C:\WINDOWS\HLPBELL.GIF 1,405 C:\WINDOWS\MSDFMAP.INI 1,249 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP3.GIF 1,185 C:\WINDOWS\HLPLOGO.GIF 1,184 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMTASK.TSK 1,154 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP2.GIF 1,107 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP1.GIF 1,105 C:\WINDOWS\ASPI2HLP.SYS 967 C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\CONSOLE.PIF 897 C:\WINDOWS\SCHEDLOG.TXT 865 C:\WINDOWS\DOSREP.INI 833 C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.INI 800 C:\WINDOWS\PROTOCOL 787 C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI 736 C:\WINDOWS\HOSTS.SAM 688 C:\WINDOWS\KANYABUM.PWL 590 C:\WINDOWS\STRAW MAT.BMP 582 C:\WINDOWS\CARVED STONE.BMP 578 C:\WINDOWS\TILES.BMP 578 C:\WINDOWS\PINSTRIPE.BMP 407 C:\WINDOWS\NETWORKS 398 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KBDUS.KBD 380 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\SCHEDULED TASKS.LNK 303 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\WINDOWS EXPLORER.LNK 284 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\SCANDISK.LNK 278 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\DISK DEFRAGMENTER.LNK 278 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\NOTEPAD.LNK 248 C:\WINDOWS\CONTENT.GIF 198 C:\WINDOWS\TRIANGLES.BMP 194 C:\WINDOWS\BLUE RIVETS.BMP 190 C:\WINDOWS\WAVES.BMP 190 C:\WINDOWS\CIRCLES.BMP 182 C:\WINDOWS\BLACK THATCH.BMP 138 C:\WINDOWS\CTPNP.CFG 120 C:\WINDOWS\PROTOCOL.INI 86 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.CB List of files in the minimum Win9X directory (alphabetic order) 1,518 C:\WINDOWS\1STBOOT.BMP 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\ARP.EXE 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\ASD.EXE 1,105 C:\WINDOWS\ASPI2HLP.SYS 182 C:\WINDOWS\BLACK THATCH.BMP 194 C:\WINDOWS\BLUE RIVETS.BMP 2,118 C:\WINDOWS\BUBBLES.BMP 582 C:\WINDOWS\CARVED STONE.BMP 91,888 C:\WINDOWS\CHANNEL SCREEN SAVER.SCR 190 C:\WINDOWS\CIRCLES.BMP 11,306 C:\WINDOWS\CLOUD.GIF 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\CLSPACK.EXE 24,626 C:\WINDOWS\CMD640X.SYS 20,901 C:\WINDOWS\CMD640X2.SYS 93,890 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM 4,357 C:\WINDOWS\CONFDENT.CPE 248 C:\WINDOWS\CONTENT.GIF 2,112 C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.EXE 833 C:\WINDOWS\CONTROL.INI 138 C:\WINDOWS\CTPNP.CFG 77,824 C:\WINDOWS\CVTAPLOG.EXE 2,614 C:\WINDOWS\DBLBUFF.SYS 76,704 C:\WINDOWS\DEFAULT.SF0 72,863 C:\WINDOWS\DEFAULT.SFC 5,068 C:\WINDOWS\DELETEFI.INI 89,147 C:\WINDOWS\DOSREP.EXE 865 C:\WINDOWS\DOSREP.INI 125,495 C:\WINDOWS\EMM386.EXE 180,224 C:\WINDOWS\EXPLORER.EXE 103,424 C:\WINDOWS\EXTRAC32.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\FTP.EXE 4,473 C:\WINDOWS\FYI.CPE 5,935 C:\WINDOWS\GENERIC.CPE 55,488 C:\WINDOWS\GRPCONV.EXE 36,864 C:\WINDOWS\HH.EXE 3,216 C:\WINDOWS\HIDCI.DLL 33,191 C:\WINDOWS\HIMEM.SYS 1,407 C:\WINDOWS\HLPBELL.GIF 1,492 C:\WINDOWS\HLPCD.GIF 1,603 C:\WINDOWS\HLPGLOBE.GIF 1,185 C:\WINDOWS\HLPLOGO.GIF 1,107 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP1.GIF 1,154 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP2.GIF 1,249 C:\WINDOWS\HLPSTEP3.GIF 736 C:\WINDOWS\HOSTS.SAM 122,912 C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.DAT 110,592 C:\WINDOWS\HWINFO.EXE 3,708 C:\WINDOWS\IFSHLP.SYS 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\INETMIB1.DLL 12,327 C:\WINDOWS\IOS.INI 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\IPCONFIG.EXE 6,550 C:\WINDOWS\JAUTOEXP.DAT 688 C:\WINDOWS\KANYABUM.PWL 3,717 C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS.SAM 129,078 C:\WINDOWS\LOGOS.SYS 129,080 C:\WINDOWS\LOGOW.SYS 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\MM2ENT.EXE 84,416 C:\WINDOWS\MORICONS.DLL 1,405 C:\WINDOWS\MSDFMAP.INI 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\MSNCREAT.EXE 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\MSNMGSR1.EXE 122,936 C:\WINDOWS\MSOWS409.DLL 34,543 C:\WINDOWS\NBTSTAT.EXE 14,032 C:\WINDOWS\NDDEAPI.DLL 10,976 C:\WINDOWS\NDDENB.DLL 356,134 C:\WINDOWS\NET.EXE 56,880 C:\WINDOWS\NETDDE.EXE 7,885 C:\WINDOWS\NETDET.INI 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\NETSTAT.EXE 407 C:\WINDOWS\NETWORKS 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\NOTEPAD.EXE 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\PIDSET.EXE 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\PING.EXE 578 C:\WINDOWS\PINSTRIPE.BMP 113,456 C:\WINDOWS\PROGMAN.EXE 800 C:\WINDOWS\PROTOCOL 120 C:\WINDOWS\PROTOCOL.INI 118,784 C:\WINDOWS\REGEDIT.EXE 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\RG2CATDB.EXE 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\ROUTE.EXE 4,960 C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL.EXE 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\RUNDLL32.EXE 4,896 C:\WINDOWS\SCANDSKW.EXE 787 C:\WINDOWS\SCANREG.INI 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SCANREGW.EXE 897 C:\WINDOWS\SCHEDLOG.TXT 38,400 C:\WINDOWS\SCRIPT.DOC 6,007 C:\WINDOWS\SERVICES 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SETDEBUG.EXE 18,939 C:\WINDOWS\SETVER.EXE 131,072 C:\WINDOWS\SIGVERIF.EXE 45,379 C:\WINDOWS\SMARTDRV.EXE 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SNMPAPI.DLL 590 C:\WINDOWS\STRAW MAT.BMP 86 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.CB 2,158,624 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DAT 1,619 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI 49,152 C:\WINDOWS\TASKMAN.EXE 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\TASKMON.EXE 578 C:\WINDOWS\TILES.BMP 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\TRACERT.EXE 198 C:\WINDOWS\TRIANGLES.BMP 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\UPWIZUN.EXE 4,345 C:\WINDOWS\URGENT.CPE 98,336 C:\WINDOWS\USER.DAT 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\VCMUI.EXE 190 C:\WINDOWS\WAVES.BMP 24,791 C:\WINDOWS\WIN.COM 6,653 C:\WINDOWS\WIN.INI 57,654 C:\WINDOWS\WIN98SE1.BMP 155,424 C:\WINDOWS\WINFILE.EXE 2,416 C:\WINDOWS\WINHELP.EXE 41,973 C:\WINDOWS\WININIT.EXE 53,248 C:\WINDOWS\WINIPCFG.EXE 1,813 C:\WINDOWS\WINLOGO.GIF 27,600 C:\WINDOWS\WINPOPUP.EXE 438,272 C:\WINDOWS\WINREP.EXE 21,504 C:\WINDOWS\WINSOCK.DLL 3,648 C:\WINDOWS\WINVER.EXE 139,264 C:\WINDOWS\WSCRIPT.EXE 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\WUPDMGR.EXE 9,719 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ANSI.SYS 15,252 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\ATTRIB.EXE 2,047 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\BOOTDISK.BAT 28,096 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CHKDSK.EXE 5,239 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CHOICE.COM 30,742 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\COUNTRY.SYS 135,168 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\CSCRIPT.EXE 20,554 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DEBUG.EXE 19,083 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DELTREE.EXE 21,975 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DISKCOPY.COM 17,175 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DISPLAY.SYS 15,495 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\DOSKEY.COM 69,902 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EDIT.COM 58,870 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EGA.CPI 93,242 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\EXTRACT.EXE 20,574 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FC.EXE 63,916 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FDISK.EXE 6,658 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FIND.EXE 49,575 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\FORMAT.COM 17,655 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\IEXTRACT.EXE 19,927 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYB.COM 34,566 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBOARD.SYS 31,942 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD2.SYS 31,633 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD3.SYS 13,014 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\KEYBRD4.SYS 9,324 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\LABEL.EXE 32,146 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MEM.EXE 29,271 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MODE.COM 10,471 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MORE.COM 27,299 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MOVE.EXE 25,473 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\MSCDEX.EXE 6,940 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\NLSFUNC.EXE 143,818 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANDISK.EXE 7,329 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANDISK.INI 165,502 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SCANREG.EXE 25,882 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SORT.EXE 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\START.EXE 17,904 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SUBST.EXE 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SULFNBK.EXE 18,967 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\SYS.COM 3,878 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY.EXE 3,878 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY32.EXE 41,472 C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\XCOPY32.MOD 10,992 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514FIX.FON 12,288 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514OEM.FON 9,600 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\8514SYS.FON 273,020 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\ARIAL.TTF 297,660 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COUR.TTF 23,424 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COURE.FON 31,744 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\COURF.FON 44,320 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\DOSAPP.FON 115,068 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\LUCON.TTF 17,412 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\MARLETT.TTF 7,968 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\MODERN.FON 57,952 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SERIFE.FON 81,744 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SERIFF.FON 24,352 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SMALLE.FON 19,632 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SMALLF.FON 64,656 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SSERIFE.FON 89,856 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SSERIFF.FON 69,464 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOL.TTF 56,352 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOLE.FON 80,928 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\SYMBOLF.FON 249,012 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\TAHOMA.TTF 322,824 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\TIMES.TTF 139,640 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VERDANA.TTF 136,032 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VERDANAB.TTF 5,232 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGA850.FON 5,376 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGAFIX.FON 5,168 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGAOEM.FON 7,296 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\VGASYS.FON 118,752 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\WEBDINGS.TTF 81,000 C:\WINDOWS\FONTS\WINGDING.TTF 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ACTXPRXY.DLL 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ADVAPI32.DLL 24,527 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\AFVXD.VXD 72,192 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\APPWIZ.CPL 7,743 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ASPIENUM.VXD 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BATMETER.DLL 30,193 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BIOS.VXD 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BROWSELC.DLL 803,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\BROWSEUI.DLL 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CFGMGR32.DLL 577,808 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMCTL32.DLL 176,128 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMDLG32.DLL 5,872 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMM.DRV 155,136 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMMCTRL.DLL 88,544 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COMMDLG.DLL 14,696 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CONAGENT.EXE 373,643 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\COOL.DLL 9,866 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CP_1252.NLS 8,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CP_437.NLS 385,024 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CRYPT32.DLL 18,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CSPMAN.DLL 32,240 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DDEML.DLL 30,389 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DDRAW.VXD 221,280 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DESK.CPL 21,303 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DFS.VXD 202,800 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DIBENG.DLL 16,986 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DINPUT.VXD 215,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DSKMAINT.DLL 56,259 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DSOUND.VXD 23,029 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\FILESEC.VXD 10,720 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\FIOLOG.VXD 345,584 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\GDI.EXE 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\GDI32.DLL 10,982 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\HWINFOD.VXD 16,384 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IMM32.DLL 276,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\INETCPL.CPL 60,928 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\INTL.CPL 10,992 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSCLASS.DLL 21,281 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\ISAPNP.VXD 7,315 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\JAVASUP.VXD 138,752 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\JOY.CPL 398 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KBDUS.KBD 471,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KERNEL32.DLL 12,688 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KEYBOARD.DRV 127,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\KRNL386.EXE 36,864 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LINKINFO.DLL 174,996 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LOCALE.NLS 12,472 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LOGGER.VXD 35,572 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LPT.VXD 17,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LPTENUM.VXD 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LZ32.DLL 23,696 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\LZEXPAND.DLL 103,424 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MAIN.CPL 491,792 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MLANG.DLL 13,940 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMDEVLDR.VXD 108,528 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMSYSTEM.DLL 1,184 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MMTASK.TSK 93,248 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MODEM.CPL 7,712 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MOUSE.DRV 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPR.DLL 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPREXE.EXE 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MPRSERV.DLL 53,552 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSACM.DLL 23,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSACM.DRV 45,056 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSAFD.DLL 12,101 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSANALOG.VXD 18,585 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSGAME.VXD 11,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSGSRV32.EXE 29,168 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSIDLE.DLL 2,336 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSJSTICK.DRV 167,936 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSLS31.DLL 15,809 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSMOUSE.VXD 77,824 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSNET32.DLL 81,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSNP32.DLL 151,552 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSOSS.DLL 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSPWL32.DLL 94,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSSHRUI.DLL 21,661 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSSP.VXD 245,760 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSTASK.DLL 118,784 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSTASK.EXE 266,293 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSVCRT.DLL 274,432 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSVCRT20.DLL 86,016 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MSWSOCK.DLL 73,728 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MYDOCS.DLL 24,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\M_CTRL.DLL 166,029 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDIS.VXD 23,744 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDIS2SUP.VXD 13,011 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NDISWAN.VXD 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETAPI32.DLL 28,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETBIOS.DLL 14,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NETCPL.CPL 20,480 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\NTDLL.DLL 790,528 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLE32.DLL 598,288 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLEAUT32.DLL 82,944 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLECLI.DLL 155,648 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLEDLG.DLL 24,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\OLESVR.DLL 23,102 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PARALINK.VXD 47,104 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PASSWORD.CPL 65,895 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PCI.VXD 82,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PIFMGR.DLL 1,920 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWER.DRV 51,984 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWERCFG.CPL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\POWRPROF.DLL 20,334 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PTVCD.VXD 5,672 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\QUARTZ.VXD 217,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RASAPI32.DLL 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RNR20.DLL 339,968 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RPCRT4.DLL 9,802 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SAGE.VXD 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SECUR32.DLL 20,228 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERENUM.VXD 18,625 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERIAL.VXD 18,296 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SERWAVE.VXD 6,208 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUP4.DLL 409,600 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUPAPI.DLL 745,168 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SETUPX.DLL 61,440 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHD401LC.DLL 504,080 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOC401.DLL 356,352 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOCLC.DLL 946,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHDOCVW.DLL 126,704 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHELL.DLL 1,400,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHELL32.DLL 37,632 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHFOLDER.DLL 282,896 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SHLWAPI.DLL 17,986 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SMARTVSD.VXD 70,656 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\STICPL.CPL 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SVRAPI.DLL 11,830 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SW3DPRO.VXD 12,838 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SW3DPRO2.VXD 11,832 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SWGAMPAD.VXD 387,072 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSDM.CPL 2,288 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTEM.DRV 16,400 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTHUNK.DLL 32,768 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\SYSTRAY.EXE 14,848 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TELEPHON.CPL 37,376 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TIMEDATE.CPL 12,112 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\TOOLHELP.DLL 34,676 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\UNICODE.NLS 59,539 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\UNIMODEM.VXD 446,736 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\URLMON.DLL 147,456 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USBUI.DLL 549,664 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USER.EXE 69,632 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\USER32.DLL 66,279 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VDHCP.386 12,496 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VER.DLL 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VERSION.DLL 5,859 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VFD.VXD 6,417 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VFIXD.VXD 52,080 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGA.DRV 14,624 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGAFULL.3GR 25,106 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VGARTD.VXD 80,385 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VIP.386 35,872 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VJOYD.VXD 928,319 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32.VXD 90,869 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNBT.386 39,506 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNETBIOS.VXD 17,631 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VNETSUP.VXD 37,523 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VPOWERD.VXD 165,437 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VREDIR.VXD 101,617 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VRTWD.386 112,888 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VSERVER.VXD 60,257 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VTCP.386 5,691 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VTDI.386 20,653 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VUDP.386 5,186 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WDMMDMLD.VXD 274,704 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WEBCHECK.DLL 459,024 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WININET.DLL 65,536 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINMM.DLL 62,224 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINOA386.MOD 23,040 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WINSPOOL.DRV 49,152 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMI.DLL 57,344 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMICORE.DLL 16,384 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WMIEXE.EXE 24,576 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WS2HELP.DLL 73,728 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WS2_32.DLL 9,917 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSHTCP.VXD 15,527 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK.VXD 23,183 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK2.VXD 40,960 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\WSOCK32.DLL 185,902 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\IFSMGR.VXD 69,570 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\IOS.VXD 9,792 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\VMM32\QEMMFIX.VXD 59,184 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\AIC78XX.MPD 29,497 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\APIX.VXD 11,311 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\ATAPCHNG.VXD 9,952 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\BIGMEM.DRV 59,133 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDFS.VXD 13,884 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDTSD.VXD 32,419 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\CDVSD.VXD 18,809 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\DISKTSD.VXD 10,194 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\DISKVSD.VXD 24,406 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\ESDI_506.PDR 25,741 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\HSFLOP.PDR 9,926 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\NECATAPI.VXD 13,242 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\RMM.PDR 19,270 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\SCSI1HLP.VXD 23,650 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\SCSIPORT.PDR 11,067 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\TORISAN3.VXD 18,491 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\VOLTRACK.VXD 31,680 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\CCPORT.SYS 23,520 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDCLASS.SYS 44,368 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDPARSE.SYS 5,088 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\HIDVKD.SYS 137,120 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\KMIXER.SYS 98,432 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\KS.SYS 165,424 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\PORTCLS.SYS 5,664 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\REDBOOK.SYS 36,112 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SBEMUL.SYS 39,776 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\STREAM.SYS 3,296 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SWENUM.SYS 52,656 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SWMIDI.SYS 45,456 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\SYSAUDIO.SYS 30,448 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\UHCD.SYS 60,592 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\UPDATE.SYS 40,272 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBAUDIO.SYS 18,912 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBD.SYS 35,680 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\USBHUB.SYS 68,096 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WDMAUD.SYS 4,064 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WDMFS.SYS 14,800 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WMIDRV.SYS 3,600 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\WMILIB.SYS 967 C:\WINDOWS\DESKTOP\CONSOLE.PIF 303 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\WINDOWS EXPLORER.LNK 278 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\NOTEPAD.LNK 278 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\DISK DEFRAGMENTER.LNK 284 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\SCANDISK.LNK 380 C:\WINDOWS\START MENU\PROGRAMS\ACCESSORIES\SYSTEM TOOLS\SCHEDULED TASKS.LNK ---------- For the video card that I have (Matrox) ------------------ 221,312 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MGAPDX64.DRV 79,158 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\MGAPDX64.VXD >>>>> My system crashes at the boot time without these files unless VGA.DRV is present. ---------- For the sound card that I have (CMI) --------------------- 79,872 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\CMMPU.EXE >>>>> My system complains that this file is missing (not fatal). ---------- For the Ethernet adapter that I have --------------------- 29,820 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\RTL8139.SYS ---------- For USB-disk support ------------------------------------- 200,704 C:\WINDOWS\TPPSTRAY.EXE 118,784 C:\WINDOWS\TPPALDR.EXE 33,669 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\TPP300.SYS 8,650 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\TPPIOSMP.SYS 4,692 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\IOSUBSYS\TPPIOSTB.PDR  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #90 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY-Pro Corporate License Agreement Date: 2010-01-01 =============================================================================== * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * X X C O P Y - P r o C o r p o r a t e L i c e n s e T e r m s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pixelab, Inc, the copyright owner of the XXCOPY software package, grants a non-exclusive license to you, the holder of the XXCOPY-Pro Corporate License to use the XXCOPY-Pro program for commercial, personal or for any other purpose. This includes use for non-commercial, governmental, educational or any other purpose that is not covered by the XXCOPY-Home Personal License. Under this corporate license, you are allowed to access files on a number of remote (networked) computers. The license sets a limit on the number of computers (Host Count) that you are permitted to access using the XXCOPY software unless specifically stipulated as UNLIMITED. If the number of computers that you routinely access files using XXCOPY exceeds the limit (Host Count) of the current license, you should upgrade to a license with a larger limit by ordering a Quantity Upgrade. The XXCOPY program you acquire should be compatible with the Windows versions (Service Pack) that are available at the publication date of the particular version of XXCOPY. Installing a new Windows Service Pack may force you to update XXCOPY's version that requires an update subscription in good standing. This version of XXCOPY is distributed AS IS and without any warranties except that it will perform substantially as documented. It is not perfect and you should subscribe to our update plan to get both bug fixes and corrections. If you have problems, our liability is limited to refunding the amount that you paid for the license less the fair value of your use. Please note that the software is protected by the copyright laws and international treaties. You are authorized to make two copies for backup purposes. You may not transfer or disclose the software package to a third party. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ************************************* Commercial Use Site License Pricing ************************************* Product Host Unit Initial Code Count Price License Fee ------------------------------------------------ XPLIC-002 2 US$50       US$100 XPLIC-005 5$40         $200 XPLIC-010 10$36         $360 XPLIC-020 20$30         $600 XPLIC-050 50$24       $1,200 XPLIC-100 100$20       $2,000 ... ... ... ... The initial license fee includes the first year of update/support subscription. Subscription beyond the first year is priced at 1/4 (25%) of the initial license fee. Click here to order an XXCOPY corprate license. For a host count larger than those shown here, please contact Pixelab. If you are a consultant, or reseller who is interested in aquiring a license for your clients, we offer a dealer discount (click Here). XXCOPY is a trademark of Pixelab, Inc  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #91 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY-Home Personal License Agreement Date: 2012-09-01 =============================================================================== * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * X X C O P Y - H o m e P e r s o n a l L i c e n s e T e r m s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pixelab, Inc, the copyright owner of the XXCOPY software package, grants a non-exclusive license to you, the holder of the XXCOPY-Home Personal License to use the XXCOPY-Home program strictly for personal, non-commercial purposes provided that all of the following conditions are met. 1. You install the XXCOPY program on a computer that is your own personal property (or your family member's property) and you and your family members are the primary user of the computer. 2. If you transfer files between networked computers using XXCOPY, all of the computers must also be your own personal property (or your family member's property). 3. This license explicitly forbids the use of the XXCOPY-Home program for business (either for-profit or not-for-profit) of any size. It forbids commercial uses of the product. It also forbids non-commercial uses that do not satisfy the conditions stated above. 4. A XXCOPY-Home Personal License cannot be upgraded to a XXCOPY-Pro License. If your intended usage of XXCOPY exceeds the bounds of the conditions stated in this agreement, you should acquire the XXCOPY-Pro Corporate License that does not have the restrictions that are stated above. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ************************************ Personal User Site License Pricing ************************************ Product Host Unit Initial Code Count Price License Fee ------------------------------------------------ XHLIC-002 2 US$20       US$40 XHLIC-005 5$20        $100 The initial license fee includes the first year of update/support subscription. Subscription beyond the first year is priced at 1/4 (25%) of the initial license fee. Click here to order an XXCOPY corprate license. Please contact Pixelab if your intended usage is thought to be uncommon. XXCOPY is a trademark of Pixelab  [ Back to Table of Contents ] [ << ] [ >> ] ## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #92 From: Kan Yabumoto tech@xxcopy.com To: XXCOPY user Subject: XXCOPY Freeware License Agreement Date: 2010-01-01 =============================================================================== * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * X X C O P Y F r e e w a r e L i c e n s e T e r m s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Pixelab, Inc, the copyright owner of the XXCOPY software package, grants a non-exclusive license without charge to you, an individual who intends to use the XXCOPY program for non-commercial purposes provided that all of the following additional conditions are met. You may use XXCOPY under this freeware license if: 1. You install the XXCOPY program on a computer that is your own personal property and you are the primary user of the computer. 2. If you transfer files between networked computers using XXCOPY, all of the computers are also your own personal property. 3. Or, even if the above conditions are not met, you may still use XXCOPY for 60 days for evaluation purposes without charge. If your situation does not qualify for the freeware license, the usage of XXCOPY will be considered as a commercial usage. Please contact Pixelab that offers various types of licenses. This freeware version of XXCOPY is distributed AS IS and without any warranties. If you have problems, our liability is limited to$1.00 per site, that is much more than you paid for it.

XXCOPY is a trademark of Pixelab

With the freeware license, you may give your friends a copy of the
XXCOPY Freeware, as long as the package is not altered and remains
as a whole.  However, for distribution on a commercial basis,
you must obtain a written permission from Pixelab

Please note that Emails from freeware users may not be answered due
to the large number of Emails we receive.  If you wish to receive
technical support by Email, you may consider acquiring a single user



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #93

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: The XXCOPY Licensing and Pricing Policies
Date:    2010-01-01
===============================================================================

Introduction:

In order to keep our order form relatively clutter-free and just on the
points, we have to leave out some details in our licensing and pricing
policies from the main pages of the XXCOPY web site.  On the other hand,
we would like to be honest to our customers about our licensing and
pricing policies.  So, in this page, we would like to disclose the
"fine Print".

The next section summarizes XXCOPY's overall pricing policy.  The
remaining sections cover further details.

XXCOPY's License Fee in a Nutshell:

Other than the Freeware and the Test Drive packages, XXCOPY's various
packages are sold for a license fee and maintenance fee (which we
often call subscription fee).  The initial license fee is paid by
all customers that covers the minimum maintenance period of one year.

The initial license fee grants the user the usage license in perpetuity.
version and for priority technical support by Email or sometimes by
Phone) beyond the first year is optional.  You may continue to use the
subscription has expired.

So, XXCOPY's license fee and the subscription rules can be viewed
differently depending upon how you deal with system updates.

For a user who buys a computer and never updates the OS version
expires after 12 months of purchase.  The license itself is good
in perpetuity.  It's the subscription (to cover updates and
priority technical support) that expires.

For a user who keeps up with new Windows versions and service packs,
XXCOPY's pricing model is more like a subscription service.  You
pay an initial fee that covers the perpetual user license plus a
one-year maintenance for updates and support.  Thereafter, you
should subscribe the maintenance for update subscription and priority
technical support.  Each additional year of subscrition is priced
at 1/4 (25%) of the initial license fee.  This is equivalent for
paying for the new license approximately once in every four and
a half years.  You may order a license with a multi-year subscription
up front.

Note that XXCOPY displays a version-mismatch warning when it encounters
a new (untested) Windows environment (for example, immediately after
you install a new service pack.  You will need a new update version of
XXCOPY that supports the new environment.  This is why we strongly
suggest that you keep your update subscription in good standing.

All of XXCOPY's licenses are issued as a site license with the host count
that determines the maximum number of computers (and similar devices)
which are used and accessed with the XXCOPY program (See the details).

The total price for an XXCOPY-Pro (and other related products) is a sum
of the license fee (determined by the Host Count) and the maintenance fee
of the software product and priority technical support (usually by Email
and sometimes by phone) for a certain period (measured in months).
That is, the fee is determined by a combination of the Host Count and the
Subscription Period.

The standard price chart we publish on our web pages are always shown with
the minimum subscriptoin period (1 year).  The chart is based upon the
Corporate License (we may offer discount on various situations).

*****************************************************
*****************************************************

License     Host Count   Per-computer   Initial     Subscription
Package    (# Computers)    Price     License Fee   Fee (per yr)
------------------------------------------------------------------
XPLIC-002         2         US$50 US$100        US$25 XPLIC-005 5$40          $200$50
XPLIC-010        10           $36$360          $90 XPLIC-020 20$30          $600$150
XPLIC-050        50           $24$1,200         $300 ... ... The prices shown on our web site like this are based upon the minimum subscription period of one year. We accept an order with an extended update subscription (beyond the first one year) up front. We encourage customers to order a multi-year subscription with the initial order if their organization's administrative overhead is relatively high (as typically the case with government agencies). The Maintenance Fee (Update Subscription Fee): XXCOPY's initial license fee includes the maitenance fee for the first year that covers both the priority technical support and the privilege to download the latest update version. The maintenance fee (update subscription fee) is priced at 1/4 (25%) of the initial license fee per year. Pixelab does not normally contact you to alert impending expiration of your update subscription. You may let the subscription expire and still continue to use the XXCOPY product. However, in order to ask for priority technical support or to download the latest update version, you need to have an up-to-date status in subscription. You may re-activate an expired subscription by paying for the lapsed months at a prorated rate (2% of the initial license fee per month) plus forward 12 months. This rate is very similar to the regular subscription rate (25% per year) except that it does not earn bonus months. If you renew subscription before expiration, or order an extended (multi-year) subscription up front, you earn bonus months that will be added to the expiration month of the subscription with the formula below. M = (N - 1) x 2; where M: the number of bonus months N: the number of years in subscription We chose our pricing formulas so that loyal customers who maintain an uninterrupted subscription pay the least in the long run. Keep Your License Information Handy: All paid customers receive a delivery Email that always contains the license information. It will be used to validate your license status that is represented by two hyphenated 10-digit numbers: ----------------------------- Serial Number: xx-xxxx-xxxx License Code: xx-xxxx-xxxx ----------------------------- Keep this information handy for pasting in the "Authentication Box" on XXCOPY's update request form (e.g., Update Request Form). and also for Email correspondence with us. We ask our paid customers to include the license information in Email asking for techical assistance. Your Email without the license information will be treated as if you were a Freeware user --- we resond to such an Email on a time-available basis. Price for Consultants, Resellers and Dealers: If you are a consultant and making a purchase on behalf of your client, you should consider becoming an XXCOPY dealer. If you are a software reseller or a software dealer, you are also eligible to register as XXCOPY dealer and enjoy a dealer discount. There is no obligation or minimum order to become a dealer. Our server keeps your company information for convenience. To register or to log-in to the dealer page, visit the following site http://www.xxcopy.com/dealer You should create your own account even if your colleague has already has a dealer account with us (you keep your own personal password). License Fee in the Long Run --- comparison of strategies: We stated that due to the subscription fee, the cost of long-term ownership of the XXCOPY license with full maintenance service (the privilege for an uninterrupted update subscription and priority technical support) is approximately equivalent to making a new purchase every 4.5 years. Let us explain how it is the case with four possible scenarios. Scenario 1 (Pay for a 5-year subscription up front): Consider a 5-computer license (initial license fee priced at$100).  If
you order an extended maintenance service with a 5-year subscription
(with four extra year beyond the first year), you pay $200 as the total which is twice as much as the standard (with a single-year subscription) package. The total is the sum of the standard license fee of$100 plus
4 extra years of update subscription ($25 x 4 =$100 extra).  Such an
order earns a total of 7 bonus months.

If this order is placed on 2010-01-01, then, the subscription will
expire on 2015-08-31.  This is equivalent to placing a new order on
2014-08-01 which is slightly over 4 years and 7 months (about 4.5
years) after the initial purchase was made.

Scenario 2 (A one-year package with 2 renewals of two years each)

without an extended subscription.  Then, say you make two renewals of
two years each thereafter.  You earn 3 bonus months each time,
therefore, after spending a total of $200 in this scheme, the final expiration date will be 2015-06-30. Scenario 3 (A one-year package with 4 renewals every year): As another alternative, you acquire a standard license without multi- year subscription at first. Then, you make a one-year subscription for the next four years before expiration. You earn one bonus month on each occasion. After four renewals of subscription (your total expenditure of$200),  your ultimate expiration date will be 2015-04-30.

Scenario 4 (A one-year package, expiration, and re-activate):

Lastly, let us consider a scenario of the opposite extreme where you
let the subscription expire and re-activate your subscription at the
very last month that still give you an advantage of an re-activation.
The latemost month to re-activate a subscription of a standard (single
year subscription) license purchased on 2010-01-01 is in the month of
February, 2014.  At that time, you pay for the 38 lapsed months plus
12 forward months that is to pay for a total of 50 months at the rate
of 2% ($5.00) per month (you pay$100 for the re-activation) that will
set the new expiration date of 2015-02-28.

Summarizing the four diffent subscription strategies, the outcomes are
not very different.  Starting on the same initial date of 2010-01-01,
after paying for $200 (twice the standard license fee) and five years later, the ultimate expiration date will be only within several months apart. The best case scenario (Scenario 1), the expiration date will be 2015-08-31. The worst case was the sloppy case by re-activating the expired subscription by paying for the lapsed months, the final date will be 2015-02-28. Note that in Scenario 4, you pay the same amount ($200)
in the five plus years and you not only had the shortest period, but also
had more than three years during which time, you were not eligible for
update versions.

The formula to compute the re-activation fee and the bonus months are
chosen to reward loyal XXCOPY customers who keep an uninterrupted
subscription and the best overall price while we allow old customers
with an expired subscription to come back into the subscription without
too much penalty.



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #98

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: List of XXCOPY Command Switches
Date:    2010-01-01   for Ver 3.00.0
===============================================================================

command switches there are in XXCOPY.  The answer varies depending on how
to count them.

The official count of XXCOPY basic command switches = 239
expanded switches = 600

Most switches have a cancelling switch with a "0" appended.  These are not
counted as distinct commands.  Nor were many other switches that are minor
variations that belong to a group of command variations.

The switches that accept a parameter string allow a colon as a separator
between the switch-letters and the parameter for improved readability.

List of basic command switches of XXCOPY
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/A                  /F                  /MVX                /SGN
/AA                 /FA                 /N                  /SGo
/AC                 /FC                 /NCL                /SGFo
/ANxx               /FL                 /NCX                /SGNo
/ANDxx              /FM                 /ND                 /SGoo
/ARxx               /Fo                 /NI                 /SH
/ARDxx              /FU                 /NL                 /SKIPIC
/ASxx               /FW                 /NP                 /SKIPXC
/ASDxx              /GX                 /NS                 /SL
/AT                 /H                  /NW                 /SLR
/AX                 /HELP               /NX                 /So
/AZ                 /HELPA              /oA                 /SP
/BA                 /HELPE              /oBx                /SPA
/BACKUP             /Ho                 /oCx                /SPN
/BB                 /HoSTS              /oDx                /SR
/BE                 /I                  /oEx                /SRR
/BI                 /IA                 /oFx                /SX
/BN                 /ILD                /oHx                /SXR
/Bo                 /ILS                /oIx                /SZ!
/BS                 /IN                 /oN                 /SZ:
/BX                 /INSTALL            /oPx                /T
/BU                 /IP                 /oQ                 /TC
/BZE                /JCYCLIC            /oR                 /TCA
/BZL                /JH                 /oSx                /TCC
/BZS                /JI                 /oXx                /TCW
/BZX                /JIJ                /P                  /TD
/C                  /JIR                /PB                 /TM
/CA                 /JJ                 /PBH                /TR
/CB                 /JL                 /PC                 /TS
/CBQ                /JM                 /PD                 /TTA
/CC                 /JP                 /PJ                 /U
/CCY                /JR                 /PM                 /UT
/CDM                /JS                 /PN                 /ULH
/CDU                /JR                 /Po                 /UNINSTALL
/CDX                /JV                 /PP                 /V
/CE                 /JX                 /PR                 /VL
/CF                 /JXJ                /PW                 /W
/CK                 /JXR                /PZ                 /WD
/COPY               /KCDC               /Q                  /WE
/CR                 /KCDD               /QF                 /WI
/CLONE              /KCDP               /QBL                /WL
/DA                 /KCDS               /QBT                /WN
/DA:                /KCDU               /QSL                /WR
/DA#                /KCFC               /QST                /WS
/DB                 /KCFD               /R                  /WU
/DB:                /KCFP               /RC                 /X
/DB#                /KCFS               /RD                 /Y
/Do:                /KCFU               /RS                 /YY
/Do#                /KD                 /RX                 /Z
/DEBUG              /KN                 /RMDIR              /ZB
/DEBUGX             /KS                 /RxP                /ZE
/DL                 /L                  /RxY                /ZLX
/DX                 /LTREE              /Sx                 /ZX
/E                  /M                  /SC                 /ZY
/EC                 /MD                 /SF                 /?
/ED                 /MLH                /SG                 /$xxxx$
/ER                 /MVD                /SGF                /%xxxx%
/EX                 /MVF                /SGL
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

List of expanded command switch variations of XXCOPY
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/A                       /EC                 /NCX                /SGLo0
/A0                      /EC0                /ND                 /SGNo
/AA                      /ED                 /NI:n               /SGNo0
/AC                      /EDn                /NI0                /SGoo
/AC0                     /ED0                /NL                 /SGoo0
/AN:A                    /ER0                /NP                 /SH:0
/AN:H                    /EX                 /NP0                /SH:R
/AN:o                    /F                  /NS                 /SH:W
/AN:R                    /F0                 /NS0                /SH:RW
/AN:S                    /FA                 /NW                 /SH:WR
/AND:A                   /FC                 /NX                 /SKIPIC
/AND:C                   /FF                 /NX0                /SKIPXC
/AND:H                   /FF0                /o0                 /SL
/AND:o                   /FF+                /oA                 /SL0
/AND:R                   /FF-                /oB:0               /SLR
/AND:S                   /FF:n               /oB:1               /SLR0
/AR:A                    /FL                 /oB:2               /So
/AR:C                    /FM                 /oB:3               /So0
/AR:H                    /FM0                /oC:0               /SP
/AR:o                    /FM:,               /oC:1               /SP0
/AR:R                    /FM:A               /oC:2               /SPA
/AR:S                    /FM:D               /oC:3               /SPN
/ARD:A                   /FM:H               /oD:0               /SR
/ARD:C                   /FM:L               /oD:1               /SR0
/ARD:H                   /FM:J               /oD:2               /SRR
/ARD:o                   /FM:N               /oD:3               /SRR0
/ARD:R                   /FM:P               /oE:0               /SX
/ARD:S                   /FM:R               /oE:1               /SX0
/AS:A                    /FM:S               /oE:2               /SXR
/AS:C                    /FM:T               /oE:3               /SXR0
/AS:H                    /Fo                 /oF:0               /SZ!00
/AS:o                    /FU                 /oF:1               /SZ!n
/AS:R                    /FW                 /oF:2               /SZ!n-
/AS:S                    /GX                 /oF:3               /SZ!n-m
/ASD:A                   /GX0                /oH:0               /SZ!-m
/ASD:C                   /H                  /oH:1               /SZ:00
/ASD:H                   /H0                 /oH:2               /SZ:n
/ASD:o                   /HELP               /oH:3               /SZ:n-
/ASD:R                   /HELPA              /oI:0               /SZ:n-m
/ASD:S                   /HELPE              /oI:1               /SZ:-m
/AT:A                    /Ho                 /oI:2               /T
/AT:C                    /Ho0                /oI:3               /T0
/AT:H                    /HoSTS              /oN                 /TC
/AT:o                    /I                  /oP:0               /TC0
/AT:R                    /I0                 /oP:1               /TCA
/AT:S                    /IA                 /oP:2               /TCA0
/AX:A                    /IA:item            /oP:3               /TCC
/AX:C                    /IA0                /oQ                 /TCC0
/AX:H                    /ILD                /oQ0                /TCW
/AX:o                    /ILD0               /oR                 /TCW0
/AX:R                    /ILS                /oR0                /TD
/AX:S                    /ILS0               /oS:0               /TD0
/AZ                      /IN                 /oS:1               /TD+
/B0                      /INSTALL            /oS:2               /TD-
/BA                      /INSTALL:path       /oS:3               /TM0
/BACKUP                  /IP                 /oX:0               /TM+
/BB                      /IP:item            /oX:1               /TM-
/BE                      /IP0                /oX:2               /TR
/BI                      /JCYCLIC            /oX:3               /TR0
/BN                      /JCYCLIC0           /P                  /TR00
/Bo                      /JH                 /P0                 /TS
/BS                      /JH0                /PB                 /TS0
/BX                      /JI                 /PB0                /TS+
/BU                      /JI0                /PBH                /TS-
/BZ                      /JI:D               /PBH0               /TTA
/BZE                     /JI:F               /PC                 /TTA0
/BZL                     /JI:H               /PC0                /U
/BZS                     /JI:J               /PD                 /U0
/BZX                     /JI:L               /PD0                /UT
/C                       /JI:M               /PJ                 /UT0
/C0                      /JI:P               /PJ0                /ULH
/CA:0                    /JI:R               /PM                 /ULH0
/CA:1                    /JI:S               /PM0                /UNINSTALL
/CA:2                    /JJ                 /PN                 /V
/CA:3                    /JJ0                /PN0                /V:0
/CA:4                    /JL                 /Po                 /V:1
/CA:5                    /JL0                /Po0                /V:2
/CA:6                    /JM                 /PP                 /VL:n
/CA:7                    /JM0                /PP0                /VL0
/CB                      /JP                 /PR                 /W
/CB0                     /JP0                /PR0                /W0
/CBQ                     /JR                 /PW                 /W:n
/CC                      /JR0                /PW0                /WD
/CC0                     /JS                 /PZ                 /WD0
/CCY                     /JS0                /PZ0                /WE
/CD0                     /JV                 /Q                  /WE0
/CD:M                    /JV0                /Q:0                /WE:n
/CD:U                    /JX                 /Q:1                /WI0
/CD:X                    /JX0                /Q:2                /WI:n
/CE                      /JX:D               /Q:3                /WL
/CE0                     /JX:F               /QB                 /WL0
/CF:xcffile              /JX:H               /QB0                /WN
/CK                      /JX:J               /QF                 /WN0
/CK0                     /JX:L               /QF0                /WR
/COPY                    /JX:M               /QBL:n              /WR0
/COPY0                   /JX:P               /QBL0               /WS
/CR                      /JX:R               /QBT:n              /WS0
/CR0                     /JX:S               /QBT0               /WS:n
/CLONE                   /K                  /QS:n               /WU
/D                       /K0                 /QS0                /WU0
/D0                      /KCD0               /QSL:n              /X
/D:.                     /KCD:C              /QSL0               /X0
/D:YYYY                  /KCD:D              /QST:n              /Y
/D:YYYY-MM               /KCD:P              /QST0               /Y0
/D:YYYY-MM-DD            /KCD:S              /R                  /YY
/D:YYYY-MM-DD@HH-NN-SS   /KCD:U              /R0                 /YY0
/D#.                     /KCF0               /RC                 /Z
/D#nD                    /KCF:C              /RC0                /Z0
/D#nM                    /KCF:D              /RCP                /ZB:n
/D#nS                    /KCF:P              /RCY                /ZB0
/DA                      /KCF:S              /RD                 /ZE
/DA:.                    /KCF:U              /RD0                /ZE0
/DA:YYYY                 /KD                 /RDP                /ZLX
/DA:YYYY-MM              /KN                 /RDY                /ZLX0
/DA:YYYY-MM-DD           /KS                 /RS                 /ZS
/DA:YYYY-MM-DD@HH-NN-SS  /L                  /RS0                /ZS0
/DA#.                    /L0                 /RSP                /ZX
/DA#nD                   /L:,                /RSY                /ZX0
/DA#nM                   /L:A                /RX                 /ZY
/DA#nS                   /L:D                /RX0                /ZY0
/DB                      /L:H                /RXP                /ZYY
/DB:.                    /L:L                /RXY                /-Y
/DB:YYYY                 /L:J                /RMDIR              //
/DB:YYYY-MM              /L:N                /S                  ::
/DB:YYYY-MM-DD           /L:P                /S0                 /?
/DB:YYYY-MM-DD@HH-NN-SS  /L:R                /S<d>         /$HOST$
/DB#.                    /L:S                /SC                 /$YYYY$
/DB#nD                   /L:T                /SC:0               /$YY$
/DB#nM                   /LICENSE            /SC:1               /$Y$
/DB#nS                   /LTREE              /SC:2               /$MON$
/DEBUG                   /LTREE0             /SC:3               /$MM$
/DEBUG0                  /M                  /SF                 /$M$
/DEBUGX                  /M0                 /SF:0               /$DD$
/DEBUGX0                 /MD                 /SF:1               /$D$
/DL:n                    /MD0                /SF:2               /$HH$
/DL0                     /MLH                /SF:3               /$H$
/Do:.                    /MLH0               /SG                 /$NN$
/Do:YYYY                 /MV0                /SG0                /$N$
/Do:YYYY-MM              /MVD                /SGF                /$SS$
/Do:YYYY-MM-DD           /MVD0               /SGF0               /$S$
/Do:YYYY-MM-DD@HH-NN-SS  /MVF                /SGL                /$DATE$
/Do#.                    /MVF0               /SGL0               /$TIME$
/Do#nD                   /MVX                /SGN                /$WWW$
/Do#nM                   /MVX0               /SGN0               /$W$
/Do#nS                   /N                  /SGo                /$IIII$
/DS                      /N0                 /SGo0               /$II$
/DX                      /NC0                /SGFo               /$IWK$
/E                       /NCL                /SGFo0              /$K$
/E0                      /NCU                /SGLo               /%xxxx%
------------------------------------------------------------------------------



## XXCOPY TECHNICAL BULLETIN #99

From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
To:      XXCOPY user
Subject: Revision History of XXCOPY.
Date:    2013-01-03  (latest update)
===============================================================================

Version   Date

2.20.0   1999-10-01    XXCOPY debuted under the new name.
2.21.9   2000-01-07    the limit on # of exclude-items removed
2.22.0   2000-01-14    /X and /EX made better
2.22.2   2000-01-14    New switch, /DA#n (relative # days from today)
2.22.8   2000-02-11    New switch, /CC and /CCY (auto-exclude on cyclic copy)
2.22.9   2000-02-16    New switch, /AA /AZ
2.24.3   2000-03-13    /K and /KS now work with directory attributes.
2.25.1   2000-05-07    /CLONE, a shortcut for /KS/H/E/R/Q/Y/BI/ZY
New switches /RC/RS/RD/RX, for file removal.
2.40.0   2000-06-18    /FT allows file-time comparison in mixed OS
2.42.2   2000-10-13    XXCOPY16 now works /XFT allows file-time comparison in mixed OS
XXCOPY16 supports all XXCOPY (32-bit) features
New /SG feature, gathers files into one directory
Partial date parameter accepted  (/DA:2000-05)
New /AT, /AX, /AN, /AS, /AR switches
/N made XCOPY-compatible (old /N renamed to /NX)
/BZ checks the file size but not file time.
New /NP for precise filename matching algorithm
New /CB for cleaner batch files
2.42.4   2000-11-11    bugfix on XXCOPY16 /DA and /DB parameters
2.42.5   2000-11-17    bugfix on /RX operation
2.44.0   2001-01-15    New switches /SP, /DL, /NI
Enhanced     /X and the source specifier syntax
2.44.1   2001-01-19    bugfix /NI parsing was incorrect
2.44.2   2001-01-23    bugfix nested Wild-Wild-source dir with /X items
2.44.3   2001-01-28    improved, \src\*\a\b\ matches a case like \src\a\a\b\
2.44.4   2001-01-31    New /WD warning switch
2.60.0   2001-07-04    New release with all the new features that were
tested between v.2.54.6 and v.2.56.9

2.80.0   2001-12-31    New release with features up to v.2.71.5
2.80.0   2002-01-01    The newe version for the new year (put a new date).
2.80.1   2002-01-01    Bugfix XXCOPY16's timestamp (problem started v2.71.0)
2.80.2   2002-01-06    Bugfix destination directory timestamp on NT/2K/XP.
2.80.3   2002-01-06    Minor bugfixes.
2.80.6   2002-04-17    Context-sensitive help for Prompt buster (? on Y/N)
Command Switch may accept a colon as a delimiter
Bugfix /DBxxH, /DBxxM, /DBxxS.
Bugfix WinNT/2K/XP overwriting RHS files.
New macro variables, /$WWW$ /$W$ /$HOST$
Improved switches /IA:, /IP:
Improved switches /WS, /WE
2.82.0   2002-06-28    New release based on beta v.2.90.9
2.82.2   2002-07-01    Bugfix /INSTALL sequence
2.82.3   2002-08-01    Supports Windows 2000 SP3.
2.82.4   2002-09-13    Supports Windows XP   SP1.
2.82.6   2002-09-21    Bugfix /R (for removing rd-only directory)
Bugfix /E (in 2.82.4 it had problems)
2.82.7   2002-10-25    Bugfix batch launch on XP with quoted string on 1st wd
2.82.8   2003-01-28    Bugfix /SG/SX (was broken since 2.80.0)
Bugfix copying large files (>= 4GB)
Bugfix /PB
Improved checking on directory specifier arguments.
2.82.9   2003-02-10    Improved /NX (SFN-preservation) function
2.82.9b  2003-02-26    Bugfix /TR (formerly known as /SZ).
2.84.4   2003-05-28    New switches /ILS /ILD /CA
New macros /$M$ /$D$ /$H$ /$N$ /$S$ /$IIII$ /$IWK$ /$K$
2.84.6   2003-07-01    Supports Windows 2000 SP4.
2.84.7   2003-07-09    /RC can be combined with /SX,/SL, or /SR.
Supports Windows NT4  SP4.
2.84.8   2003-07-10    Warning with /FF case for a /BI operation
2.84.9   2003-07-11    Bugfix /Xc:\pagefile.sys
2.85.0   2003-08-11    Bugfix /RC/R (/R is for both overwrite and delete)
2.85.1   2003-08-16    Bugfix /ILD now works
2.85.2   2003-12-03    Bugfix /PB: now handles the threshold right.
2.85.3   2003-12-19    Bugfix /RC/PB combination had extra dir display.
2.85.4   2004-02-21    /WV warning with detail report.
2.85.5   2004-04-16    Release for 2004-04-13 MS security release
2.85.6   2004-05-16    Bugfix /H/A did not process hidden directories
2.85.7   2004-05-16    Bugfix /H/A did not process hidden directories
2.85.6   2004-05-16    Bugfix /H/A did not process hidden directories
2.85.7   2004-07-27    /WV0 no longer needed with new timed-message prompt.
2.85.8   2004-08-14    Supports Win XP Service Pack 2
2.85.9   2004-09-09    Improved monitoring of network connection status
2.85.9b  2004-09-11    Treates remote volume mapped driveletter as remote.
2.85.9c  2005-01-13    Freeware update for Microsoft's security patch release
2.85.9d  2005-01-28    Exit code labeling (> 100), /Bo/BN/? help text fixed
2.92.0   2005-02-10    No DATMAN support.
2.92.1   2005-03-10    Nomad edition works with USB-disks.
2.92.2   2005-03-17    /PZ warning made more threatening for newbies.
2.92.3   2005-04-27    More efficient use of memory
2.92.4   2005-05-02    /PBH0 disables the Halt/Abort button in Progress Bar
2.92.5   2005-06-25    Exit code 100 will be converted to 1 with /ER in NT/2K/XP.
2.92.6   2005-08-25    Promoted from a beta version (certified w/ Win2000 SP4)
2.92.7   2005-09-23    /PP0 to disable the space bar press-for-pause feature
2.92.8   2005-11-18    With /AA (and /AZ /AR /AN /AS), /Z will be disabled.
2.92.9   2006-04-29    Bugfix on /SC, /SF, and /TC on directories. /LH added.
2.93.0   2006-08-17    Bugfix on file deletion by file-overwrite failure.
2.93.1   2006-08-24    Bugfix on zero-byte file, /INSTALL creates an icon.
2.95.0   2007-03-01    Supports C-attrib, /ASDxx, /ARDxx (variation of /AS/AR)
2.95.1   2007-03-10    New switchese for outpuot control: /oQ, /FM:PRN
2.95.2   2007-04-02    Compiler reverted to msdev v.7.0 due to link problem
2.95.4   2007-06-28    New switch, /addhost, Bugfix on time display
2.96.0   2007-09-07    UAC-aware version, now supports Windows Vista
2.96.1   2007-09-11    Bugfix on /F output
2.96.2   2007-09-26    New switch, /CDM /CDU. Bugfix on /X pathname
2.96.3   2007-11-06    New switch, /CDX.  /oD2/L now lists files to be deleted
2.96.4   2007-12-12    Bugfix on switch parameters display
2.96.5   2008-01-08    Tested with Windows XP Service Pack 3

2.97.0   2008-03-02    Unicode support (lost Win9X/ME support)
2.97.1   2008-03-24    New /UT default for UTF-8 file output.  CSV support
2.97.2   2008-07-25    Misc. minor bugfixes, unicode output files
2.97.3   2008-08-17    Preview version of XXCOPY64 for Win64
2.97.4   2008-09-27    XXCOPY-Pro now suports very long path (/VL)
New switches, /BA that updates dir timestamp with /TC
2.97.5   2008-10-12    New switch, /WN to warn a /NX failure (SFN pairing)
2.97.6   2008-10-29    minor bugfixes.
2.97.7   2009-01-13    The exclusion feature now fully supports Wild-Wildcard
2.97.8   2009-01-24    Tested with Vista Service Pack 2
2.97.9   2009-02-10    The precise name matching (/NP) is now the default.
2.98.0   2009-05-29    Bugfix on /CDU/CDM that now accounts for the file size
2.98.1   2009-06-01    Bugfix on timestamp preservation
2.98.2   2009-07-28    Release candidate (12) of XXCOPY Ver 3  /Jxx switches
2.98.3   2009-08-21    Supports Windows 7, Server 2008 R2
2.98.3f  2009-09-12    Remote J-thingy copy/preservation works (except Win7)

3.00.0   2010-01-01    Official release as XXCOPY Ver 3.00.0 (revision i)
3.01.0   2010-01-21    Bugfix on /X (certain exclusion item caused BSOD)
3.02.0   2010-02-03    Clean up the help text with new XXCOPY.COM web site
3.03.0   2010-02-23    Bugfix in accessing remote server root (\\server\resrc)
3.04.0   2010-03-13    Bugfix /X, common file and dir pttrn (/x*ab*/x*\*ab*\)
3.05.0   2010-04-07    New switch /PBT to show the title in progress bar
3.05.2   2010-05-15    Bugfix on the "*." pattern (dotless names)
3.05.3   2010-05-16    Bugfix, now accepts old personal/educational license files
3.06.0   2010-05-12    Warning message for /PBT/PBP on Home Edition/Freeware
3.06.1   2010-05-16    Bugfix on the "*." pattern (dotless names)
3.06.2   2010-05-22    Bugfix on /oP2 that generated wrong user prompt
3.06.3   2010-08-03    Bugfix on /yy that no longer suppresses the /WL warning
3.07.0   2010-08-04    Released as betatest
3.07.1   2010-08-13    Supports old customer's license file
3.07.2   2010-09-08    Bugfix on /install to overwrite read-only/hid/sys files
3.07.3   2010-09-10    Bugfix on spurious asterisk in file size display
3.08.0   2010-10-15    Official release as XXCOPY Ver 3.08.0
3.09.0   2011-02-25    The network check re-coded, tested with Win7 SP 1
3.09.1   2011-02-27    More resilient remote access and new switch /PBZ:<n>
3.09.3   2011-03-02    Bugfix on /PB (that disappeared without /PBZ in v3091)
3.09.4   2011-03-06    Bugfix on XXPBAR64 (that had trouble launching)
3.09.5   2011-03-08    Improvement on accessing some remote reparse point
3.10.0   2011-03-15    Official release os XXCOPY Ver 3.10.0
3.10.1   2011-04-18    Support Win2K and XP SP0, SP1 (the new Compiler broke them)
3.10.2   2011-07-13    Improvement on the install procedure
3.10.3   2011-08-28    Give a pause when the install procedure gives a warning
3.10.4   2011-12-17    Bugfix on hardlink copy
3.11.0   2011-12-18    Bugfix on exclusion, /X:\dir1\*\dir2\dir3\
3.11.1   2012-01-08    Bugfix on execution by non-windows explorer as parent
3.11.2   2012-03-21    Tested with Windows 8 Developer/Consumer Preview versions
3.11.3   2012-07-02    Bugfix on /zb with a non-aligned size
3.11.4   2012-09-20    Tested with Windows 8 RTM, Server 2012 RTM
3.11.5   2012-12-20    Added /PL that selects files by the path length
3.11.6   2013-01-03    The max copy buffer size (/ZB) of XXCOPY64 is reased to 4GB
3.20.0   2013-02-15    New switch /AM marks A-bit with action (symmetrical to /AC)
3.20.1   2013-02-21    New switch /EC1 for one-line echo (now /EC2, same as /EC)
3.20.2   2013-03-15    /SC7/SF7 added to include owner/group in Security Info
3.20.3   2013-03-21    bugfix on /SC/SF with inherited DACL/SACL
3.20.4   2013-04-01    Official release as XXCOPY Ver 3.20.4
3.20.5   2013-04-10    Bugfix /PL was off by one.
3.20.6   2013-06-17    The exit code on /VL0 counts a skipped dir as an error.
3.21.0   2013-06-18    Supports \\?\Volume{GUID} syntax for both src and dst.
3.21.1   2013-12-27    Bugfix signature file.
3.21.2   2014-04-01    Supports Windows 8.1
3.21.3   2014-04-09    Supports Windows Server 2012R2
3.21.4   2014-04-30    Supports Windows XP final patch
3.21.5   2014-10-01    Tested with the latest Windows releases.

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